03-08-16 Lecture HIST 1312
Popular in US History 1865 to Present
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nina Nguyen on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Burton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see US History 1865 to Present in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
1917: Russia and the United States Tuesday, March 08, 2016 1. First total war brings upon total revolution; it’s a race to invent new things and new tactics. Countries want to survive in the long term. 2. Russia Revolutionary: Russia Background a. Czar Nicholas II (1894) i. Czar, aka Ceas-ar (the seizer) 1. Not a great leader. Very passionate and loved everyone in Russia. Makes a lot of mistakes because he thinks he’s the father of all Russians. Takes any contradictions as a personal attack. ii. Wife: Alexandra 1. Also a terrible absolute leader. Becomes vindictive if she thinks that the officer isn’t being loyal to Russia, the Czar, and Alexandra b. 1905 Revolution- pissed because they lost a war against Japan i. Grassroots revolution 1. Soviets- Trotsky says that we need to overthrow the Czar. 2. The Duma and reforms (1907-1911) a. Duma is the Russian parliament. It has a lot of problems, because Nicholas hates it when someone disagrees with him. i. Nicholas disbands it. People hate it. c. Alexandra and Rasputin i. Mystic and “Healer” ii. The peasantry knows best. We’re the backbone of Russia. iii. The Marxist Socialist Democrats (MSD) modeled itself about the German counterpart. 1. Small, radial faction. There’s a smaller faction within it! a. Led by Vladimir Lenin b. Called themselves the Bolsheviks 2. Nicholas and Alexandra’s son was very sick. Rasputin, from Siberia, was a faith healer. He healed him. Alexandra kept him around. Rasputin threw these giant (orgy) parties. 3. The Russians have a problem with Rasputin having so much influence of Alexandra. He embodies everything wrong with the Russian govt. 4. People start plotting his murder. They throw a giant party, and put cyanide in all of the food. Rasputin still doesn’t die. Everyone start shooting him. Rasputin keeps living. They start beating him and threw him in a river. 3. War in the East a. Battle of Tannenburg i. Russia on the run b. Russian economy is lagging. They depended on British support, yet the Germans keep sinking Brit ships. c. Russian army keeps getting defeated because they don’t have the resources (guns, etc.) d. Battle of Galicia i. Lost. Alexandra is convinced that it’s the fault of the Commander-in-chief. Convinces Czar to take that position. 1. TERRIBLE IDEA, because he has no experience, and EVERY loss will be his fault. He’s sensitive, causing a snowfall of mistakes e. Commander-in-chief replaced f. Battle of Transylvania (Aug. 1916) i. Lost that too. g. By 1917: Falling apart 4. March and November Revolutions (Feb. and October Revolution- because their calendar was still off) a. March 08 , 1917 i. Petrograd women workers protest for better conditions for them and their husbands ii. Grows and grows iii. Soldiers from local garrisons join as well! b. Czar is forced to abdicate. c. New Government: Former Duma i. Provisional govt. is made up of old members of the Duma 1. Not well liked, not efficient, faces a challenger. ii. Trotsky is in charge, but provisional govt. can take a shot at ruling. If they stink, we’ll step in, and we’ll watch them. iii. Stay in the war iv. Disorganized d. Petrograd Soviet i. Vladimis Ilyich Lenin 1. Marxist. Believes in that the worker’s revolution will cause a utopia. Goes to Germany (because Russia isn’t radical enough) to incite the workers to revolt. He gets caught and kicked out. Waits in Switzerland until he can sneak back in. 2. Now, he sees that Russia’s provisional govt. is unstable. Trotsky? Said he will bring him to Russia to spread his ideology. He rises to prominence. 3. Said that as Russia suffers, people will see that the provisional govt. isn’t working, and the people will revolt. Russia needs to be defeated in order for the rev to work. e. November 1917 Revolution- aceaup d’tate i. The guy in charge was a Socialist as well. The provis govt. was easy to take over. ii. Bolshevik’s time iii. Taking power for the Soviets f. Lenin’s Peace i. Says that Russia is leaving the war. Approaches the German wanting war. German says that they need to sign this harsh agreement (below) ii. Brest-Litovsk- the harsh treaty 1. German, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire gets territory. Loses 1/3 and 1/4 of people. 3/5 of industrial capacity. iii. Lenin signs this treaty. Leaves the war. Although the treaty sucks, his main goal is to concentrate on the worker’s revolution. It’ll start in Russia and spread everywhere. No more borders. Classless. iv. Revolution does spread! But it doesn’t fully spread. v. Important: The treaty essentially brings the US into the war, because everyone sees that Germany is growing in power. A socialist govt. is taking over Russia, and we can’t let it spread 5. The United States and the Great War a. Wilson says that the reason why we join the war is make the world safe for democracy. Demands the Britain and Germany maintain trade neutrality. b. American Neutrality Erodes i. America is determined to maintained neutrality 1. Immigrant population a. Large percentage were European. Americans were happy that they were spared. Although, a very few want to support the GB and FR. Immigrants of respective countries wanted their country to win the war. b. Wilson is pushing for peace. c. 1915- Wilson’s wife dies. He gets distracted. America does so much trade with GB because of the blockade. GB ships intercepted and confiscated or blew it up. GR never used their navy. They use U-boats. 2. Neutrality eroded by trade and economy a. War disrupts American trade b. Submarines and Lusitania i. GB is buying a lot of trade from the US. Shipping it back to GB. GR found it, and they start publishing threatening posters. ii. GR sinks Lusitania via submarine. Americans were on board. America, at home, are wanting to go to war. c. Escadrille Lafayette 3. “Too Proud to Fight” a. Wilson still advocated for peace. We’re too proud to fight, but after the Sussex is sunk, he demands that GR stop using U-boats or we’ll go to war. GR says they’ll unrestricted submarine (no neutral ships). b. GR does this for a few months. c. War of attrition. GR could have taken on the war by themselves, but they had to take care of their allies. 4. Trade and the War at Sea a. Lusitania (1915) and the Sussex (1916) i. Preparedness Campaign 1. Leonard starts finding training camps. People all over the nation start signing up because of the Lusitania. Start joining the FR and GB army. ii. Armed Neutrality 6. German Problems Test Neutrality a. Germans lose the Battle of Verdun (Feb.- Dec. 1916) and the Battle of Somme (July- Nov. 1916) i. Germans lost one million men. Huge loss of manpower. Started recruiting farmers and factory workers of all ages. b. Germans experience the “turnip winter” (Dec. 1916- Feb. 1917) i. Entire fields of crops go unharvest and unplowed. 700 Germans died due to starvation every day. c. Germany resumes “unrestricted submarine warfare” on Jan 31 st 1917 d. Calculated Risk i. Russia is destabilizing. Operation Michael. Throwing Russian contingents- through unrestricted warfare- back into the war, before US comes into the war. ii. Start torpedoing every ship. Last Spring offensive. iii. Strategy? iv. America mobilized way faster than they thought. Russia doesn’t have the men to occupy the area. 7. Tests (cont.): March 1917 a. March 1 : the Zimmerman note surfaces b. 4 American merchant ships are sunk in March 1917