Day 8 notes
Day 8 notes 1100
Popular in THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Jo Kiess on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1100 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Dr. Foster in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM in Political Science at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Day 8 Notes 3/8/16 Brown v Board of Education: Topeka, KS “All due haste” – states had to start integrating schools 10 years later, 1% of school were integrated Massive Resistance Resistance to school integration not limited to the south Southern states started to close public schools only African Americans would attend them Whites went to private schools Little Rock, AR 1959 o Governor hired the national guard to prohibit African Americans, government called on Marshall law to get the African Americans in the school Congress was slow to act because critical congress committees were in control of white southern democrats Southern democrats dominated congress Martin Luther King JR Civil Disobedience breaking the legislative deadlock Change in public opinion: began to swing in favor of taking steps to ensure equality for African Americans By the 60’s many had tv and could see on tv how they were being treated and the public didn’t like it. Dogs were set loose Fire hoses were turned on to them JFK is assassinated communist setup o 1964 Johnson won by a landslide and the republicans were crushed in the election o Democrats could now pass a civil rights law Regaining the right to vote for African Americans 1. The Voting Right Act of 1965 later extended to linguistic groups as well as other minorities a. registration b. category i. could not change your voting laws without permission c. preclearance with the Justice Department 2. literacy tests were abolished 3. Poll taxes a. Amendment XXIV makes poll taxes illegal b. Shelby County v. Holder, 2014 Alabama County, Holder was former atty. gen. Day 8 Notes 3/8/16 Shelby County sued because they wanted to the categories, because the data was too old and no longer valid because the situation had changed Supreme Court agreed, and now no state or city or county needs permission to change election laws. Congress could recreate categories if they wanted too, but so far have decided against that. Education De facto segregation based on housing patterns African Americans tended to gather in black/white neighbors Southern states had set up voluntary programs to integrate Swann 1972 students would be bussed from the neighborhood to school and thus integrated But busses could not transport children from political boundaries – (dist 11 to 20) But then they were taken over by the federal government to handle that problem de Kalb County 1992 still pockets of segregated schools (fault of housing patterns) Control of the school districts were handed over back to local authorities Seattle 2007 Government decided that race could not be used to determine where they would go to school. Sociological data showed that students learned better from teachers of their same ethnicity. Bush NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND: every child deserves a quality education Race relations today: African Americans struggle today? 2008 Michelle Obama was campaigning on the East Coast to an allgirls schools Noticed that girls were “segregated” 2009 Erick Holder accused the nation of still being racist – ATTY GENERAL BOTH ARE AFRICAN AMERICANS “Black lives matter” Affirmative Action 1. Definition: 2. Bakke v Regions of UC Davis – med school a. Denied admission scores were higher than those accepted 3. Aderand v Pena 1965 a. Pena was mayor of Denver, Aderand was small company highway guard rails Day 8 Notes 3/8/16 b. Aderand placed a bid on a Denver contract that was given to a minority company Supreme Court said ANY discrimination based on race o STRICT SCRUITNY compelling government interest, narrowly tailored remedy 4. Hopwood – 1996 a. Unthersity of Texas and affirmative actions b. 5 circuit court of appeals Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi 5. Grutter 2003 a. Undergrad affirmative action program i. Trying to encourage people from all over the state to come to the University of Michigan b. Underrepresented areas got points (not race or gender) just location c. Law school treat all applications unique, evaluate EVERY application and letters of recommendations, essays, undergrad GPA’s only in final phase do they look at gender and race because it was compelling government interest that both genders and all races can attend GRUTTER OVERTURNED HOPWOOD 6. Fisher v Texas 2013 a. Mrs. Fisher claims she was discriminated against by University of Texas 7. Michigan2006: Proposition 2: outlaws affirmative action 8. Proposition 2 was declared unconstitutional in 2012 making Grutter the law 9. 2014 Supreme Court reinstated proposition a. If voters want affirmative action then so be it Affirmative Action in Public Opinion Tends to support: 1. Compensatory action: programs that are intended to compensate individuals who have been discriminate against in the past by helping them get additional skills, help etc. Tends to reject: 1. Preferential treatment: denying help to those because they are “black” Public Opinion: Citizen’s attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events. Importance: crucial because representatives present the PEOPLE Sources of Public Opinion 1. Values: Formative of public opinion a. Political culture deeply held beliefs and values about how economic and political life should be carried out Day 8 Notes 3/8/16 Political life: belief in liberty, individual freedom, rights, democracy, political equality, civic duties, and individual responsibility. Economic life: belief in capitalism (generally fair and efficient) some government regulation needed, equality of opportunity but do not believe in equality of results Sources of political culture: classical liberalism, Christianity, peaceful transfer at power, relatively egalitarian family structure WHY HAVE WE BEEN DOMINATED BY CLASSICAL LIBERALISM??? Europe: Left: socialism Center: classical liberalism Right: Conservatism Equality Well fare state Inequality United States : Left: Socialism Center: Classical Liberalism Right: Conservatives Never had an appeal to us CL individual liberty conservatism is gone b. Ideology 1. Liberalism supports greater government involvement, distribution of wealth 2. Conservatism less government 3. Libertarianism individual liberty, no government enforcing morals 4. Environmentalism –
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