03-10-16 Lecture HIST 1312
Popular in US History 1865 to Present
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Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nina Nguyen on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Burton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see US History 1865 to Present in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
The End of the War 1. The Spring Offensive a. Germany makes all-out push to win the war i. Germany left with zero territorial gains and 270,000 dead in a matter of two months 1. Since Germany gained all this land, they had less men to fight because they were needed to occupy the new land ii. US troops arrive on the battlefield just in time to plug-up some holes and boost morale 1. Majority of US troops arrive after heaviest fighting 2. The first soldiers (US) is an all- Black group a. Seen as inheritably expendable b. Yet, they distinguished themselves valiantly because they would win c. Majority of other soldiers arrive after the heaviest fights (still valiant) d. This lack of involvement will have negative consequences in peace negotiation 2. The Southern Front a. Italians win decisive Battle of Vittorio Veneto i. Austrian surrender a dissolution ii. Cold and high terrains b. What land are they trying to take back? c. Franco-Serbian forces bust out of Macedonia to win back Serbia i. Bulgarian surrender in Oct. 31, 1918 ii. Aided by Czechoslovakia d. British forces move east out of Macedonia toward Constantinople i. Ottoman surrender and eventual dissolution ii. Surrender Sept. 19, 1918 iii. Ottoman surrender the same AH do. e. Ottoman experience in the war is drastically different i. New Zealand and Australia tried to attack the Ottoman territory ii. 1922, Ottoman Empire is no more. Turkey is born. f. The promise of nationalism, but it never manifests g. Front closes by 1918 3. Allied Response: The Hundred Days Offensive a. In a response to the German all-out attack, the Allies launch their own offensive in the summer/ autumn of 1918 i. German uses the Hindenburg trenches 1. The front line is lightly guarded; handful of units 2. Defend for a little while then retreat to heavy trenches 3. The allies occupy the shallow trenches, but the German artilleries are aimed at those shallow trenches 4. Once line is broken, Germany retreats. 5. Pushes them back to Belgium. b. By early October, the French had liberated parts of Belgium and the German Army was disintegrating th c. November 11 , 1918, Armistice signed i. They’ve been pushed out of France and Belgium. Allied offensive stops. Armistice is signed in November; after that, no allied soldiers have stepped foot in Germany. 1. Because the Allies stop, German people will come to believe that they were never truly defeated. The government had stabbed them in the back! Caused the rise of power to Hitler and the Nazis. ii. Guns fall silent. 4. Outcome a. 8 million soldiers died b. 7 million civilians died c. 115 thousand American soldiers die d. Peace Conference convenes in Paris (January) e. Every time a sudden engine would make a large sound, Germans would assume that there was a sniper. Couldn’t find a sniper, so they would accuse civilians. Killed civilians. f. This gave rise to genocide and ethnic cleansing. i. Genocide everywhere, affected children, women, etc. g. By comparison, US’s loss was small. 5. Paris Settlement a. June 18 , 1919 b. Five separate treaties i. Defeated: GR, AH, Bulgaria, Turkey ii. Big Four: FR, GB, Italy, US 1. Big Four representatives are VERY different in person. 6. Victor’s Positions a. Premier Clemenceau (France) i. Determined to defend French interests and security ii. Determined to make GR suffers iii. Wants FR to emerge better than it went into the war b. Prime Minister Lloyd George (GB) i. Over time, he’s willing to negotiate and compromise. ii. Maintain GB’s imperial interest iii. Defended GB imperial interest c. Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando (Italy) i. Frustrated when demands weren’t met ii. Stormed out April 24 th iii. Wanted its lands back! d. President Woodrow Wilson (USA) i. Wanted to make an idealistic peace ii. Well received by the people of Europe iii. Wants to lead this negotiation personally: no diplomats iv. Wants to implement the 14Points v. IT, FR, GB wants to go back to the status quo. Not US. 7. Clash of Priorities a. Russia and GR are not a part of the conversation b. Wilson wanted to enshrine democratic peace i. Self determination and a League of Nations c. Europeans powers emphasized security and power politics d. Germany wanted to be included i. Had to have peace dictated to it ii. Causes TREMENDIOUS backlash later e. Time was a factor i. Armies being demobilized, shifts in power taking place ii. Negotiators were lobbied furiously 1. Many people showed up to have their voice heard f. Centerpiece of the Paris Settlements: Treaty of Versailles i. Carved out by compromise and dissatisfaction, but it meets the desire of many negotiators 1. Therefore, it was garbage 8. Compromise and Dissatifaction a. Terms of the Treaty: i. GR loses all its colonies ii. GR’s armed forces were to be drastically reduced 1. Only 100,000 volunteer forces a. No conscription 2. No air force, no submarines, no gas weaponry iii. The Rhineland was to be demilitarized for 30 miles 1. West side to be occupied by the Allies for 15 years a. France wanted an independent state created to buffer it, but dropped it when USA and UK pledged security iv. GR would pay an unspecified amount in reparations for the war 1. Sum eventually set at $32 billion in 1921 2. But after the war, GR economy is in the toilet. They will loan it from the US. Big circle of money. Stresses the Great Depression v. Limited GR industry vi. Article 231: War Guilt 1. Germany had to accept the blame for “causing” the war: forceful 2. Established a legal basis for reparations a. Required/ forced GR to pay b. German people are outraged once they are made public. The Allies said that there are no negotiations. If they do not accept, the blockade would continue, people would starve, and the Allies would invade GR. c. US gets to establish the League of Nations 9. German Reactions a. Public is thunder-struck i. Denounce the diktat (dictated peace) and GR’s bleeding borders ii. Blamed democracy; democracy caused us to fail 1. Specifically, the Jews b. GR in a crap position i. Wasn’t allowed to negotiate 1. Accept or war