Week 10: (March 7-13) Nonverbal Communication
Week 10: (March 7-13) Nonverbal Communication ANT3620
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3620 at University of Florida taught by Sean King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Language and Culture in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Monday, March 7, 2016 Differences and Conclusions MLP differs significantly from universals noted in the text o Multilingual interactions occur in a very one-sided seeking/listening discourse. o Many claim to not speak others, though large evidence to the contrary o Woman in MLP often choose husbandsunusual o Linguistic exogamy not realized as an explicit social practice “just the way it is” narratives Generalizations about linguistic convergence and universals in language use need to be critically engaged. o There is a lot of human variation o There is not that idea of “universals” Jan Blommaert-Rwanda Political Asylum Blommaert studies transidiomatic practices in relation to power asymmetries. Case of “Joseph Mutingira”: o Sought political asylum in Britain after Rwandan genocide o Home Office rejected him on grounds of the language he spoke considered inauthentic o Perception of “national languages” and authentic nationals. Wednesday, March 9, 2016 Recap Finished Campbell and Grondona: o Universals of linguistic exogamy and multilingual communities criticized o What makes MLP community linguistically and culturally unique? Blommaert and political asylum: recognition of multilingual communities as more the rule than the exception Non verbal communication intro Gestures and Paralinguistic Gestures reflect speakers’ thoughts Gestures can change speakers’ thoughts Gestures are important features in linguistic acquisition and socialization Temporal scales” o Moments o Learning language(s) through time o Linguistic change through time Gesture’s Role in Linguistic Processing Meanings different for gestures and speech: o Gesture: Global= visual and mimetic imagery; meant to be understood by most people in the world o Speech: Local= codified words and linguistic structured shared in a speech community; i.e. not recognized universally. Theories on Gesture and meaning in Human Communication Growth Point Theory Relies on the duality of meaning of gesture and speech Every utterance contains a globally defined gesture image and a linguistically defined speech structure How to define “global”? Information Packaging Hypothesis Gestures help contextually by organizing information in a visual-spatial way Gestures also help speakers organize into segments, or units, that resemble linguistic phenomena. Lexical Gesture process Words are made easier to understand through gesturing o Lexicon “dictionary” This process has serious implication for language acquisition. Gesture-as-Simulated Model A speech act produces a simulation of the action in the speaker’s mind Geertz’s “models of reality” These simulations activate (unintentionally) motor movements in the nervous system o The body, biologically speaking, seems hardwired for gestural practice. Interface Model Gestures and speech are separate systems but entangled together in terms of speech acts Gestures shaped by syntactic structures of one’s speech community Case Study: English/Turkish Sign Languages o English: manner and path of motion expressed in single clause; in Turkish they are expressed in two separate clauses o English Sign Language uses one motion to express simple actions; Turkish uses two o Different sign languages influenced by different syntaxes of embedded spoken languages. Gesture & Language Comprehension Studies on gesturing and language learning: o Gestures linking movement create a more accessible environment of learning o Sending/receiving abstract concepts harder to produce through gesture Gesture are communicative: o They convey contextual information o Reinforce information o Facilitate the learning of new information. Gesture and Early Infancy Most children use gestures before speaking (of any kind). How much and what type of gesturing are indicators of later speech acquisition and development Types of gestures: o Deictic gesture: indexical/indirect relationality E.g. pointing to an object o Iconic gesture: iconic/direct relationality E.g. putting index finger on lip o Symbolic gesture: cultural/conventional relationality E.g. peace sign Stages of Gestural types Human infants first begin using deictic gestures (8-12 months) Later in this stage, symbolic gestures can be recognized in an infant’s repertoire Iconic gestures: large variation across studies o Children begin to use iconic gestures at different times and seemingly for different reasons. Children combine words/gestures well before they begin to syntactically combine words Changes in gesturing show a causal change in language learning o Children learn vocabulary that they gesture to most frequently Most important: gesturing is highly integral to the process of learning/language acquisition