New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio Lecture Notes 2

by: Kate Hoffman

Bio Lecture Notes 2 Bio 102

Kate Hoffman
GPA 3.9

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Lecture Notes covering the Immune System
Inquiry Into Life Human Biology
Dr. Carr
Class Notes
Biology, Human Biology, immune system
25 ?




Popular in Inquiry Into Life Human Biology

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Hoffman on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Carr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Inquiry Into Life Human Biology in Biology at University of Mississippi.


Reviews for Bio Lecture Notes 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/12/16
Bio 102 Notes Lecture 3/4/16 Chapter 29 – The Immune System Immune system- a widespread collection of cells and chemicals that defend the body against infection, cancer, and foreign substances. Defends the body against pathogens (disease-causing agents) The immune system consists of: White blood cells: diverse functions  Phagocyte: engulfs bacteria and debris (Example: macrophage)  Lymphocyte: coordinate immune response; attack infected or cancerous cells (Example: natural killer cell attacks cancerous/virus-infected cells)  Basophil: triggers inflammation  Mast Cells: similar in function to basophils, but settle in tissues (specifically near skin, digestive tract, and respiratory system) rather than circulate in blood like other white blood cells. Lymphatic system: collects fluid that leaks from blood vessels, removes bacteria, debris, and cancer cells& returns liquid to blood Lymph: colorless fluid of the lymphatic system Lymph capillaries: absorb interstitial fluid and delivers it to larger lymph vessels Lymph passes through lymph nodes, which remove foreign substances from lymph; each node contains millions of lymphocytes (Example: B and T cells) Lymphoid Organs: organs that produce, accumulate, or aid in the circulation of lymphocytes Misc. Proteins Tonsil: Thymus: site where t cells mature Bone marrow: Produces blood cells Spleen: produces, stores, and releases white blood cells Appendix: Skin: Blocks pathogen entry The immune system has 2 subdivisions 1. Innate defenses: provide broad defense against any pathogen; always active, immediate response; nonspecific 1 line of defense: Physical and chemical barriers (skin, mucus, ear wax, tears, stomach acid) Skin Epidermis: outermost physical barrier, made up of many layers of dry, dead cells. Dermis: houses nerve endings, sweat and oil glands, and the blood vessels that nourish both skin layers Internal innate defenses/2 ndline of defense: Macrophages: consume pathogens by phagocytosis and activate adaptive immune response/promote fever (“Pac-Man”) Natural killer cells: destroy body cells that have become cancerous or infected with a virus Basophils: white blood cells that provoke inflammation; release a chemical called histamine, which causes inflammation. Histamine: dilates blood vessels, causing them to become more permeable to fluids and white blood cells; aka “leakier”. (DO NOT CAUSE FEVER) Inflammation: recruits immune components, helps clear debris, and creates an environment hostile to microbes. (Red; swollen; warm; painful) White blood cells produce complement proteins, which puncture bacterial cells membranes Complement proteins: Other proteins participate in the innate immune system. For example, some cytokines cause a rise in body temperature called fever; high body temperature counters microbes\ Cytokines: (Ex: interleukins) messenger proteins that bind to immune cells and promote cell division, activate defenses, or otherwise alter their activity. “Sound the alarm”; they can also cause fever, which inhibits microbial growth and reduces the iron level in blood to starve off bacteria and fungi. Phagocytes also become more active in higher temperatures Resident Microbes: on skin, in gut, and other places; help prevent pathogens from colonizing 2. Adaptive immunity: immune cells recognize and remember specific pathogens to fight against later; specific to particular pathogens; delayed response, but is strongest and fastest for dealing with previously encountered pathogens Lecture 3/7/16 Review the immune system’s functions from last lecture Innate defenses: skin and mucus membranes (1 line of defense) Adaptive immunity defends against specific pathogens (2 ndline of defense) Antigen: the target of an adaptive immune response/a molecule that stimulates an immune reaction by B cells and T cells. Adaptive immunity is divided into 2 subcategories: humoral immunity and cell- mediated immunity Macrophages trigger both cell-mediated and humoral immunity Adaptive Immunity Process First, a macrophage engulfs a bacterium and dismantles it. Antigens from the bacterium that is engulfed are displayed on the macrophage surface. The macrophage travels in lymph to a lymph node, and a helper t cell initiates and coordinates the adaptive immune response; Helper t cells recognize antigens and bind to antigens on the macrophage Activated helper t cells divide and organize into either memory cells or effector cells (which release cytokines) Cytokines activate both the cell-mediated and the humoral immune responses In cell mediated immunity, cytotoxic t cells attack and kill invaders with direct contact; they also bind to antigens on bacteria/cancer/viral cells, then release toxic chemicals to kill the suspicious cell In humoral immunity, there is a reliance on antibodies, which are proteins that recognize specific antigens; cytokines activate b cells, triggering clonal selection which produces an ‘army’ of b cells, each secreting identical antibodies corresponding to one antigen Antibodies bound to antigens ‘deactivate’ pathogens, making them more obvious to macrophages, and activate complement proteins Passive immunity: an individual receives antibodies from another individual (ex: breast milk, anti-venom) Active immunity: results from the body’s own production of antibodies Both cell mediated and humoral immunity produce memory cells that recognize previously encountered pathogens; Because of these memory cells, the secondary immune response works faster and stronger than the first (ex: vaccines) Vaccine: stimulates active immunity against pathogens without causing illness; contains antigens that ‘teach’ the immune system to recognize pathogens that are introduced; memory cells linger after the initial exposure Homework Notes 3/5/16 Antigen: any molecule that stimulates and immune reaction by b and t cells. Most antigens are carbohydrates or proteins. Ex: bacterial cell wall or proteins on the surface of a mold spore/pollen grain They also produce antibodies: y-shaped proteins that recognize specific antigens Helper T Cells: “master cells” of the immune system because they initiate and coordinate the adaptive immune response. These bind with an antigen-presenting macrophage. The bonded cell then divides into multiple identical copies, some of which are called memory cells. Memory cells: remain in the body long after the initial infection is gone (may either be t or b cells); launch a quick immune response towards their ‘remembered’ anti- gens that the immune system has already encountered Cell-mediated immunity: relies on defensive cells kill body cells that are defective/infected by a pathogen Humoral immunity: relies on secreted antibodies in the bodily fluids Cytotoxic t cells: provide cell-mediated immunity by physically binding to and destroying ‘suspicious cells’ (cancerous, damaged, foreign). Activation requires a cytotoxic t cell to bind to a cell presenting an antigen. Afterwards, a cytotoxic t cell divides, and the cells differentiate into memory cells and effector cells. Cytokines help with this process of cell division. This process can complicate surgeries involving organ transplants, etc Memory B cells: stimulate a strong secondary immune response and are produced by activated b cells Clonal Selection: an activated b cell divides rapidly and generated an army of memory calls and plasma cells that are clones of the original b cell Plasma cells: produce antibodies Antibodies: are the main weapons of humoral immunity. These large proteins circulate freely in blood plasma, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Their function is to attract pathogens in the body’s fluids, not in the infected cells. Can be made up of four polypeptides; 2 identical light chains and 2 identical heavy chains. Together, these chains form a “Y” shape Constant regions: have amino acid sequences similar to all antibodies Variable regions: differ a great deal among antibodies Vaccine: a treatment that contains parts of pathogens and triggers an immune response to the pathogen without causing illness The immune structures of a cell-mediated immune responses bind to antigens presented on the outside of bod cells whereas the immune structures of a humoral immune response typically bind to antigens of pathogens


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.