restarts and so does the blockade ii. GR Naval officers sink the German fleet in protest iii. Entire German political sphere rejected the Treaty 1. Esp. War Guilt 2. Were actually milder the Brest-Litovsk c. Despite outrage and protests, still signed on June 28, 1919 i. Outrage remained strong 10. The League of Nations a. Didn’t want Russia in the LoN because they didn’t want to promote socialism. b. Wilson’s baby made him willing to compromise i. Wanted collective security, so he let FR and GB make those harsh conditions c. The aim of the LoN was peace i. General Assembly and smaller Council d. Established in Geneva in Jan. 1920 i. Despite some successes, it ends in failure ii. The two great powers after the war, USSR and USA were not members (doesn’t have the authority or manpower to be assertive). Wilson is dejected by this rejection! He is already sick; he becomes sicker (wife died, stomach problems). Suffers a stroke due to the stress. Never recovers e. US rejects the Versailles Treaty and with it the LoN i. Worries over questions of sovereignty, obligations under collective security, disgust at Balance of Power, etc. ii. Senate refuses to ratify the treaty in March 1920 iii. Didn’t want to include the US in Euro wars, which happened too often. 11. Aftershocks of the War a. Hinge of Violence i. War didn’t end neatly on Nov. 11 , 1918 not even with the Paris settlements 1. War continued, esp. in the East 2. Difficulties of realizing self-determination in areas of mixed populations b. We can still see remnants of the war to this day. Some cities never grow back. c. Useful memorials become a tradition? Establishment of the tomb of unknown soldiers (started in FR). d. Charles White Whittlesey and his troops were fired at by the Allies mistakenly. Whittlesey was so traumatized that he commits suicide after the war. e. The war changed the minds and body of those who went through it. Changed the ideas of masculinity and femininity. Many women found themselves working outside of the home as nurses or factory workers. The lack of the opposite sex (at home or the battlefield) causes intimacy. >Greater sharing of gender identities. Women are more reluctant to “go back” to the private sphere. f. Poets and artists lamented the sacrifices of the war. Worried that the future generations would forget the effects of the war: desensitization. g. Civil War in Russia i. 1917-1920: Bolsheviks and their “Red” Army fought for control of Russia 1. 7-10 million dead ii. Forces confronting the Reds and the Whites’ varied army of tremendous diversity 1. Revolutionaries’ across Russia, monarchs, and democrats 2. Ultimately whites lack cohesion iii. Allies intervene iv. First war that the US loses! 12. Global Consequences a. Wave of Totalitarians i. Mussolini and Fascist Italy ii. Hitler and Nazi Germany 1. Imitated Mussolini iii. Stalin and the Soviet Union 1. By 1927, he established himself as the heir of Vladimir 2. Started shoving Russia through Industrialization a. Sent agents to farms to collect the farm lands. Arrested or shot people who disagreed b. Deported (the Great Terror) or killed those who posed a threat to his authority 3. Saw World War I as the beginning 4. 1939- when GR and RU looks like they were about to go to war, he signs a treaty with Hitler (GR) b. Structural Import i. Global Economic Change 1. Europe isn’t central anymore 2. New York becomes financial capital ii. Social Change 1. 9-10 million killed, about the same amount of civilians killed, twice that wounded a. 3 million widows, 10 million orphans b. Demographic imbalances 2. Scared that those killed were a generation lost. Mourned because they began thinking of the geniuses that were lost in the war. 3. Politics transformed- all for us or all against us 4. Balance of Power Upset a. Some historians that GR were in a better position after the war. Because the war was fought outside of GR, little structural damage b. GR is going to cause problems again 13. Ramifications a. Human impact i. War battered notions of progress and liberal ideas ii. Contemporaries spoke of their great disillusionment, questioning “Great Ideals” faiths, certainties, and resorting to irony to hide their despair 1. Became cynical of people who promise “change and a brighter future” iii. Brutalization of the individual and collective as a result of the violence of the war. 1. Change in how human life was valued a. People were encouraged to sign up together so that they could be in the same unit. But now, huge plots of people are plucked out of similar communities b. Ideology i. Emerging superpowers represented new models of modernity 1. Between Wilson and Lenin a. You HAD to choose. 14. Further ramifications a. Middle East i. Sykes-Picot (GB and FR aristocrats) wants the Ottoman Empire to collapse so that they can go in to carve it up; didn’t ask the opinions of the Arabic civilians. 1. 3 Problems: a. No Arabic involvement b. Straight lines i. Wanted to divide the area to establish certain regions for GB and FR. Christians, Jews, Shia-Muslims, and Shiite-Muslims had their separate plots, but in reality, they were all mixed together! c. Identity struggles b. Wounded Veterans occupy this weird place in society. They were disgustful, yet honorable. i. Volume 1. Led to a crisis because now, the countries had to deal with these wounded individuals. ii. Social responsibility 1. As a society, we have to provide for them. a. Caused state pensions plan, films that talk about rehabilitation programs 2. The problem is that this rehabilitation is limited. The process is about relearning how to complete physical tasks, not mental problems. 3. Only certain jobs were seen plausible for wounded or disabled veterans. a. This list hasn’t been updated since the end of the Civil War i. Limited education and job outreach 15. What does it mean to us? a. We still feel the effects of the war i. Cold War begins in 1917 ii. Nationalism, self-determination, and ethnic aspirations iii. Regional strife in the Middle East, the Balkans, and in former colonial areas is with us still iv. Problems in the EU are propelled by desire t transcend nationalism b. Power of the state dramatically expands i. Total War is practiced and perfected 1. Industrial Total War was completely new in 1914. The weaponry is still around today. c. It’s a war of creation! i. Left us with a weird desire to use our creations to destroy
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