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Module 7

by: Brittany Woody

Module 7 EXP3604

Brittany Woody

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About this Document

Notes from the lecture for module 7
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Stagner
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXP3604 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Stagner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.


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Date Created: 03/12/16
Wednesday, March 9, 2016 Chapter 7 Long-term Memory: Encoding, Retrieval, and Consolidation - Encoding: acquiring information and transforming it into memory - Retrieval: transferring information from long-term memory (LTM) to working memory - Maintenance rehearsal: repetition of stimuli that maintains information but does not transfer it to LTM; like remembering a phone number just long enough to use it - Elaborative rehearsal: using meanings and connections to help transfer information to LTM - Levels of processing theory: memory depends on how information is encoded; depth of processing: • shallow processing: little attention to meaning; focus on physical features; poor memory • deep processing: close attention to meaning; better memory - Example of levels of processing: participants asked whether there are capital letters in presented word; also rhyming and fill in the blanks; each condition requires more processing; fill in the blanks category had best memory because it used the highest level of processing • Beware of circular reasoning: depth of processing has not been defined independently of memory performance; can argue that participants processed at a deeper level because they performed better; can’t separate performance from effect - Visual imagery - Self-reference effect: associate words with oneself - Generation effect: generate some information yourself to memorize; works better than when someone gives you information; seen in fill-in-the-blank exercise - Organized to-be-remembered information: organization improves memory - Relating words to survival value - Retrieval practice: frequent testing; like notecards 1 Wednesday, March 9, 2016 - Bransford & Johnson (1972): presented participants with difficult- to- comprehend information; split participants into 3 groups • experimental group 1 first saw a picture that helped explain the information • experimental group 2 saw the picture after reading the passage • control group did not see the picture - Group 1 outperformed the others; having a mental framework of comprehension aided memory encoding and retrieval; seeing picture before reading the passage worked best for memory; imagery - Which results in a stronger memory trace? re-reading the material or being tested on the material - Roediger and Karpicke (2006) tested this; had participants read a passage and then either • reread the passage (rereading group) • take a recall test (testing group) - Then tested recall after a delay; testing group performed better - Testing effect: testing oneself will result in a higher memory trace than someone who only rereads material - Retrieval: process of transferring information from LTM back into working memory (consciousness) • most of our failures of memory are failures to retrieve the information - Cued-recall: cue presented to aid recall • increased performance over free-recall retrieval cues most effective when created by the person who uses them • - Encoding specificity: we learn together with its context - Baddeley’s (1975) “diving experiment”: best recall occurred when encoding and retrieval occurred in the same location; underwater vs. on land; test better on land when you learn on land; reform better underwater when you learn underwater 2 Wednesday, March 9, 2016 - State- dependent learning: learning is associated with a particular internal state; better memory if person’s mood at encoding matches mood at retrieval; emotional state the same during retrieval and encoding - Distributed versus massed practice effect: difficult to maintain close attention throughout a long study session • distributed: over a long period of time • massed practice: cramming - Studying after a break (distributed) gives feedback about what you already know - Transforms new memories from fragile state to more permanent state • synaptic consolidation occurs at synapses, happens rapidly • systems consolidation involves gradual reorganization of circuits in brain - Muller and Pilzecker’s experiment: in the immediate condition, subjects used the first list and then immediately learned the second list. In the delay condition, the second list was learned after a 6-minute delay. The delay resulted in better memory - Hebb: learning and memory represented in the brain by physiological changes at the synapse - Long-term potentiation (LTP) • enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation • structural changes and enhanced responding - Anterograde amnesia: amnesia for events that occur after an injury; the inability to form new memories - Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory for events prior to the trauma - Graded amnesia: memory for recent events is more fragile than for remote events - Reactivation and reconsolidating evidence from research on animals; occurs under certain conditions - Human memory is a “work in progress”; no memory is ever truly permanent, always subject to change - Elaborate: associate what you are learning to what you already know - Generate and test: the generation effect; generate cues and test yourself 3 Wednesday, March 9, 2016 - Take breaks: memory is better for multiples short study sessions (the spacing effect); consolidation is enhanced if you sleep after studying (no all nighters) - Avoid the “illusion of learning”: familiarity does not mean comprehension 4


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