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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Notetaker on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3373 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Maria Monserud in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Comparative Family Stuctures in Sociology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
The Importance of Ethnic Families in America….In this class we talk about cultural differences. It can be related to the origin of where your family is from or on the basis of religion. Why is it important to talk about immigration? How other ethnicities contribute to America. Lecture #1: Immigration greatly contributes to America, people have concerns about the ethnic groups in the US. People stereotype ethnic groups based on comparison to mainstream American culture. Today mainstream America is focused on the history of immigration, Characteristics of immigrants since the 1960’s …increasing numbers of non-European immigrants…example: Hispanics…people look different and bringing in different identities and belief systems. There is also the issue of undocumented immigrants. There is also the possibility of terrorist attacks. People who are native born to the US also have demonstrated concern about the new waves of immigrants. This creates stereotypes and negative outlooks to poor economic conditions in the US. Example: Those immigrants may have a fear of no employment. Perceptions among the mainstream American public immigrants: Bringing serious social problems for American society, do not speak English, most do not assimilate to American culture. This can also apply to long standing immigrants already residing in the US. Current conditions about the effect of immigration on American values, the economy, and the American way are not new. Issues/concerns about immigrants with different cultural practices have remained the same. Native-born Americans and longer-established immigrants have been bothered by the cultural distinctiveness or “differences” or newcomers. The Colonial Period (1492) through (1860) Concerns about German and Irish immigrants and their different cultural practices. European persons had different issues with other European immigrants that differ from that of mainstream England. 2ndWave of Immigration (1860-1920)…28 million people immigrated from Eastern Europe and southern Europe because they were culturally different, they had bad social character, they were poor… they had darker complexions and they were not Protestant but Catholic and Jewish. The Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Halted Chinese Immigration, they were not allowed to enter the US. Native Americans were slaughtered or removed. The Immigration and Nationality Acts of 1921 and 1924 which emphasized cultural and racial in nature and “Nordic” supremacy by cutting off immigration from all but northwestern European countries until 1965. Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965…Most serious biases were eliminated such as national origin. First preference to individuals reuniting with their families, did not apply to Mexicans not until 1976. Exceptions for several groups of refugees could come in greater numbers. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986…This act made it illegal to knowingly hire or employ undocumented immigrants. Requires employers to attest to their employees’ immigration status, however, allowed a one-time amnesty for undocumented immigrants. This made it possible for those long standing illegal residents to become US citizens. Native and African Americans…faced oppression, institutional inequities, racism. They have been discriminated against by the way they look and cultural differences. In the case of the Native Americans, indigenous people, American Indians were subjected to malice. European settlers overtook their land by genocide, colonization, and forced relocation. African Americans were forced into slavery and subjected to Jim Crow laws. Jim Crow Laws….these were legal in Southern States, racial segregation laws enacted between 1876 and 1965 in the US…Mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states, A “separate but equal” status for AA led to inferior conditions for AA economic, educational and social disadvantages…In Northern states, not legalized but patterns of segregation in housing, bank lending practices and job discrimination. The Jim Crow laws got its name from a person who sang a song with a black face poking fun at African Americans States with the largest immigrant population: Texas Importance of Ethnicity: Important for how people live their lives and raise their families, new immigrant groups with importance of ethnic institutions, maintain their traditions while adjusting and coping in a foreign land, and earlier established ethnic groups can recall and celebrate their ethnicity as family occasion…the differences to “public sphere” vs. “private sphere”…in public it is necessary to speak and assimilate to the dominant culture, such as the American culture, however, in the private sphere, one keep and gets the chance to embrace its home culture without reserve. It also provides them with support; whether tangible, emotional, spiritual to be proud of your ethnicity…family is important. This is necessary after being in the “public sphere”. Assimilation is not the preferred PARADIGM! Immigrants give up their cultural ways, beliefs, and languages and adopt the American way of life; becoming Americanized. Today it is not required to fully assimilate to the dominant culture as before. Those values have been modified their ethnic traditions, may appear slightly modified but still identifiable. There is also the considerable within-group