Psych Notes, 3/7 - 3/11
Psych Notes, 3/7 - 3/11 PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology
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PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Weitz on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
- Hunger & Eating - Hardly understood… - Brain (hypothalamus) receive signals from the blood, the stomach, and other organs regarding nutrient levels, hormone levels, and fullness. Comes together to say: I’m hungry! - Set-point - each person’s homeostatic body weight range - The brain & body resists deviations from ideal - How? Through hunger, activity level, BMR - BMR = basal metabolic rate, the amount of energy the body burns while at rest - sharp drop in caloric intake = sharp drop in metabolism, which leads to a small amount of weight loss, but not much. - Biological + Psychological cues = hunger - Biological: hypothalamus monitors appetite, stomach pangs, set point, adaptive wariness towards novel food, attraction to sweet & salty foods - Psychological: sight and smell, variety of food available, stress and mood, food unit size (how much on a plate), memory of time elapsed since last meal - Obesity - 20% above healthy weight based on height - Body Mass Index (BMI) - Dramatic increase in obesity, doubled in adults and quadrupled in children over last 40 years - Physical problems: - Diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease - Psychological/social problems: - low self-esteem, depression, discrimination, exclusion - Skinny upheld as the ideal in America right now…it isn’t and hasn’t always been that way in human society - Seen as less sincere, less friendly, less worthy of hiring, etc. - Obese women far less likely to be hired - However, there is no correlation between personality & obesity! - Causes: - more to it than just caloric intake & activity level - Genetic predisposition: - identical twins usually have similar BMIs - two adopted kids in same home usually have uncorrelated BMIs, more similar to that of biological parents - thousands of genes regulate body weight – fullness signals, metabolism, conversion to fat, activity level, brain -reward system, how many fat cells (can add but not eliminate) - Why more obesity? - fast food - increased portion sizes - junk food more affordable than healthy food - fewer labor-intensive jobs to burn calories, sedentary desk jobs - less physical leisure activities - growing up in poverty = more likely to become obese later - Anorexia nervosa - serious, can be deadly - Significantly underweight, fear of weight gain, distorted body image - Teen years, especially affects white females - experience hunger, just refuse to eat - Perfectionism, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety - Parents of people with anorexia nervosa are often overbearing and perfectionistic - Bulimia nervosa - nearly as deadly as anorexia - typically starts later than anorexia, late teens to early 20’s - binging (thousands of calories in short time), followed by purging - purging can be vomit, abusing laxatives, extreme exercise or starvation - especially white females - normal weight or slightly overweight - obsessed with food, huge fear of weight gain - Perfectionism, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety - typically have mothers focused on their own & daughter’s weight - ^^^ these disorders are difficult to treat - Causes: - genetic predisposition, less serotonin, personality characteristics - cultural obsession with thinness & appearance - Fashionable ideal in current media excludes 95%-98% of women… - Not culturally ubiquitous - in some cultures, women actually fattened up - European ideal used to be not skinny-focused at all! - in cultures where thin is not emphasized, eating disorders are rare or nonexistent. - As a culture becomes more westernized, eating disorders become more prominent and common…. - Giving girls a 15-month subscription to 17 Magazine led to more eating/body disorders - Sexual behavior - difficult to study… - Sexual response cycle: outlined by Masters & Johnson. Excitement, plateau, orgasm followed by refractory period in males, resolution - Hormones: - less tied to hormones, actually! - affected more by psychological factors – yes, especially with sexual response, psychology very much affects biology. - Psychological factors: - attitudes - interpretations of situations, intentions, etc. - Social and Cultural Factors: - cultures have varying cultural rules - Inis Beag = actually “Inisheer,” little island off the coast of Ireland. Extreme sexual repression, everything sexual (including kissing and touching) was avoided and intercourse was regarded as a necessary evil. Men typically married at 36, women at 25. - even dogs whipped for licking genitals… - led to very high levels of masturbation, drinking, fighting - Mangaia = oldest island in the Pacific Ocean. Sexually the complete opposite of Inis Beag – men and women actually trained to have sex properly in order to experience the most pleasure possible. Most people have sex every night of the week, boys/men have about 3 orgasms a night, and it is claimed that all women learn how to experience orgasm. Premarital sex is actually encouraged. - Arousal types - Different things sexually arouse different people. - Some classify “arousal types” of people - e.g. “sensual type” who is turned on by physical cues such as touching, tasting, smelling vs. the “cognitive type,” who is turned on by thoughts and imagination. - Sexual orientation - Emotional vs. romantic vs. sexual attraction (all different) - Classifying orientation: - Sexual identity = self-identified orientation based on who/what one thinks they are attracted to - Sexual behavior = orientation deduced based on actually expressed sexuality, may or may not match with identity - Western society too often thinks of orientation as a binary, straight or gay. However, orientation is more like a continuum with varying degrees of hetero and homosexual behavior. - Sambia = tribe in Papa New Guinea, “ritualized homosexuality.” Boys participate in homosexual acts on their way to becoming men, partially because of the belief that concentrated manhood is in semen. Once the boys gave finished initiation and married, they then have exclusively hetero relations. - Fa’afafine = third-gender subgroup of the Samoa people. Male-born people that express as female, participate in typically “female” activities such as child care, etcetera. Have sexual relations with either women or men, but not other fa’afafine. - In Samoan culture, there is no such thing as being gay. - Orientation misconceptions - Gay/lesbian couples similar to hetero couples in love and satisfaction - Gay/lesbian couples no more likely to sexually abuse children - Homosexuality is NOT a mental disorder! - Most gay men are actually not effeminate, and most lesbian women are not butch/masculine - So what determines orientation? - We’re still not entirely sure, but we do know this: - If one twin is gay, the other has a high likelihood of being gay - Fraternal birth-order effect = The more older brothers a boy has, the greater the likelihood he will be gay. Perhaps because the mother’s body views the male baby as a threat, so antibodies in the womb seek to feminize the baby. - Currently, no correlation between adult hormone levels and sexual orientation - Environment has little to no effect on orientation - Belongingness - Humans are social creatures, have a natural need to belong to a group. - Feeling of belonging deeply affects self-esteem. - Rejection/ostracism: - leads to anger and depression - decreased academic performance - lower pain-tolerance - In a small lab experiment, well-adjusted and well-educated college students were easily made aggressive in an exercise of social exclusion…a scarlet O was hung over the door of one person’s door for five days (different person each day), and the whole day that person was intentionally completely ignored. Reportedly it made both the ostracized and the ostracizers absolutely miserable. - Achievement motivation - Intrinsic motivation (IM) = personal enjoyment - Extrinsic motivation (EM) = reward(s), approval, or avoid punishment - Rewards have a paradoxical effect on achievement: - Overjustification effect = external motivators result in decreased IM. When people are told that they will receive a reward before doing an activity that is normally completed purely from IM, there is a loss of some of the IM (less enjoyment, less time spent on activity). - Unanticipated rewards have no effect on IM.
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