SOC100 Weeks 7-8 Lecture Notes For Exam 2
SOC100 Weeks 7-8 Lecture Notes For Exam 2 SOC100
Popular in Sociology 100: Introduction to Sociology
Popular in Sociology
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Wright on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC100 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Rebecca, Sandefur in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Sociology 100: Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Soc 100 Lectures for Exam 2 Methods of sociological inquiry -research question -concepts -data The General Social Survey: -around since 1972 -now conducted biennially -n=1500 in each administration represents the nation Experiments: -start with a hypothesis -find ways to “control for” other things that might affect the outcome of interest Slave systems of stratification -Chattel slavery -human trafficking -b/c it’s your property, you can do anything you want with it -Debt bondage/bonded labor -fixed or definite term -sell yourself to another person as a way to pay off debt, if you don't pay it off it goes to your kid -Forced labor Class systems of stratification -elite class, upper class, middle class, lower middle class, poor class Class Ala Weber classes are groups of people with a common relationship to the marketplace… Some factors that distinguish classes from each other for Weberians -Income and other kinds of play -labor market opportunities Class ala Marx -classes are groups of people who share a common relationship to the means of production -ownership of means of production Marx’s theory of social class -ownership In contemporary capitalism, ownership and control are often separated. so some of the proletariat have control, while others don’t Marx made modern -identify class positions, based on… Subculture: beliefs, values, ways of understanding the world, ways of communicating, normative patterns of behavior that are peculiar to a particular subgroup in a large society style of life: tastes, preferences… Meritocracy and equal opportunity -meritocarcy -ability + effort =merit -achievement= f(merit) -rewards=f(merit) Social Mobility: Intragenerational: mobility within a generation (your lifetime) -ex of studies: careers, earnings and trajectories, job mobility, promotions -adverse childhood experiences: early death, disease, disability, and social problems, adoption of health risk behaviors, social emotional, and cognitive impairment, disrupted neurodevelopment, adverse childhood experiences -on scale form conception to death Intergenerational: mobility between generations Legitimation of Inequality: -beliefs, norms, values, ideology beliefs: ideas about what’s real and what’s not real -miasmas cause disease -barnacle geese come from barnacles -the earth is pretty much round -hard work leads to success -remember the Thomas Theorem: beliefs do not have to be accurate to have effects in the world Values: shared ideas about what is good, desirable, worthy, as opposed to bad, undesirable, worthless -ex: honesty, loyalty, physical toughness, intelligence Ideology: constellations of beliefs that are an idealized reflection of what people experience and do. These beliefs are not an exact replica of what happens, but are “normative average”: certain (not all) aspects of what happens on average come to be taken as what does happen or ought to happen -ideologies contain a particular point of view -pick up different aspects of society and spin them in a particular way -emphasize some things, but not other things Subjective Illusions: incorrect perceptions of reality due to faulty sense of organs or misuse of working sense organs -color blindness -something wrong with your perceiver Objective Illusions: incorrect perceptions of reality that arise from more or less accurate perceptions of what one can perceive -the sun rises over the horizon each morning -happens when everything is going just fine -see facts and tell a story about them and everything makes sense, but it’s all fundamentally round -take facts that are around us and put them together in ways that are coherent with the facts, but they’re just wrong, not crazy Social Reproduction: the process by which the divisions and inequalities found within a social group or society are replaced across time and across generations Two aspects: 1. Structural Replication: look at it day to day and everything is the same 2. Intergenerational Inheritance: how do we fill those statuses? are you going to be in the same status as your parents, or have a different one?? Opportunity Structure -the chance or likelihood of doing certain things, achieving certain goals, or receiving certain rewards -define the possible -the menu of options (menu is not made up of us) -these chances or likelihoods are shaped by many forces that are outside an individual’s control -we think of the chances to become x as an opportunity structure -if x is a position where you work for pay, then we can divide the opportunity structure into two parts 1. the “pipeline” of x-creation 2. The labor market for fully-fledged x’s ex: professional basketball -pipeline: the number and distribution in social space of opportunities to develop basketball skills Public Interest Law -share of entering law students who say they want to work in public interest jobs after graduation: -30-60%, depending on the school and the study -share of ALL law jobs that are public interest jobs -1.5% Structural Replication: Reproduction of the form of the social structure -ex: in a capitalist society, the relative proportions pretty stable over time -ex: the share of all law jobs that are public interest jobs could hold pretty steady Intergenerational Inheritance: Inheritance by individuals or groups of particular social positions -ex: when children go into the same line of work as the parent Social Reproduction theories: -correspondence theory: theres a class structure to society and the stuff in that society are parts of the structure -understandings about you that make you fit into the workplace high structural determination = cast system -learning divided into subjects -work divided into jobs -students divided hierarchically -workers divided hierarchically -students motivated by extrinsic -workers motivated by extrinsic rewards rewards (grades), rather than interest (money) rather than interest or pleasure in or pleasure in mastery work -students learn to compete for top spots -cultural approaches: -bourdieu, bernstein, paul willis -High individual agency -Bourdieuian social reproduction theory: -habitus: tastes, dispositions, the way you understand the world -learn by experience -carry it with you -stable disposition Cultural capital -knowledge, skills, attitudes, tastes, experiences, personality traits -that are…fungible (exchange for other things in life (ie. money)), ranked in ways that advantage dominant groups Occupational prestige as a measure of social class: -high -architects, pharmacists, judges, physicians -upper middle -accountants, grade and high school teachers -lower-middle -telephone repair-people, airplane mechanics -low -truck drivers Annette Lareau (unequal childhoods): -middle/professional classes Working/poor classes -parental authority: negotiation, Parental authority: directives, customize no debate Social Class and Language Use -Restricted code: -when people interact frequently, “restricted code” can emerge. Grounded in shared culture, experience and understandings, much is implied, rather than stated, and outsiders can find it difficult to understand -ex: slang -elaborated code -“stands on is own”… Aspirations and expectations: -aspirations: people’s hopes or wishes to do or be or achieve something -outcomes and wishes don’t always add up -expectations: pals predictions about what they are likely to do or be
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