GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSY 2012
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jabari Douglas on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at University of Florida taught by Nicole Dorey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/206714/psy-2012-university-of-florida in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
OBJECTIVES CHAPTER 7 1 Define and give an example of explicit and implicit memory Discuss the series of experiments on explicit and implicit memory see Explicit and Implicit Memory 2 3 10 1 H 1 N Define the levelsofprocessing model of memory Describe the role of rehearsal in this memory model Define maintenance and elaborative rehearsal see Models of Memory Define the transferappropriate processing model Describe the role of encoding and retrieval processes in this memory model see Models of Memory Define sensory memory and sensory registers Discuss the amount of information and the length of time it stays in sensory memory see Sensory Memory Define immediate memory span and chunking Discuss the role oflongterm memory in the chunking process see ShortTerm Memory and Working Memory Define longterm memory lLTM and discuss the importance of semantic encoding in longterm memory Describe the storage capacity of LTM Discuss how longterm memories including ashbulb memories can become distorted see LongTerm Memory Describe the controversy over the differences between shortterm and longterm memory Define primacy and recency effects see Distinguishing Between ShortTerm and LongTerm Memory Explain how memory is both context dependent and state dependent and give examples of each Explain the mood congruency effect see Context and State Dependence Define the tipofthetongue phenomenon and thefeeIingofknowing experience Explain how these are related to the semantic network theory of memory see Retrieval from Semantic Memory Compare and contrast the decay and interference theories regarding forgetting information stored in longterm memory Define retroactive and proactive inhibition see Why Do We Forget The Roles of Decay and Interference Describe the synaptic activity associated with forming new memories Describe the role of the hippocampus in episodic and procedural memory formation see The Biochemistry of Memory Explain why distributed practice is more effective than massed practice Describe the PQ4R method and its use Describe the best method of taking notes in a lecture see Improving Your Memory CHAPTER 8 13 14 15 1 0 1 l 1 OO 1 D 2 0 Define concept Describe the difference between formal and natural concepts and give an example of each Explain the role ofprototypes in natural concepts see Concepts Define propositions schemas scripts and mental models and describe their role in the thinking process see Propositions see also Schemas Scripts and Mental Models Define reasoning formal reasoning algorithms rules oflogic and syllogisms Discuss the causes of errors in logical reasoning see Thinking Strategies see also Formal Reasoning Define informal reasoning and heuristics Describe and give an example of the anchoring representativeness and availability heuristics see Informal Reasoning Describe the problemsolving strategies incubation meansend analysis working backward and analogies see Strategies for Problem Solving Explain why multiple hypotheses mental sets functional fixedness ignoring negative evidence and confirmation bias can hinder problem solving Give an example of each see Obstacles to Problem Solving Describe the sources ofbias and aws in decision making in regard to perceptions of utilities losses and probabilities Be sure to include Ioss aversion and gambler sfallacy see Biases and Flaws in Decision Making Define phoneme morpheme and word Give an example of the phonemes and morphemes in a word see The Elements of Language 21 Define syntax and semantics Explain how syntax and semantics help us comprehend language see The Elements of Language 22 Describe language development in children Define babblings the oneword stage telegraphic speech and complex sentences see The Development of Language CHAPTER 10 23 Explain the scoring methods used in the Binet test and StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale Discuss the history of intelligence test or IQ test construction see A Brief History of Intelligence Tests 2 1 25 N Fquot 2 l 2 OO 2 D 3 O 3 H 3 N Describe Wechsler s intelligence test Explain why it is different from tests that were used previously Explain the components of the verbal and performance scales see Intelligence Tests Today Define statistical validity as well as content criterion predictive and construct validity see Validity Discuss the possible interpretations of evidence from correlational twin studies on the role of heredity and the environment in the development ofintelligence see IQ Scores as a Measure of Innate Ability Describe the conditions that can raise IQ scores Explain why a teacher s expectancies can affect students classroom performance and improvement see Conditions That Can Raise IQ Scores see also IQ Scores in the Classroom Describe the informationprocessing approach to studying intelligence Describe the role of attention in intelligent behavior see The InformationProcessing Approach Describe the triarchic theory of intelligence Define analytic intelligence creative intelligence and practical intelligence see The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Explain Gardner s theory of multiple intelligences List the eight types of intelligences he proposed see Multiple Intelligences Describe the types of changes in intelligence that occur with aging see Focus on Research Methods Tracking Cognitive Abilities over the Life Span Define learning disability Describe the types oflearning disabilities and their possible causes see Learning Disabilities CHAPTER 11 33 3 1 35 3 0 3 l 3 OO 3 9 Define instinct Discuss how instinct doctrine explains behavior Explain why instinct theory failed Describe the evolutionary approach and its views of mate selection see Instinct Theory and Its Descendants Define homeostasis Led drive and drive reduction theory Explain what behaviors drive theory can and cannot account for see Drive Reduction Theory see also Optimal Arousal Theory Define hunger and satiety List