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Week 7 Book Notes

by: Cassidy Zirko

Week 7 Book Notes Chem 143

Cassidy Zirko

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About this Document

Covers how to analyze buffer systems
General Chemistry 2
Dr. Cracolice
Class Notes
Chemistry, Chem, Gen Chem
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 143 at University of Montana taught by Dr. Cracolice in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Montana.


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Date Created: 03/12/16
Week 7, Prof. Cracolice, Chem 143  Chapter 58: How are Characteristics of a Buffer Solution Determined? 3/11/16 58.1 How are Characteristics of a Buffer Solution Determined?  Reactions are catalyzed by enzymes, effectiveness of most enzymes is very sensitive to  pH   What Determines the pH of a Buffer? WK−¿ + HWk o [H O3]=K  x a ¿   ¿ o K  ia constant, concentration of hydronium ions depends entirely and proportional to the ratio of acid concentration to the base concertation  o Ratio constitutes fixed pH­ determining ratio of desired pH  o Helps if K  and desired hydronium concentration is known  o Ration calculated must be maintained in translating measured quantities of acid  and conjugate based   What Determines the Capacity of a Buffer? o Quantity of weak acid and weak base in buffer solution­ greater quantity of base  or acid to buffer that can effectively be consumed without a large change in pH  o Buffer capacity­ amount of added acid or base needed to change pH of 1 liter of  buffer solution by 1 pH unit  o Need to distinguish between buffer capacity of pH at which solution is buffered  o Magnitude of numerator or denominator  in ratio determines buffer capacity   How is a Buffer Selected? o Many things can weigh into a chose a buffer  o 1­ species in the buffered system must not interfere with system being buffered   When buffering inorganic system, must be sure anion does not precipitate  any of the cations in solution over the pH range in which the system will  be buffered  o 2­ buffer pH should be within 1 unit of pKa of the acid in the acid­ conjugate base buffer system  ­ ­  pH=pKa –log[A/HA] or pH=pKa+log[HA/A ] (Henderson­Hasselbech  equation)  when the pH=pKa then the concentration of the conjugate base and acid  have equal concentrations   ideal buffer­ weak acid and weak base are equal   pKa of weak acid is different from the solution pH ration of weak acid to  conjugate weak base has to be very large or very small  Week 7, Prof. Cracolice, Chem 143  o 3­ quantity of acid and base in the buffer system should be approximately equal to or 10 times greater than the quantity of strong acid or base expected to be added   Buffer system must have sufficient quantity of acid and base to completely react with base or acid. 


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