BIO 1230 Class Notes March 7-11
BIO 1230 Class Notes March 7-11 BIO 123
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Joannes on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 123 at Clemson University taught by Professor Minor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Biology in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
BIO 123 Notes March 7-11 March 7, 2016: Movement and Support PowerPoint • Movement is the most distinctive feature of animals o External vs. Internal Skeleton § External: lobsters, crab, etc. Can see the structural support on the outside of the body § Internal: humans, structure consists of a series of levels that work with one another • Human Skeleton o Consists of 206 Bones o At birth: infants are born with the most bones that we will ever have in life. As the baby develops, many bones fuse together to create bigger bones. § Examples: skull bones fuse (can still feel fusions of where those bones were once separate. Knee caps form (baby girls develop knee caps before boys do) o Anatomical bone categories § Axial Skeleton: consists of the bones along the center axis § Appendicular: the appendages that form off the sides of the Axial o The following bones were mentioned by Professor Minor as ones we need to know for the test. There are also charts on BlackBoard that will be helpful in learning how to label § Axial Skeleton • Skull: 18 bones fused together. Protects the brain • Zygomatic: cheek bones • Maxilla • Mandible • Hip Bones o Illium o Ischium o Pubis • Spinal Column o Axis: allows the side-to-side head motion o Atlas: allows the up & down movement o Thoracic: top to midway down the spinal column § Lose mobility in this area the fastest as we age o Lumbar: small of back § Center of gravity is here, so a lot of pressure and force is placed upon here o Sacrum: fused plates o Coccyx: childbirth can break this bone. Very painful!!!! § Appendicular Skeleton • Scapula • Radius: thumb • Ulna: outside of arm • Muscles o See labeled graph Be able to label the following bones: DIAGRAMS Axial Skeleton: Cranium Mandible Human Skeleton Maxilla Spinal Column (Atlas, Axis, Cervical Vertebra, Thoracic Vertebra, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx) Ribs Sternum Appendicular Skeleton: Clavicle Scapula Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Pelvis Girdle (Ilium, Ischium, Pubis) Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Metatarsals Phalanges Muscles Be able to label the following muscles: Triceps Brachii Biceps Brachii Pectoralis major Serratus anterior External Oblique Rectus aabdominus Adductor Longus Sartorius Quadracepts femoris Tivialis anterior Deltoid Trapezius Lattisiumus dorsi Gluteus maximus Hamstrings Gastrocneumus March 9, 2016 • Types of Joints (3 of them!) o Immovable Joints § For the most part, these joints never move § Examples: skull (sutures), pelvis (the joint that loosens during childbirth) o Moveable Joints § Ball & Socket: provides the most movement. Almost 360 degrees. • Examples: shoulders and hips § Hinge Joints: provide less movement. About 180 degrees. • Examples: elbows and knees § Pivot Joints: move around another bone • Examples: bones in the arm • Types of Bones- classified based on their shape o Flat bones- have spongy bone only § Protective features, but don’t bear much weight at all § Examples: sternum and ribs o Long bones- have both spongy and compact bone § Can take a lot of weight and are mostly very compact § Compact bone contains yellow marrow (for fat storage) § Examples: humurus and femur o Anatomy of a Bone § Cartilage: protection from bone on bone § Connective tissues: covers, brings in blood supply § Hollow: keeps weight off, storage of yellow marrow § Calcium • Osteoblasts: deposit Ca++ • Osteoclasts: destroy bone to liberate Ca++ • Calcium initiates contraction of bone • Muscle Organization From smallest to largest grouping of muscles: Sarcomere à muscle cell à fascicle à bundle of fascicles • How do muscles contract? o Starts with the contraction of a sarcomere § Sarcomere: functional unit of a muscle contraction § Steps • Nervous impulse goes to motor unit and affects the muscle cell • Ca++ is released • Troponin and Tropomyosin move off actin binding sight • ATP binds to myosin head and lets go of actin • Myosin reattaches to actin with energy from ATP • Myosin heads “power stroke” to pull on actin • Z-lines get closer, which equals a contraction § Illustration o Muscle contractions require energy! § Cramps occur when cells don’t have enough energy to relax March 11, 2016 • Entire muscles shorten by recruiting more and more sarcomeres o Controlling muscle contraction- 2 ways § By recruiting more cells § By increasing the frequency of the nervous impulses • Fast impulses equal stronger muscles (known as tetanus) o Parkinsons: when people are unable to hold the tetanic contractions, hence the shaking of muscles • Fiber types affect how we function- know the following information about fiber types o Type one: slow-twitch. People who are able to run long distances likely have more of this type of muscle. Fatigue very slowly, burns a lot of fat o Type two: fast-twitch. People who are able to lift a lot of weights tend to have more of this type of muscle. Fatigue quickly, allows explosive force of muscle
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