Week 9 Notes
Week 9 Notes History 1B
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Circa A.D. 843 to circa 1715
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1B at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Mcclendon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Circa A.D. 843 to circa 1715 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Expansion in Africa Monday, February 29, 2016 11:11 AM The Portuguese were interested in exploring Africa in order to increase trade with these areas and find a direct trade route so they didn’t need to rely on Muslim merchants as middle men Vasco de Gama Pedro Alvares Cabral 1464-1520 Both Portuguese traders who brought back spices and jewelry and sold it for huge profit Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) Sailed under a Spanish flag but was actually Italian He was convinced that Asia could be reached by sailing due west, also thought he was on a god given mission to find this new trade route He asked the French, Portuguese, and English for support but they didn’t back him up He landed in central America in the Bahamas and Cuba Ferdinand Magellan He went all over to the Philippines and areas near there Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) Went to Cuba, left and went to conquer the Aztec empire Determined to establish Christianity in what is now Mexico Syphilis and Smallpox Diseases spread from both the new world and the old world Fevers, the flu, influenza, devastated the indigenous populations Led to an increased need to import African slaves to work the land Plants and Animals Cows, goats, sheep, pigs, chickens were brought to the new world where they thrived o When they were let loose in the Caribbean, they multiplied very quickly o Quickly became staples of the peoples diet Horses were brought to the new world and allowed people to travel long distances much more quickly Clover, peaches, artichokes went to the new world The new world provided chocolate, tomatoes, potatoes, Reasons for going to the New World Hope of finding precious metals Christian conversion Trade routes to Asia Internal factors that prompted exploration Technological advancement o New ships and fishing equipment Economic growth o More people with a disposable income that can fund these expedition Population increase Why Portugal and Spain? Population pressures Increasing wealth of monarchies New outlets for energies Eventual success technological advantages Political and organizational skills Flexibility and autonomy in decision making Impact of Expansion It took a couple centuries for Europeans to achieve the dominance over Asia and America that we are familiar with It was not total and complete domination right away. It was a gradual process Economic impact o Broke up the monopoly of the Arab and venetian spice trade Intellectual impact o Bartolome de las casas Defended the idea of the humanity of the people encountered in the Americas Condemned the brutality inflicted upon these people Said that all people who live on the earth must be treated under a natural law o Juan genes de Sepulveda Thought that the "Indians" were not actually people, but rather were human-like and therefore didn’t have these rights Missionaries saw themselves as protectors of the Indians because they thought they would convert and assimilate into western culture War, Politics, and Religion in 16th century Europe Wednesday, March 2, 2016 11:07 AM Peace of Augsburg 1555 Made permanent the division of Christendom Said that the ruler of a land got to determine the religion that land would practice This had already been going on in practice but this codified it Religious conflict shifts Away from the holy roman empire, toward western Europe Intensifying struggle for Protestantism Geneva became a refuge for protestants who were kicked out of their country Many parts of Europe descended into armed conflict as the churches fought Internal conflicts were present along with transnational conflict Catholic and protestant churches struggled against each other in France, the Netherlands, and England In the latter half of the 16th century there is a struggle between England and Spain over supremacy in Europe The French wars of Religion 1562-1598 Francis and henry were very strong capable rulers with many resources, but it soon became clear that the success of France was correlated with their individual personalities Henry II was killed accidentally by a jousting tournament and was succeeded by his sons Some people such as the Medici’s used religion as a justification for the fighting Calvinism was the name of the branch of Protestantism in franc o Followers were known as Huguenots o Appealed throughout all segments of French society and had followers from every social class o 40-50% of French nobility converted, making it a potentially dangerous political force in France o They were well organized and had the support of nobles, making them seem very dangerous to those who opposed them Catherine de Medici o Married to Charles IX (1560-1574) o Interested in religious compromise in order to alleviate the political tension in France o Leaders form the two sides wanted to dominate one another Constitutional crisis for the French Became more complicated because of the intervention of outsiders o Philip II of Spain supported the catholic side, Elizabeth of England supported the protestant St Bartholomew's Day Massacre o August 24 o 30,000 French died War of Three Henries 1588-89 Henry of Navarre, later henry IV o Took the throne but this was a problem because he was protestant and the majority of France was catholic o He converted to Catholicism in order to keep ruling o Attempted to solve religious problems by offering the Edict of Nantes (1598) Acknowledges Catholicism as the official religion of France, but allowed for religious toleration and freedom Henry Duke of Guise Henry III o Assassinated by a monk Philip II Became king of Portugal in 1580 Very rich and powerful because he had a lot of land all over the world The Netherlands Consisted of 16 provinces No real political bond between them, except that they had a common ruler of Philip II from Spain Northern and southern provinces spoke different languages Open to a lot of different influences due to its position Some people were Lutherans, Baptists, Catholics Philip wanted to expand his control in this area but there was considerable opposition to this from the lower countries o They feared they would lose the freedom they enjoyed o Philip wanted to eradicate religions other than Catholicism William "the silent" of Orange o 1533-1570 o 1566 iconoclasm Statues from catholic churches were being destroyed o Philip sent the Duke of Alva to go against them, but the rebels were able to organize o He eventually pulled out because there wasn’t much success Duke of Parma o Unable to eradicate Protestantism like he was hoping to do Elizabethan England She ruled from 1558-1603 During her rule England rose as the leading protestant country Very reluctant to adopt the role of champion of the protestants Her mother was executed when she was 3, father was Henry VIII and died in 1547. After henry died, her brother Edward and sister Mary were rulers before Elizabeth was Created a protestant church for England Catholics was strong among the aristocratic class Puritans and Presbyterians Elizabeth didn’t want to help the rebels because someone might come and help the rebels in England Also she didn’t want the Netherlands to come under control of France Eventually sent actual help to them Spain was threatening Elizabeth’s throne by helping the Irish defend themselves against English domination Spanish Armada 1588