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by: Laury Kreiger


Laury Kreiger
GPA 3.93


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Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laury Kreiger on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 3043 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/206674/ans-3043-university-of-florida in Animal Science at University of Florida.




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Date Created: 09/18/15
Notes 9 Placenta Development and Function 1 11 HI Formation trophectoderm trophpblast cells from the placenta with the help of the germ layers endoderm mesoderm and ectoderm Anatomy of the placenta a Chorion trophoblastic capsule of blastocysts and the layered version of trophectoderm It encloses the embryo and fetal membranes and brings the allantoic vessels into proximity with the maternal blood vessels This allows for exchange in nutrients fetal waste and gas The chorionic villi bring together parts of the endoderm b Allantois diverticulum of the hind gut It fuses with the chorion to from the chorioallantoic placenta The blood vessels from the fetus connect the fetal and placental circulation c Amnion cavitation from intercellular mass It encloses the fetus in a uid filled cavity d Yolk sac early hypoblast and endodermal layer and is not active in placental layers It shrinks down during development e Umbilical cord encloses the allantoic sac and is the vascular link between the mother and the fetus Classification of placental types based on shape of chorionic villi on placental surface a Diffuse chorionic villi over almost entire surface of chorionic sac similar to Velcro i Epitheliochoriol ii No invasion into fetus iii Horses pigs camels and whales iv Includes fetal microcotyledons b Cotyledonary chorionic villi restricted to small areas found on chorionic sac i Epitheliochoriol ii Ruminants 7 all six tissue layers intact iii Combine with maternal caruncles found in uterine endometrium iv Cotyledon fetal origin caruncle uterine origin placentome c Zonary chorionic villi restricted to equatorial girdle i Dog cat ii Endotheliochoriol 7 loss of uterine epithelium and stroma d Discoid chorionic villi arranged in a circular plane i Humans primates ii Hemochoriol 7 blood bathes chorionic epithelium e Know the different tissue barriers for the maternal side and the fetal side for Endotheliochoriol Epitheliochoriol and Hemochoriol Implantation embryonic membranes come into close apposition to uterine epithelium a Interstitial embryo penetrates the uterine epithelium b Super cial placental membrane attaches to uterine epithelium farm animals 0 Know the stages of embryonic implantation in farm animals Placental function e Classical function apposition of fetal membranes to the maternal endometrium to permit for physiological exchange of gasses and other nutrients between the fetus and the mother Speci c functions of the placenta 39 Transmit and provide nutrients GI tract Exchange water and gasses Lungs Excretion of fetal waste Kidneys iv Modifies fetal and maternal metabolism maintenance of pregnancy Endocrine system v Interface of fetus and mother allow for exchange of exchange in gasses and fetal waste Circulatory system Circulatory Systems fetal and maternal circulation are separate and parallel and do not mix i Uterine blood ow maternal ii Umbilical blood ow fetal Four mechanisms to transfer substances i Diffusion simple transfers oxygen carbon dioxide sodium potassium chlorine and water It functions as homeostasis ii Diffusion facilitated transfers glucose which functions as fetal nutrition iii Active transport transfers amino acids iron calcium phosphorous and zinc This also functions as fetal nutrition iv Pinocytosis proteins antibodies are transferred These function as immunologic or immune system v Endocytosis transferrin carries iron This is the source of iron for the fetus Major Nutrients Exchanged i Blood gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide which the fetus needs for survival and metabolism ii Glucose primary source of energy and makes up 50 of nutrients It is converted into fructose by the placenta Glucose intake is under fetal insulin control iii Amino acids make up 25 of fetal nutrients It is converted into proteins by the fetus and is used for muscle and protein development iv Lipids limited because fetal fat is formed by free fatty acids transferred across the placenta v Vitamins are transferred across placenta along with minerals and both of these are under fetal control vi Antibodies do not cross over placenta in farm animals Newborns get antibodies from colostrum Humans and some other animals do however get antibodies across the placenta i ii39


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