Sociology Week 6 Notes
Sociology Week 6 Notes soci 243
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariel Kamen on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci 243 at Towson University taught by Miho Iwata in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see sociology, race, class and gender in Liberal Arts at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
3816 Sexualities Naminq All the Parts Gender assigned at birth though variations exist in some cultures Gender identity state of being and sense of belonging Gender roles signal memberships in a given gender Gender attribution presentation of self doing gender Sexual orientation as we the heterosexualhomosexual imperatives Sexual orientation vs preference Often depends on the gender of the partner Sexualities Sexual attractions can have nothing to do with the gender of one S partner basing sexual orientation solely on the partner s gender Gender identity or can we imagine the possibilities as legitimate and equally valuable Gav and Lesbian Families Are Here bv Stacev 39Arguments for samesex marriage liberalgay Against conservativeantigay Against radicalqueer 39 Postmodern kinship complex reality of family forms current policy and law do not account for it 39 If we begin to value the meaning and quality of intimate bonds over their customary forms there are few limits to the kinds of marriage and kinship patterns people might wish to devise If You Don t Kiss Me by Renold Hegemonic masculine performances being tied to heterosexuality Schools sanction and institutionalize heteronormativity Boys 1011 see having a gf as a compulsory signifier for their heterosexuality and hegemonic masculinity culturally idealized form of manhood But not just having a gf good at sports tOUgh s COOI s QOOd39IOOKing 39 Negotiating emotional andor physical closeness to girls to secure their heterosexuality masculinity 39 Boys also feel insecure fear of being dumped by girlsbut feel pressured compulsory heterosexuality higher status attached to oldersexually mature identities and mediacultural forces Lack of knowledge about sex 39 Public display of heterosexual desires and fantasies objectification Homophobic attitudes Getting Off and Getting Intimate Black and white fraternity men in college high Status Racial differences in men s approach toward women Structural locations they occupy affect their approaches toward women small black student and Greek communities visibility and accountability living arrangements such as lack of oncampus fraternity houses Black fraternity men more romantic approaches than their white counterparts 31016 Gender feminization of poverty women are more likely to be poor than men women are disproportionately represented in lower paying jobs with fewer benefits increase in femaleheaded households 428 of these household lived in poverty glass ceiling glass escalator Mvth About Povertv Refusal to work 87 of poor households contained at least one worker in 2002 a fulltime minimum wage worker earns only 76 of the poverty level for a family of three many of the nonworking poor are too young or too old to work Welfare Dependency Welfare Reform of 1996 cut public awareness programs for the poor by 545 billion assumption too generous benefits creating dependency and increase in singlemotherhood Two hidden welfare systems to aid the wealthy tax expenditures tax loopholes direct subsides and credit to assist corporations banks etc The poor receive special advantages much less than the more affluent receive through subsides the innercity and rural poor are structurally positioned to pay more for the same goods and services than others Welfare is an African American and Latino program 163 million whites 84 of whites 89 million African Americans 247 91 million Hispanics 22 Structural Theories 39 Institutional discrimination structural arrangements work to the disadvantage of the poor limited educational opportunities for the poor economy shift from manufacturing to lowerpaying service sector the poor tend to get sick more often and stay sick longer than welltodo limited opportunities of racial minorities and women Political Economv of Societv Capitalism promotes poverty by employees pay their workers the least possible a labor surplus is maintained to keep wages low investment decisions are made without regard for impact on employees Jobless Ghettos Bv Wilson Working poor to Joblessness between 1950 and 1990 in the innercity ghettos Joblessness more devastating than those of high neighborhood poverty crime family resolution welfare low levels of social organization symptoms of poverty and joblessness not the cause Detached from the formal economy lack of the disciplined habits Family life becomes less coherent Causes Decline in the demand for the less educated workers computer revolution internationalization of economic activity suburbanization of jobs lack of transportation 39 Lower tax base less social organization neighborhood services cultural resources such as role models less control of children 39 Employment discrimination stereotype of applicants from the ghetto low language skills and educational training street talk illiteracy applicants get screened out based on their ghetto residency Lack of skills products and legacy of racially segregated communities social constraints and restricted opportunities Policy implications both public and private sector initiatives Discrimination in a LowWage Labor Market Bv Pager ET AL Employment discrimination based on race mixed findings based on methods of inquiry Discrimination is hard to measure A field experiment presenting equally qualified applicants who differ only by race or ethnicity White black and Latino testers with equal qualifications 39White felon recently released compared to black and Latino testers with same qualifications but no criminal record Positive response callback or job offer whites 31000 latinos 252 blacks 152 For the 2nd group white tester felon whites 172 latinos 154 blacks 130 39 stigma of a felony conviction appears to be no greater than that of minority status