New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 3 Notes: Set Four

by: Murry

Exam 3 Notes: Set Four Bio 1144

GPA 3.68

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the skeletal system and begin the muscular system. Important terms are highlighted.
Biology II
Thomas Holder
Class Notes
Biology, bones, Skeletal System, Muscles, Muscular System, axial skeleton, osteon
25 ?




Popular in Biology II

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Murry on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.

Similar to Bio 1144 at MSU

Popular in Biology


Reviews for Exam 3 Notes: Set Four


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/12/16
Exam 3 Notes: Set Four The Skeletal System • Skeletal System – endoskeleton in vertebrates; a constant, living structure • Functions of Skeletal System: o Movement o Support o Protection of soft body parts o Calcium and other mineral storage o Provide attachment sites for skeletal muscle o Production of blood cells • Bone tissue is strong yet lightweight because of air pockets/cavities (connective tissue) o Similar in strength of steel o 1 cubic inch of undamaged bone tissue can withstand a load of 19,000lbs • Flexible because of collagen fibers o 1mm across o Each fiber can hold 19lbs • Depository of Minerals o Calcium salts o Phosphorous salts o Provides for rigidity/hardness of bone o Loss of calcium softens bones (osteoporosis) • Bone Formation o Endochondral – bone replaces cartilage; majority of vertebrate’s bone formation o Intramembranous – bone forms within membranes of connective tissue; thin bone formation (Ex: plates of the skull) • Types of Bone Tissue o Compact – “ground bone; dense bone;” tightly packed together tissue and organized into structures called osteons § Osteons - structure unit of compact bone o Spongy – “bony spikes;” lightweight; loosely overlap each other; has no osteons; lots of air spaces • Long Bone Anatomy (ex: femur) o Epiphysis – section on the ends; contains spongy bone; where red bone marrow is produces à blood cells o Diaphysis – hollow in the middle (the shaft) o Medullary cavity – houses yellow bone marrow; adipose tissue and fat storage o Compact bone – layer all the way around the outside o Periosteum – entire outer covering of the bone, except ends of epiphyses o Articular cartilage – (hyaline cartilage); on ends of epiphyses; acts as a shock absorber and prevents bone from rubbing against bone   • Bone Cells o Osteoprogenitor cells – the early developed bone cells; found in periosteum; differentiate into osteoblasts o Osteoblasts – bone forming cells; secrete bony matrix and collagen fibers o Osteocytes – mature osteoblasts fully surrounded by bone tissue they produced o Osteoclasts – bone resorbing cells; breakdown old or damaged bone tissue and remodels the bone • Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone o Osteon – structural/functional unit of compact bone; most oriented parallel to long axis of the bone o Osteon Canal – passageway for blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves o Lamellae – concentric rings of bone tissue o Lacuna – spaces between lamellae where osteocytes are located o Canaliculi – microscopic canals that connect lacunae to lacunae and lacunae to the osteon canal • Microfractures happen whenever you squeeze a pencil, hit your hand, clench your fingers, etc. A little fissure travels through the bone and hits osteon canal and stops whenever there is impact, but you can’t feel it because it’s so minor. A larger force is needed to cause a big fracture, which will travel straight through the osteon canal.     • Skeleton (2 major parts) o Axial Skeleton – all bones associated with the central axis of the body; skull, ribs, sternum, vertebral column § 5 Types of Vertebrae: (number of each varies among vertebrates; i.e. a dog has more caudal bones than a human) • Cervical (neck) • Thoracic (upper back) • Lumbar (lower back) • Sacral (hip) • Caudal (tail/tailbone) § Vertebrae allow for flexibility and support and protection of spinal cord/nerve cord. o Appendicular Skeleton – all bones associated with the appendages; legs, arms, wings, fins, etc. § Appendage bones (limbs/fins/wings) • Forelimb bones (arms) o Humerous – the upper arm bone o Radius and Ulna – forearm bones o Carpals – wrist bones o Metacarpals – bones of hand o Phalanges – bones of fingers and toes (digits) • Hindlimbs (legs) o Femur – upper leg/thigh (largest bone in the body) o Patella – the knee cap o Tibia and Fibula – leg bones (tibia is larger than fibula) o Tarsals – ankle bones o Metatarsals – bones of feet o Phalanges – bones of toes and fingers (digits) • Jointed appendages makes movement easier. § Pectoral girdle (shoulders) • 2 scapula (shoulder bones) • 2 clavicles (collar bones) • Attaches front appendages to the axial skeleton § Pelvic girdle (hip) • Attaches hind appendages to axial skeleton • Pelvic bones fused to lower vertebral column § Joints – allow for enhanced movement on land and better contact with substrate (plus bones and skeletal muscle)     The Muscular System • Tissue Types: o Cardiac Muscle – only associated with the heart, striated, involuntary, has 1-2 nuclei per cell, branching fiber cell type § Have intercalated disks – specialized junctions between cardiac muscles § Contractions pump blood o Smooth Muscle – not striated; more sheet-like, involuntary, 1 centralized nucleus, found in walls of internal organs and glands o Skeletal Muscle – striated, voluntary, multinucleated, mostly associated with skeleton, fiber cell type § Structure: • Muscle fascicles – a collection of skeletal muscle fibers bounded by connective tissue • Inside each fascicle are skeletal muscle cells called fibers • Each fiber is composed of myofibrils – a series of filaments • Myofilaments compose each filament; can be thin or thick o Contractile proteins are Actin (thin filaments) and Myosin (thick filaments)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.