the nutrients and hormones that the brain monitors in the bloodstream as it regulates hunger and eating Explain the role of the ventromedial nucleus lateral hypothalamus and paraventricular nucleus in hunger and eating Define set point see Hunger and Eating Describe the survey ofhuman sexual behavior and discuss its findings Describe the sexual response pm Name the three prominent sex hormones Explain their organizational and activational effects see The Biology of Sex Define achievement motivation Describe the characteristics of achievement motivation and the factors that can affect its development see Need for Achievement Describe the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect job satisfaction and dissatisfaction Give an example ofa job that has been designed to increase satisfaction and motivation see Achievement and Success in the Workplace Describe Maslow s hierarchy of needs Give examples of each kind of need Explain how the existence relatedness growth ERG theory addresses some of the problems with Maslow s theory see Relations and Con icts Among Motives 40 4 H 4 N Describe the role of the brain in emotion and facial expressions Describe how the parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system are involved in emotional experience including the fight ight reaction see The Biology of Emotion Discuss James s peripheral theory of emotion Give an example of how an emotion would occur according to this theory see James s Peripheral Theory Describe the SchachterSinger theory as a modification of James s peripheral theory of emotion Define attribution and give an example see Cognitive Theories CHAPTER 13 43 4 4 4 4 l 48 4 D 5 O 4 S 0 Define stress stressors and stress reactions Give examples of stressors Be sure to include a catastrophic event a life change or strain a chronic stressor an acute stressor and a daily hassle see Stress and Stressors Describe some common emotional cognitive and behavioral stress responses Explain how ruminative thinking catastrophizing mental sets andfunctionalfixedness are linked to stress see Psychological Responses Explain why the appraisal of stressors their predictability and a perception of control can reduce the impact of stressors see How Stressors Are Appraisedquot see also quotPredictability and Control Discuss the role of coping resources and methods in combating stress Give examples of problem focused and emotionfocused coping strategies see Coping Resources and Coping Methods Describe the components of the immune system Discuss the relationships among the immune system the nervous system the endocrine system and stress see Stress Illness and the Immune System Define hostility and outline the evidence relating hostility to heart disease see Stress Illness and the Cardiovascular System see also Thinking Critically Does Hostility Increase the Risk ofHeart Disease Define health promotion Describe the four factors in Rosenstock s healthbelief model Explain the role of selfefficacy in altering behavioral health risks see Promoting Healthy Behavior Describe the five stages in changing behavioral health risks see Changing Health Behaviors Stages of Readiness CHAPTER 14 51 52 53 54 55 5 0 5 1 Define and describe the nature and function ofthe egg and superego Define libido the pleasure principle and the reality principle see Id Ego and Superego Name define and describe the psychosexual stages ofpersonality development Compare and contrast the Oedipal and Electra complexes see Stages in Personality Development Explain some of the neoFreudian variations on Freud s theory Include Jung s Adler s and Horney s ideas see Variations on Freud s Personality Theory Describe some applications and criticisms of the psychodynamic approach to personality see Evaluating the Psychodynamic Approach Compare and contrast Allport s trait theory and the five factor Bi Five model Define Allport s central and secondary traits and the BigFive dimensions of openness to experience conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness and neuroticism see Allport s Trait Theory see also The BigFive Model of Personality Describe biological trait theories Compare and contrast Eysenck s biological trait theory and Gray s approachinhibition theory Define Eysenck s dimensions ofintroversionextroversion and emotionalitystability and Gray s behavioral approach system and behavioral inhibition system see Biological Trait Theories Describe Rotter s expectancy theory Bandura s reciprocal determinism and perceived selfefficacy and Mischel s cognitive person variables see Prominent SocialCognitive Theories 58 Describe the humanistic approach to personality and how it has progressed research in positive psychology see The Humanistic Approach 59 Compare and contrast Rogers s self theory and Maslow s growth theory Define Roger s use of actualizing tendency positive regard selfconcept congruence and conditions of worth Define Maslow s use of deficiency and growth orientation see Prominent Humanistic Theories 60 Discuss the difference between projective and nonprojective personality measures and give an example of each see Assessing Personality CHAPTER 15 61 Describe the three criteria for abnormality Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each criterion Describe the practical approach and impaired functioning see What Is Abnormal 62 Define diathesisstress model and explain how it integrates elements of the four other explanations for psychological disorders see DiathesisStress as an Integrative Explanation 63 Define phobia and give a briefdescription of specific phobia social phobia and agoraphobia see Phobia 64 Define somatoform disorder Give a briefdescription of conversion disorder hypochondriasis somatization disorder and somatoform pain disorder see Somatoform Disorders 65 Define dissociative disorder Compare and contrast fugue reaction and dissociative amnesia Describe dissociative identity disorder see Dissociative Disorders 66 Define affective disorders Give a brief description of major depression delusions and dysthymic disorder see Mood Disorders see also Depressive Disorders 67 Describe the relationship between depression and suicide List the general guidelines for determining ifa person might commit suicide see Suicide and Depression 68 State the causes according to