PROFESSNL ORIENTATION EML 4920
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Class ElVlL 4920 Professional Orientation Date September 7th 2006 Instructor Roberto Albertani PhD Subject Engineering in the Global Arena General Concepts Globalization is not a new phenomenon Carthage 750 BC to 146 BC Rome 509 BC to 476 AD the Ottomans 1300 to 1922 several European powers and mercantile citystates had multicontinental trading networks made possible by a combination of economic power military power and the latest technology at those times At certain stages in their history they all outsourced elements of pro duction education and even armies Eventually however these globalizations collapsed often because of the political and economic consequences of war 1 Globalization is linking national economies in new ways Nations are transi tioning from distinct economic entities to essential segments of one global econ omy Likewise business competition comes from everywhere requiring engineers to develop a global perspective To be successful in this global environment you must develop personal so cial business and cultural global skills Cultural etiquette is particularly important As stated by Rosen and Digh 2001 quotin the new borderless economy culture doesn t matter less39 it matters morequot 2 Your Global Skills Checklist As an engineer in today s global workforce you must be able to complement your technical skill with many other critical skills including Being able to analyze other cultures needs and design products and services to fit those needs Understanding the business environment of the countries where your products and services are made bought or sold Imagining forecasting analyzing and addressing the potential of local economies Learning about other countries key business and political leaders and being aware of their philosophies 9 Understanding local negotiating strategies international banking and foreign currency exchange Designing according to the appropriate standards and codes Understanding other locales environmental issues Guide for Undergraduate Student One interesting source of information is the Global Engineering Education Exchange httpwwwiieorg an international program designed specifically for undergraduate engineering stu dents This website provides a wealth of information for engineering students who want to study abroad In addition the Global Journal of Engineering Education http wwweng monash edu auuiceegjeeglobalj htm publishes a variety of articles about education for global engineering careers How to Pursue an International Career There are two fundamental options Q In Situ foreign company or institution which means a direct employment in the foreign country Local multinational company which means oversea assignment or employ ment in an owned local company US Department of State wwwstategov offer info on traveling living and working abroad The Three Golden Rules Language uency always an advantage but NOT essential English is widespread across the globe as a lingua anca but learn a little of local language Understanding tolerance and respect for other cultures however is ALWAYS ESSENTIAL Engineering Globalization 3 Localization has always been one of the defining characteristics of the engi neering ethos The fundamental object of engineering practice is to meet a set of specifications a word that explicitly acknowledges the primacy of the specific over the general the local over the global Localization manifests itself in engineering in two primary and interrelated ways First engineers routinely and intentionally engage in processes of methodological localization That is under the umbrella of engineering methodology there exist a diversity of techniques and procedures aimed specifically at Q reducing the scope and complexity of a given problem to a minimum level in order to affect a practical and timely solution These techniques just to name a few include making simplified assumptions idealizing constraints subdividing systems and isolating control volumes Methodological localization is in large part what allows engineers to be successful Writes Bucciarelli better with fewer elements abstraction and reduction go hand in hand in this business Sparseness characterizes a good workable model Second J engineering problems are themselves objectively local each one comprising a unique set of requirements constraints and in uencing fac tors independent of the methods used to address the problems Example power generating and distribution system solve the local problem does not automatically solve the same problem for all people everywhere Of course there can be universal engineering knowledge that is much of the knowledge and reasoning that went into the design of the one power system can also be applied to the design of other such systems Neverthe less objective localization ensures that the application of that knowledge is always concentrated on local conditions and their transformation Appropriate technology a topic often associated with the globalization of engineering is itself an embodi ment of this fact with its emphasis on matching engineering solutions to local conditions Much engineering knowledge and reasoning particularly that which is scien tifically based is universally applicable But this statement can make the mistake of equating engineering with its scientific and instrumental content only There are also the organizational economic environmental social and tem poral elements of engineering and it is this side of engineering that is fundamen tally local and unique ls Engineering localization and engineering globalization an inherent contradiction The contradiction is nothing more than semantics Globalization can have a purely descriptive meaning one that simply recognizes the facts of the increasing interde pendence of national economies the diffusion of technology and technological ac tivity across international borders and the intersection and integration of cultures The domain in which engineering activity occurs has been enlarged and with that enlargement has come a concomitant expansion in the types of prob lems constraints and environments encountered How to achieve a worldwide similarity in quality for goods and services for fair market competition STANDARDS is the answer A worldwide network of countries implementing general and specific regula tions or codes accepted and certified by a common organization ISO International Organization for Standardization is a global network that identifies what International Standards are required by business government and society develops them in partnership with the sectors that will put them to use adopts them by transparent procedures based on national input and delivers them to be implemented worldwide ISO a nongovernmental organization is a federation of the national stan dards bodies of 157 countries one per country from all regions of the world in cluding developed developing and transitional economies ISO standards specify the requirements for stateoftheart products services processes materials and systems and for good conformity assessment managerial and organizational practice ISO standards level the playing eld They make transparent the requirements that products must meet on world mar kets as well as the conformity assessment mechanisms for checking that those products measure up to standards As a result suppliers from developed and devel oping countries alike can compete on an equal basis on markets everywhere ISO also maintains close working relations with regional standards organiza tions many of whose members also belong to ISO In addition several hundred specialized organizations representing trade or regulatory sectors participate in de veloping ISO standards ISO has a current portfolio of 16 077 standards that provide practical solu tions and achieve benefits for almost every sector of business industry and tech nology References l The Bridge linking engineering and society National Academy of Engi neering Fall 2005 2 T Malkinson The Global Engineer Succeeding without Boundaries IEEE Today s Engineer Online June 2003 3 B Newberry Engineering Globalization Oxymoron or Opportunity IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Fall 2005
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