diversity exists; factors are geographical locations…example: If a Hispanic family is the only one of their ethnic group, it will make it hard for them to assimilate, SES matters because new immigrants flock to their own so that they can make it or at least comfortable to survive, date of entry to the US…Dual or multiple ethnic heritage… Many conflicts seem to occur because of basic cultural differences among groups of people …basically people are willing to die for “primordial (fundamental) attachments”-their ethnic ties; can be anything such as religion, language, dialect, customs, and values…. What does it mean to be “ethnic”? (Define according to PP) …People have the basic need to belong and be accepted, the desire of having strong stable relationships with others within in the same ethnic group, however, it has become “fragmented and shattered” due to massive population increases, development of large cities, and formation of social classes…in the case of massive population- in urban areas where it is more difficult to get to know people as that of less industrial areas (social control to avoid deviantancy)…larger cities (an established ethnic community)… A continuing need to merge their individual identity with some ancestral group “Their own kind of people”, in the US as sense of “PEOPLEHOOD”…In the past, people were asked to give up their “heritage” to become AMERICANIZED! All this took place before the 1970’s….Integrative aspects of ethnic ties and culture, such as a respect of another culture, like discipline of kids, actually learning how to assimilate to immigrant ideas…Immigrants were frowned upon with the belief that they would be better off if they gave up their “inferior” beliefs and ties….basically to assimilate into the mainstream American culture…There was also the issue of “stereotyping”…which are still practiced today although less prevalent. ETHNOCENTRISM: Judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one’s own culture. Example: Believing that your social group does things the correct way while others are incorrect… Since the 1970’s there is a new appreciation of multicultural diversity, ethnic pluralism, and ethnic differences…there is also a major shift in attitudes in assimilation; it is more simplistic, oppressive, and ethnocentric with the value of distinctive ethnic cultures is recognized and individuals can assert their ethnic heritage (this keeps an immigrants identity and heritage)… There were reasons for changes in attitudes with the “Liberation” movements: The Black Civil Rights Movement and the Women’s movement… Persistence of Ethnicity: ethnic ties are not a useless cultural artifact and many reasons to maintain ethnic ties with new immigrants that have longer-established immigrants that important for a lifetime, for example, the cultural heritage can still be examined even if one is out of touch. The model of assimilation and melting pot was dominant before 1970… wanting all the differences of ethnic differences to disappear, to merge into a homogenous society and was in use by the 1780’s, however, this “melting pot” did not fare well, people lost their heritage and the rise of discrimination and prejudice emerged…for many Americans, this reality was unattainable, for example, slavery of other cultural groups, genocide of another group, some immigrants banned from the US, social forces prevented assimilation. Multiculturalism has been a preferred model since 1970: the cultural differences within society are valuable and should be preserved and an alternative metaphor to a melting pot to that of the “mosaic or salad bowl” although a salad is mixed you can still identify the ingredients. This is a simulation to the new American culture by using this paradigm. Ethnic communities are important because it ties one to one’s own kind of people, personalizing an increasing impersonal world, opportunities for social mobility ad success within an ethnic context, protection, and exchanges of support and resources. Families help maintain ethnic identification and solidarity; socialization of the family members into the ethnic culture and shape behavior…the persistence of the ethnic family and the ethnic family and the ethnic group in the US depends on the HISTORICAL BACKGROUND (the time when the group arrived and the conditions under which the groups started living in the US)…an ethnic culture is expressed through families and events or activities… family is a CONSERVATIVE “INSTITUTION”: cultural elements related to family life, replacing themselves from generation to generation such as, eating ethnic food is a part of the ethnic identity and the traditional ethnic values are found in the family… Ethnic culture is generated, sustained, expressed, and becoming influential throughout family life, responsible for socialization of its members and helps individuals to express and maintain their ethnic/ cultural identity. Dill: Women of Color and the Struggle for Family Survival (Coontz: Ch1) 1. Why and how did the slave family represent a tension in the master-slave relationship? How did African-American slaves preserve their culture through family practices? Provide examples of “fictive kin”. 2. What particular burdens did Chinese women face in split-household families? What did US laws at the time have to do with these burdens? Define the terms “sojourning” and “paper son”. 3. Dill argues that traditional Chicano culture faced several assaults in the 19 th century. What were these assaults? Define compadrazgo. How did compadrazgo strength Chicano culture in this period? 4. Why does Dill argue that women of color faced a “double bind” in 19 centuryh America? How did middle-class white women escape this double bind?
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