various theoretical models of affective disorders Describe how learned helplessness and attributional style may contribute to depression see Causes of Mood Disorders 69 Define schizophrenia Describe the disorganized thought and language characteristic of schizophrenia Give examples of neologisms loose associations clang associations and word salad see Schizophrenia 70 Name the five subtypes of schizophrenia Describe the positive symptoms and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia see Categorizing Schizophrenia 71 Define personality disorder Give a brief description of schizotypal avoidant narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders see Personality Disorders CHAPTER 16 72 Definefree association manifest and latent contents of dreams and transference Discuss the ways in which these methods of psychotherapy reveal clues about unconscious mental processes see Classical Psychoanalysis Describe the difference between Freud s original psychoanalysis and modern variations Describe some of the methods used in contemporary psychoanalysis Discuss the criticisms ofpsychoanalysis see Contemporary Variations on Psychoanalysis 7 Describe clientcentered therapy or personcentered therapy Define and discuss the importance of acceptance empathy active listening re ection and congruence in this therapy see Client Centered Therapy 8 Explain the basic assumptions of Gestalt therapy Discuss how this approach differs from client centered therapy see Gestalt Therapy 74 Define systematic desensitization ooding and other exposure therapies modeling social skills training and assertiveness training positive reinforcement token economy programs extinction punishment and aversion conditioning Give an example of each Specify the type oflearning 7 DJ 7 U1 7 0 7 l 7 OO 79 classical or operant conditioning each method is based on see Techniques for Modifying Behavior Define and discuss rationalemotive behavior therapy cognitive restructuring stress inoculation training Beck s cognitive therapy cognitive distortions and mindfulnessbased cognitive therapy see CognitiveBehavior Therapy Define group family and couples therapy Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each see Group Family and Couples Therapy Discuss the results of research that has attempted to evaluate psychotherapy s effectiveness see Evaluating Psychotherapy see also Thinking Critically Are All Forms of Therapy Equally Effective Describe the historical and present use of electroconvulsive shock therapy ECT see Electroconvulsive Therapy Define neuroleptic antipsychotic antidepressant lithium and anxiolytic Specify the psychological problems each group of drugs is used to treat Explain the side effects of these drugs and how each works within the nervous system see Psychoactive Drugs CHAPTER 17 80 8 H 8 N 8 DJ 8 1 8 U1 8 0 8 l 88 8 D 9 O 9 H Discuss the difference between temporal and social comparisons Describe the relationship of reference groups to the process of selfevaluation including upward and downward social comparison Define relative deprivation see Social Comparison Define social perception Describe the in uences including the role of schemas on impression formation Explain why impressions are difficult to change see Social Perception Define selffulfilling prophecy Discuss the relationship between selffulfilling prophecies and impressions see SelfFulfilling Prophecies Define attribution Describe the three criteria consensus consistency and distinctiveness used in making attributions and explain how they in uence whether we make an internal or external attribution see Explaining Behavior Attribution Define the fundamental attribution error and the ultimate attribution error and give examples Define the actorobserver effect and the selfserving bias and give examples of each see Biases in Attribution Define unrealistic optimism and unique invulnerability Describe the ways in which social cognition is selfprotective see The SelfProtective Functions of Social Cognition Discuss how attitudes are formed and changed Include the mere exposure effect and the elaboration likelihood model of attitude change see Forming Attitudes see also Changing Attitudes Define cognitive dissonance and describe the process of reducing cognitive dissonance see Cognitive Dissonance Theory Compare and contrast the motivational cognitive and learning theories of stereotypes and prejudice Define the authoritarianism social categories and illusory correlation see Theories of Prejudice and Stereotyping Describe the contact hypothesis Discuss the specific conditions necessary for the contact hypothesis to hold true see Reducing Prejudice Describe the in uences of the environment similarity and physical attractiveness on attraction Define the matching hypothesis see Keys to Attraction Describe Sternberg s triangular theory oflove Discuss the differences among romantic love companionate love and consummate love Describe the predictors of strong versus weak marriages see Analyzing Love see also Strong and Weak Marriages CHAPTER 18 92 Define and give examples of social facilitation and social interference Describe the social factors that in uence motivation and define social loafing see Linkages Motivation and the Presence of Others 93 9 1 95 u 9quot 9 l 9 00 Compare and contrast conformity and compliance Describe the role ofnorms in conformity and compliance see Conformity and Compliance Explain the strategies for inducing compliance includingfootinthedoor technique doorintheface procedure and lowball approach see Inducing Compliance Name and describe the factors that in uence obedience see Factors Affecting Obedience Define the frustrationaggression hypothesis Describe the role of generalized arousal and excitation transfer in aggression see Frustration and Aggression Discuss how the arousal costreward theory explains helping behavior Describe the characteristics of situations in which people would or would not be likely to display helping behavior Define bystander effect and diffusion ofresponsibility see Arousal CostReward Theory Define zerosum games Describe the four main causes of interpersonal con ict Explain why managing con ict effectively is better than trying to eliminate it see Interpersonal Con ict
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