Bio 103 Human Anatomy Brain Structures and Functions Part 2
Bio 103 Human Anatomy Brain Structures and Functions Part 2 Biology 103
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Chalker on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 103 at California State University Chico taught by Gary Arnet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
The Brain Structure and Function Part 2 Primary Cortex= Regions that receive input directly from the sense organs or brainstem. They issue motor fibers directly to the brainstem Association Cortex= 75% of cortex o Composed of other regions other than the primary cortex o Involved in interpretation of memory, sensory input, planning motor output, and thought Generally, a primary cortex will have an association cortex adjacent to it Primary Somatosensory Area= Sensory sensation Postcentral Gyrus= Found in parietal lobe Primary Motor Area= Found in frontal lobe Diencephalon Region 1.Thalamus o Ovoid mass at the superior portion of the brain and brainstem o Composed of 23 nuclei o Gateway to cerebral cortex o Passage for sensory input, motor control, memory, and emotion 2. Hypothalamus o Major control center of Autonomic Nervous System and Endocrine System 3.Epithalamus o Creates melatonin o Is a thin roof over the 3 ventricle o Pineal Gland= An endocrine gland (pinecone shaped) Cerebellum o 2nd largest part of the brain o Contains more than half of all brain neurons o Subconscious evaluation of sensory input o Monitors body movements o Coordinates muscle movements and balance Gross Anatomy of Cerebellum o Cerebellar Hemispheres (similar to cerebral hemispheres) o Vermis (bridge) similar to Corpus Callosum o Arbor Vitae= Gray and white matter (looks like a tree) o Has deep nuclei Midbrain o Cerebral aqueduct passes through other structures o Central gray matter o Corpora Quadrigemina= Has inferior and superior colliculi o Substantial Nigra= Suppresses unwanted muscle contractions Medulla Oblongata o Foramen magnum to pons o Contains nerve fibers going in between the brain and spinal cord o Nuclei found in cardiac center, vasomotor center, and respiratory center o Cannot live without it Pons o In charge of basic physiologic functions such as sleep, respiration, and bladder control o Contains cranial nerves Cranial Nerves o Part of the Peripheral Nervous System, but often in the Pons o 12 pairs of nerves arising from the base of the brain o Exit foramina in the skull o Most spaces in the skull are openings where cranial nerves go through 2 Cranial Nerves I. Olfactory= Smell II. Optic= Sight III. Oculomotor= Moves the eye IV. Trochlear= Moves the eye V. Trigeminal= Big nerve in forehead, nose, chin area. Muscles of mastication (chewing) VI. Abducens= Abducts the eye VII. Facial= Muscles of facial expression VIII. Vesibulocochlear= Hearing IX. Glossopharyngeal= Tongue and throat. Goes to all organs X. Vagus= Big nerve. Leaves the neck area to the chest and abdomen XI. Accessory= Goes to trapezius and sternocleidomastoid XII. Hypoglossal= Goes to the tongue. Motor to tongue 3 Autonomic Nervous System (Visceral Motor System) Motor nervous system that controls glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle (involuntary) Primary Targets o Organs of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity o Responsible for visceral reflex (salivating before eating food) o Also controls some body wall structures such as blood vessels, sweat glands, and pilierector muscles Visceral Reflex o Unconscious automatic response to stimulation o Involves visceral receptors (nerve endings that sense something) and the effect on effectors (muscles and glands) o Receptors detect stretching, tissue damage, blood chemicals, body temperature, and internal stimuli Division of the Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Division o Readies the body for physical activity o Fight or flight response o Responds to arousal, competition, stress, danger, anger, and fear Parasympathetic Division o Calming effect on body functions o Rest and digestion o Normal bodily maintenance Autonomic Tone= Balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions Dual Innervation o Contains nerve fibers from both divisions o May have antagonistic or cooperative effects 4 o Found in contractile muscles in the iris and pupil of the eye 5
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