Week 7 Notes
Week 7 Notes PAM 2030
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PAM 2030 at Cornell University taught by Professor Sassler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Population and Public Policy in Political Science at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 March 8, 2016 iclicker: general fertility rate vs. CBR o general fertility rate specifies over who is at risk of fertility fertility o who is at risk of fertility? women fecund between menarche and menopause not sterile had sex not currently pregnant o period vs. cohort data period: cross section of population at a specific time (snapshot) ex. CBR cross sectional data makes for period analysis cohort: focuses on experience of a particular group of people (ex. women) who share demographic experience (ex. as women go through their childbearing years of life) longitudinal ex. birth, school class cohorts longitudinal data: over time, across a life course, before after a certain period (ex. recession) following a population makes for cohort analysis more data necessary but reveals how events affect a population o period measures: simplest, readily available data CBR: crude birth rate (# of live births in year X)/(midyear population in year X) *1000 ignores age structure GFR: general fertility rate CBR refined requires gender and age structure data (# of live births in year X)/(midyear population of women aged 15 to 44 in year X) *1000 refined by those at risk of birth more accurate data on level of reproduction GFR = approx. 4.5xCBR shortcoming o GFR is influenced by shifts in the age distribution o not age specific ex. if more women are older than 35, there will be a downward effect doesn’t reveal delayed childbearing can be refined into General Marital Fertility Rate and General Non-Marital Fertility Rate o the denominator is refined by marriage status of the women o recently: GMFR has decreased as GNMFR has increased the more women are in their peak childbearing years, the higher the GFR GPFR: general paternal fertility rate similar to GFR except with men instead of women in the refined denominator reproductive span in longer than women’s (15 to 44): 15 to 54 years aged men o so the overall GPFR<GFR CWR: child woman ratio (# of children younger than 5yrs)/(#number of women 15- 49) *1000 vital rates information not required tends to understate fertility o due to greater mortality rates among children than among childbearing women o the 0 to 5 year range for kids lessens this effect rate vs. ratio: rate: frequency of an event, allows comparison between countries and populations ratio: relation between subgroups (ex. dependency ratio) o cohort measures: TFR: total fertility rate calculated from age specific fertility rates assumes a stable population in each age group o creates a synthetic cohort: examine 1000 women and then scale by fertility rates o longitudinal data o standardizes the population note: assumes that every age group will have the same birth rate regardless of the cohort that passes through it how to calculate o per age group of x to x+4 (5 year groups) o (# of births to women aged x to x+4)/(# of women aged x to x+4)*K = age specific fertility rate o multiply age specific fertility rate by 5 o sum all age specific fertility rate from (15 to 19) to (45 to 49) = TFR hypothetical measure based on fertility information from one point in time can fluctuate dramatically if there’s a shift in the timing of the births among women in their childbearing years GRR: gross reproduction rate measures number of female children (potential mothers of the future) = ~.492xTFR doesn’t consider age structure NRR: net reproduction rate considers the likelihood of surviving childbearing years if NRR=1, means exactly enough daughters are born to replace the mothers’ population doesn’t consider age structure CEB: children ever born completed fertility rate counts the number of children a women has in her lifetime o generally those aged 40-44 have finished bearing children o with increased edu, women have been delaying child-bearing until later ages census began to collect data up to 50 years of age
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