Survey of World History to 1500- Week 9
Survey of World History to 1500- Week 9 10494
Popular in Survey of World History To 1500
Popular in Department
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carrington Johnson on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10494 at Georgia State University taught by Rachel Ernst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.
Reviews for Survey of World History to 1500- Week 9
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/12/16
Survey of World History to 1500 Day 17 (continued) March 8, 2016 Silk Road (300-1500 CE) th Herodotus “The Father of History” (5 c. BCE) The Histories - Personal Accounts - Hearsay Greece and Persia Persia’s Beginnings Indo-Aryans - Mostly herders - Farmers in the South (Perses) Irrigation Ditches - Three-caste syesterm - In the shadow of the Babylonian Empire Cyrus II The Great (r.c. 550-530 BCE) Legendary Beginnings Assumed the throne and began conquest- created and entire empire - Anatolia (Lydia) - North and West of Persia - Phoenician City-States and Babylon by 540 BCE Military - Cataphracts- heavily armed foot soldiers - Lightly-armored bowmen- on horseback - Infantry - Navy of 1,200 galley ships Administration Under Cyrus King (Shahinshah) at capital Susa Satraps (governing region) - Regional leaders in charge of gathering taxes First deposed kings and later Persian administrators - Freedom of religion Return of the Hebrews to Palestine 70 different ethnic groups 15 million people Persepolis - Administration hub and monument to the glory of the Archaemenid Empire Royal Roads Zoroastrianism Founder: Zarathustra c. 1200 BCE The Avesta (book of hymns), passed down in oral tradition by priestly cast (Magi) - Written down in ancient Indo-Aryan dialect c. 550 BCE Ahura Mazda (light, good) versus Ahirman (dark,evil) First DUALIST religion Fire altars - Five a day (sacrifices), along with prayers Funerary practices Apocalypse and Savior Heaven and Hell Dualism: [A] theological and moral perspective that devalues or denigrates the material and physical in favor of the spiritual […] At its most severe and systematized, dualism posited the existence of two oppose divine forces or gods, one that created the good and spiritual components of cosmology, and the other, a creator of the evil and material.” - Christine Caldwell ANS Dualism (in regards to Zorastrianism): Good Gods: Ahura Mazda Values: Truth, Light, Spiritual Bad Gods: Ahirman Values: Lies, Dark, Flesh/visible tangible things FOR QUIZ THURSDAY!!!!! Confucius- born in the Lu state (modern-day Shandong Province); political advisor (failed), started his own school of political thought; Analects; filial piety; lead by example; philosophy, not religion; Junzi (the perfect gentleman) Laotzi- mythical, not sure if he existed; Tao de Ching; Wu wei (Acting by not acting); Dao (the way); founder and practitioner of Daoism; a way of life; between a philosophy and a religion Qin Shi Huagdi- ruled 221-209 BCE; Totalitarian, Legalist rule; executed dissenting scholars; book burnings; standardized weights, measures, and currency; forced-labor work projects (Wall of China); Terra Cotta Warriors Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha)- turns everything on its head (in the way of religion in India at this time); all life is suffering (what the Buddha revealed after 40 days of meditation under Bodhi tree); Middle Way is revealed, Eight-Fold Path, Four Noble Truths; follow Middle Way and Eight-Fold Path to reach enlightenment and then Nirvana Chandragupta- ruled Mauryan empire, he and political advisor of Nandas attempted to overthrow the Nandas and take over, first attempt failed but second attempt did not fail because country was weak from attack by Alexander the Great (conquered Pataliputra in 321 BCE); expanded the empire; Arthushastra (similar to Machiavelli’s The Prince) written by advisor of Nandas, Kautilya; died in Janist monastery Ashoka- grandson of Chandragupta; conquered Kalinga region; converted to Buddhism because many lives were taken in conquering of Kalinga region (10,000); redefined dharma: “that which is good”- the only way to experience true happiness; advocated ahisma (non-violence); sent sons as missionaries to Sri Lanka- significant because India today is not Buddhist, but Sri Lanka still is; public works projects; universalized weights and measures, coin currency, and commercial law Day 18 March 10, 2016 Indo European migration to Greece c. 2000 BCE Mycenaean Culture vanishes c. 1150 BCE Bronze Age Collapse No Mycenae artefacts (art, writing in Linear B, etc.) have been found between 1150-900 BCE The reasons behind this abrupt decline are still obscure Although the culture and civilization collapsed, the people remained A lot of inner fighting in Mycenaean civilization and decline and fall over 300 years New City-States (polis;poleis) start to form around 800 BCE Completely self-governed United only by language, religion, Olympic Games(began in 776 BCE), and oracles Reign of the tyrants Athens (pop.200,000) Limited agricultural potential Relied on trading: wine, olive oil, fruits and nuts along with textiles to Italy for grains Democracy est. 508-c.450 Not a lot of space, surrounded by ocean on three sides so sea-based, craft and trade production and trading with locals, then Italy, economy flourishes; very impressive navy Sparta (pop,140,000) Agriculture-based econonmy Rule by two hereditary kings Council of 30 citizens Military lifestyle- very strict and dedicated Greece versus Persia Ionian City-State Rebellion (492-490 BCE) Persia had control over entire Ionian coast Supported by Athens Battle of Marathon (490 BCE) Athens vs. Persia, Athenian victory Battle of Thermopylae (480 BCE) Spartan-led coalition vs. Persia, Persian victory All Greeks killed, slaughter Lasted three days Persians marched to Athens and burned the city down Battle of Salamis (480 BCE) Athenian Naval Fleet vs. Persia, Athenian victory Outnumbered again but superior ships Athenian ships and some ships from other city-states led by a Spartan Persians Greek Military Hoplites- individual soldiers Phalanxes- rows of eight men with shields at front and spears at the ready, tightly packed, impenetrable wall Galley ships with bronze battering-ram (outnumbered by Persian 2:1) Delian League and Fallout Golden Age of Athens- period between Battle of Salamis and next Persian attack League of 200 poleis led by Athens Defended Greek city-states against on-going Persian threat Funneled most of the League’s finances into building up Athens Spartans call this Athenian empire, don’t like this, strike up an offense Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) and Aftermath Sparta defeated Athens after nearly 30 years of fighting Plague of Athens Persian-financed navy With Persia’s help, Athens defeated Sparta in 386 BCE King’s Peace ended with semi-autonomous Greek city-states that would acknowledge Persia as their leader Greece doesn’t really come under banner of Persia; becomes client-state; have to pay tribute to Persia; lasted 50 years Alexander the Great and the Spread of the Hellinistic World Macedonia- consider themselves Greek (native to the land) but not considered to be so by Greeks (Indo-European/Mycenaean mix) Philip II (382-336 BCE) Built Macedonian Army - Reorganized phalanxes - Proto-crossbows - Bolt-shooters/catapults Conquered Athens and Thebes in 338 BCE Invited Greek philosophers back to his court Declared war on Persia Assassinated
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'