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Bio Lecture Notes 3

by: Kate Hoffman

Bio Lecture Notes 3 Bio 102

Kate Hoffman
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Covers the Nervous System lecture notes
Inquiry Into Life Human Biology
Dr. Carr
Class Notes
Biology, Human Biology
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Hoffman on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Carr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Inquiry Into Life Human Biology in Biology at University of Mississippi.

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Date Created: 03/12/16
Bio Lecture Notes 3/9/16 CH 24 – Nervous System and the Senses (& the Endocrine System) Organ systems specialized to coordinate communication Nervous System: detects, interprets, and responds to stimuli quickly Endocrine System: produces hormones and works with the nervous system to control bodily functions; works slowly The nervous system is divided into two subsystems: 1. Central nervous system (CNS) -brain and spinal cord -interprets signals received from the PNS -signals the PNS to stimulate a motor response 2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) -nerves that connect the brain and body -sends information to the CNS Neurons: interconnected cells that communicate through electrical impulses; -primary cell of the nervous tissue -composed of a cell body, dendrites, axon, and myelin sheath Cell body: contains organelles Dendrites: branches that transmit information towards the cell body Axons: stems that conduct nerve impulses away from the cell body Myelin sheath: Synapses: junctions between nerve and other cells (a gap) Neuroglia: support neurons Nervous tissue: composed of neurons and neuroglia -detect stimuli and convey information throughout the body -located in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Types of neurons based on function Sensory Neuron: conducts messages from CNS to muscles Interneuron: connect one neuron to another; resides only in the CNS Motor Neuron: receives information and causes a reaction based upon the message sent to the muscle ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Action Potential: the ability to convey messages Membrane Potential: When neuron transmission is based on electrical charge differences across a membrane of a neuron; 3 stages: 1. Resting potential: moment before impulse changes 2. Threshold potential: 3. Action potential: “jump” from gap to gap in the sheath; the gaps allow for the signal to move faster (ex: sodium potassium pump) Resting Potential: when a neuron is at rest -Inside is – (negatively charged proteins) -Outside is + (positively charged ions) Action potential: when a signal is conveyed by a charge changing to positive (through the diffusion of positive sodium ions) inside the neuron The signal moves as the charge changes along the neuron: Dendrite cell body axon Neurotransmission: an impulse is conveyed between cells at a synapse 3 components of a synapse (junction/gap): 1. The sending neuron 2. The receiving cell 3. The synaptic cleft (space between cells) Synaptic terminals: tips of axons made up of vesicles -the vesicles have chemicals called neurotransmitters, which travel across the synapse and bind to receptor proteins in the receiving cell membrane. Lecture Notes Continued 3/11/16 Neurotransmission 1. Action potential arrives at synaptic terminal’ 2. vesicle laded with neurotransmitter fuses with sending neuron’s membrane 3. Nerutotransmittet are releasedint synaptic cleft 4. Neruotransmitters bind to receptor proteins in receiving celll’s membrane, stimulating ion channerls to open A neurotransmitter then may diffuse away from the cleft, be destroyed by an enzyme, or be taken up again Reuptake: after use, a neurotransmitter is taken up by the sending cell again Neurotransmitters: found throughtout the nervous system; the brain uses at least 100 different kinds -the initiate or modify a variety of actions, moods, feelings, or other sensations -they act on a receiving cell to either increase a chance of action potential or decrese the chance of action potential (excitatory or inhibitory) Too much/too little = illness physical or mental Common neurotransmitters Acetylcholine: cardiac, skeletal muscle stimulation Norepinephrine: brings nervous system to “high alert” Epinephrine: affects heart rate, blood vessel, and airway diameter, metabolism Dopamine: involved in reward and pleasure centers; helps regulate movement Serotonin: affects sleep, appetite, anxiety, and mood; feelings of contentment Glutamate: learning and memory Page 484 for more examples Peripheral Nervous System 2 motor pathways: Autonomic and somatic Somatic: controls voluntary movement through skeletal muscles Autonomic: signals involuntary muscle and gland tissue (not conscious) through smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands; 2 pathway systems for autonomic are sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; always active to maintain homeostasis Parasympathetic: “rest and repose” controls the processes of digestion and elimination of waste (heart rate and breathing rate slows) Sympathetic: “fight or flight”; controls response to stress; increased heart rate and breathing rate, additional blood flow to muscles


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