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Day 8 notes

by: Kelly Jo Kiess
Kelly Jo Kiess

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These are the notes from week 8.
Dr. Foster
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Jo Kiess on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1100 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Dr. Foster in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM in Political Science at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.


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Date Created: 03/12/16
Day 8 Notes 3/8/16 Brown v Board of Education: Topeka, KS “All due haste” – states had to start integrating schools ­10 years later, 1% of school were integrated  Massive Resistance  ­ Resistance to school integration not limited to the south ­ Southern states started to close public schools­ only African Americans would attend  them ­ Whites went to private schools ­ Little Rock, AR 1959 o Governor hired the national guard to prohibit African Americans, government  called on Marshall law to get the African Americans in the school ­ Congress was slow to act because critical congress committees were in control of white  southern democrats ­ Southern democrats dominated congress  Martin Luther King JR Civil Disobedience­ breaking the legislative deadlock  ­ Change in public opinion: began to swing in favor of taking steps to ensure equality for  African Americans   By the 60’s many had tv and could see on tv how they were being treated  and the public didn’t like it.   Dogs were set loose   Fire hoses were turned on to them ­ JFK is assassinated­ communist setup  o 1964 Johnson won by a landslide and the republicans were crushed in the election o Democrats could now pass a civil rights law Regaining the right to vote for African Americans 1. The Voting Right Act of 1965­ later extended to linguistic groups as well as other  minorities a. registration b. category i. could not change your voting laws without permission c. preclearance with the Justice Department  2. literacy tests were abolished 3. Poll taxes a. Amendment XXIV­ makes poll taxes illegal  b. Shelby County v. Holder, 2014 Alabama County, Holder was former atty. gen.  Day 8 Notes 3/8/16 Shelby County sued because they wanted to the categories, because the data was  too old and no longer valid because the situation had changed  Supreme Court agreed, and now no state or city or county needs permission to change  election laws.  Congress could recreate categories if they wanted too, but so far have  decided against that.  Education  De facto segregation­ based on housing patterns African Americans tended to gather in black/white neighbors  Southern states had set up voluntary programs to integrate  Swann­ 1972­ students would be bussed from the neighborhood to school and thus integrated But busses could not transport children from political boundaries – (dist 11 to 20) But then they were taken over by the federal government to handle that problem  de Kalb County­ 1992­ still pockets of segregated schools (fault of housing patterns) Control of the school districts were handed over back to local authorities  Seattle­ 2007­ Government decided that race could not be used to determine where they would  go to school.  Sociological data showed that students learned better from teachers of their same  ethnicity.  Bush­ NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND: every child deserves a quality education  Race relations today: African Americans struggle today? 2008­ Michelle Obama was campaigning on the East Coast to an all­girls schools  Noticed that girls were “segregated”  2009­ Erick Holder accused the nation of still being racist – ATTY GENERAL  BOTH ARE AFRICAN AMERICANS  “Black lives matter”  Affirmative Action 1. Definition:  2. Bakke v Regions of UC Davis – med school a. Denied admission­ scores were higher than those accepted  3. Aderand v Pena­ 1965 a. Pena was mayor of Denver, Aderand was small company­ highway guard rails Day 8 Notes 3/8/16 b. Aderand placed a bid on a Denver contract that was given to a minority company  Supreme Court said ANY discrimination based on race o STRICT SCRUITNY­ compelling government interest, narrowly tailored remedy  4. Hopwood – 1996 a. Unthersity of Texas and affirmative actions b. 5  circuit court of appeals­ Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi  5. Grutter­ 2003 a. Undergrad affirmative action program i. Trying to encourage people from all over the state to come to the  University of Michigan  b. Underrepresented areas got points (not race or gender) just location c. Law school­ treat all applications unique, evaluate EVERY application and letters of recommendations, essays, undergrad GPA’s  only in final phase do they look  at gender and race because it was compelling government interest that both  genders and all races can attend  GRUTTER OVERTURNED HOPWOOD  6. Fisher v Texas­ 2013 a. Mrs. Fisher claims she was discriminated against by University of Texas  7. Michigan­2006:  Proposition 2: outlaws affirmative action 8. Proposition 2 was declared unconstitutional in 2012­ making Grutter the law 9. 2014 Supreme Court reinstated proposition  a. If voters want affirmative action then so be it   Affirmative Action in Public Opinion Tends to support:  1. Compensatory action: programs that are intended to compensate individuals who have  been discriminate against in the past by helping them get additional skills, help etc.  Tends to reject:  1. Preferential treatment: denying help to those because they are “black”  Public Opinion: Citizen’s attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events.  Importance: crucial because representatives present the PEOPLE Sources of Public Opinion 1. Values: Formative of public opinion a. Political culture­ deeply held beliefs and values about how economic and  political life should be carried out Day 8 Notes 3/8/16  Political life: belief in liberty, individual freedom, rights,  democracy, political equality, civic duties, and individual responsibility.   Economic life: belief in capitalism (generally fair and efficient)  some government regulation needed, equality of opportunity­ but  do not believe in equality of results  Sources of political culture: classical liberalism, Christianity,  peaceful transfer at power, relatively egalitarian family structure  WHY HAVE WE BEEN DOMINATED BY CLASSICAL LIBERALISM???  Europe:  Left: socialism Center: classical liberalism Right: Conservatism Equality  Well fare state  Inequality  United   States :  Left: Socialism Center: Classical Liberalism Right: Conservatives    Never had an appeal to us    CL individual liberty     conservatism is gone b. Ideology  1. Liberalism­ supports greater government involvement, distribution of wealth 2. Conservatism­ less government 3. Libertarianism­ individual liberty, no government enforcing morals 4. Environmentalism – 


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