Week 8 notes
Week 8 notes History 1B
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Circa A.D. 843 to circa 1715
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Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1B at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Mcclendon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Circa A.D. 843 to circa 1715 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Politics government and religion in the later middle ages Monday, February 22, 2016 11:03 AM Many dimensions of European life underwent dramatic changes during this period There were signs of recovery despite all of the tragedy Difficulties with the institutional church, changes in economic and religious life show that Europe was on the way to recovery Political and military life Represents a reversal of earlier trends we have seen Centralization process to bring territory and people under control of the monarchy' When a leader was strong and confident, things went pretty well. If they weren’t strong and confident, were underage insane or didn’t have an heir, power went to regents and progress was lost Monarchy was threatened by varying quality of leadership Economic problems caused concerns as well o Wars were very expensive and put economic strains on the monarch o Kings could raise taxes, but needed the consent of his subjects o He could borrow money, but if he was unable to pay it back he wouldn’t have that opportunity later o Plundering was another option, but wasn’t favorable because it led to corrupt leaders France came close to being conquered by England Hundred years war (1337-1453) o Period of intermittent warfare o Caused by the age old rivalry between France and England o Battles of Crecy and Poitiers During these battles where many people died, the black death was also spreading throughout Europe and there was a lot of looting o The French changed strategy by focusing on small battles rather than large ones and were more successful as England started to lose more territory o The English people were starting to become annoyed with the war and they eventually kicked King Richard II out of power o Charles VI (The Mad) Had to give up his son and give up the throne French guy? Lol I don't know o Joan of Arc She came and helped gain victories for the French , was eventually killed at the stake because she was a woman Unam Sanctam (1302) Struggle between the pope and the king over power King Philip brought enough pressure on the papacy that the power of the pope was severely weakened o The new pope, clement V, repealed the unam Sanctam Papacy moves to Avignon and stayed there for centuries o Anti-papal sentiment began to develop o Gregory XI moved back to Rome because the people thought that Great Schism Council of Pisa o Rome and Avignon popes deposed o Third pope was named, a three way schism ensued Recovery Changes in economic life o The black death was devastating to the economy, but after it we can start to see some growth and improvements o Banks became more popular. New methods for bookkeeping and moneylending Books were developed as sort of manuals for banking o Hanseatic League Informal association of over 100 trading cities dominant in northwestern Europe Not as robust or complex as the Mediterranean, but was still successful o Jacob Dugger Prominent person in the spice trade, his family was a bunch of bankers Eventually was controlling all money transfers in the holy roman empire to and from the Papacy o Innovation sin Agricultural life Lower rents and increased wages in the wake of the black death Higher standard of living for laborers and small farmers Before, their diet consisted mostly of bread. They were able to eat more because of lower food prices o Cloth making Innovations in cloth making allowed lower class people to boost their income by making cloth in the winter when their fields were frozen Initially England was a supplier of raw wool, eventually this declined while the export of finished cloth was increasing o Woman workers Increasing number of urban guilds across Europe that limited the ability of women to take over their husbands trade when he died Wealthy townsmen were less inclined to let their wives and daughters work in some of the fields where they were previously able to Changes in the church o Confraternities o Corpus Christi o Anchoress o Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life o Devotio moderna Renaissance Rome Wednesday, February 25 2016 Early Reformation Martin Luther o 95 theses o Not very radical o Luther hated the Dominican monk selling indulgences, (indulgence controversy) o Read bible in a new way. Humans couldn’t earn salvation through good works alone-faith/grace o Justification by faith- sola fide o Good works/sacraments destraction from faith PopLeo X condemned Luther o Luther resisted- diet of worms 1521 o Said papacy had no authority over him Luther’s Theology o Justification of faith o Ultimate authority of the bible o Priesthood of all believers- unmediated relationship with God is okay o Translation of bible into German- no difference between a devout lay person or a priest Why how? o Tempo of criticism picked up o Church unable to reform/respond o Humanim/Christian humanism Exposed elements of church that weren’t working Erasmus (ceremonies empty, but without proper training people could harm themselves Insistence that the bible should be available for everyone to read themselves o Newer outlets of lay piety Allowed people to articulate spirituality without the assistance of a priest Undermined monasticism and the power of priests Stressed simplicity/ humility as a reaction to the corruption and wealth of the church o Weaknesses in the papacy Corruption, war, lost spiritual credit, simony, ignorance of clergy Things to Keep in mind o Dispute within Christendom o Used to only one religion, so huge change and conflict o Many believed there could only be one religion, had less energy to persecute Jews o Reformation had profound impact- no area of life untouched o Many opposed the reformation, even church’s critics Spread of Luther’s Ideas o Availability of printing press, books were intitially very expensive. Went from block printing to moveable type. For the illiterate, there were pictures and woodcuts o Humanist support o Urban support- cities had grivances bc the clergy was exempt from taxes and had better land o Peasants- interpreted message of freedom as freedom from lords o Lack of strong authority o Charles V was a very bad guy. Controlled most of Europe and fought with France and Turkey o By the time he turned his attention, ½ the empire was Lutheran. 1555 Peace of Augsbus. The church fractured for good but not too much traction elsewhere Significance o Split up united Christendom, caused serious wars, everything in Europe had religious dimension for next 200 years o Difficult interpretations of protestants o Weakened HRE and strengthened England o People come to believe religious truth not possible to obtain Counter Reformation o Not simply a response, trying to address issues Protestant didn’t address o Urgency to moral reform o Monks began to specialize in preaching around 1525 o Jesuits- 1540 founded by Ignatious Loyola o No distinctive clothing, high standards- very hazardous assignments, secret missions o Council of Trent
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