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by: Jabari Douglas


Jabari Douglas
GPA 3.97

Brian Howland

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Brian Howland
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jabari Douglas on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at University of Florida taught by Brian Howland in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/206715/psy-2012-university-of-florida in Psychlogy at University of Florida.




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Date Created: 09/18/15
Chapter 12 Social Psychology How Others Influence our Behavior 1 Why we conform i Conformity change in behavior belief or both to conform to a group norm as a result of real or imagined group pressure b The Sherif Study and informational social influence i When alone judgments for light distance varied greatly When in a group all agreed on one distance ii Informational social influence influence stemming from the need for information in situations in which the correct action orjudgment is uncertain iii Stems from our desire to be right in situations in which the correct answer is not clear c The Asch study and normative social influence i One line compared to three others Obvious answer ii When alone always picked the right answer iii When in group where others picked wrong answer 75 conformed some of the time while overall participants conformed 37 of the time iv Normative social influence influence stemming from our desire to gain approval and to avoid the disapproval of others d Situational factors that impact conformity i Unanimity of the group They didn t want to go against a full room of opposite answers ii Mode of responding voting aloud vs secret ballot iii More conformity is observed from a person who is of lesser status than the others 2 Why we Comply i Compliance acting in accordance with a direct request from another person or group b The foot in the door technique i Compliance to a large request is gained by preceding it with a very small request ii Signed a petition then are willing to put up ugly sign iii Communist POWs came out being ok with communism because they brainwashed c The door in the face technique Compliance is gained by starting with a large unreasonable request that is turned down and following it with a more reasonable smaller request Success is due to our tendency toward reciprocity Making mutual concessions d The lowball technique i Compliance to get a costly request is gained by first getting compliance to an attractive less costly request but then reneging on it Car dealerships e The that s not all technique i Compliance to a planned second request with additional benefits gained by presenting this request before a response can be made to a first request 3 Why we Obey i Obedience following the commands of a person in authority b Milgram s basic experimental paradigm i Stanly Milgram s obedience studies done at Yale University in the early 1960s ii Participants took switch up to 450 volts despite screaming c Milgram s initial obedience finding i 625 continued to obey the experimenter and administrated the maximum shock ii In a pilot study without any auditory screams 100 went all the way d Situational factors that impact obedience i Physical presence of the experimenter 1 If the experimenter left or gave his instruction over the telephone obedience dropped to 20 2 The prestige and authority of the university setting did contribute to obedience rate e The quotAstrotenquot study i Nurses told to give lethal dose to patient ii 2122 nurses did not question the order f The Jonestown massacre i Almost 1000 followers drank poison laced coolaid ii People looked to others to define the correct response which meant that they followed the lead of those who quickly and willingly drank the poison Drinking the poison seemed to be the correct thing to do quotherd mentality 4 How Groups Influence Us a Social facilitation i Facilitation of a dominant response on a task due to social arousal leading to improvement on simple or welllearned tasks and worse performance on complex or unlearned tasks when other people are present b Social loafing and the diffusion of responsibility i Social Ioafing tendency to exert less effort when working in a group toward a common goal than when individually working toward the goal ii Diffusion of responsibility lessening of individual responsibility for a task when responsibility for the task is spread across the members of a group c The bystander effect and the Kitty Genovese case i Bystander effect probability of a person s helping in an emergency is greater when there are no other bystanders than when there are other bystanders d Deindividuation i Loss of self awareness and selfrestraint in a group situation that fosters arousal and anonymity e Group polarization and groupthink Strengthening ofa group s prevailing opinion about a topic following group discussion about the topic Groupthink mode of group thinking that impairs decision making because the desire for group harmony is greater than a realistic appraisal of the possible decision alternatives How We Think About Our Own and Other s Behavior 5 How We Make Attributions i Attributions the process by which we explain our own behavior and that of others b Attributions for the behavior of others i Fundamental attribution error tendency as an observer to overestimate internal dispositional influences and underestimate external situational influences on other s behavior ii Primacy effect information gathered early is weighted more heavily than information gathered later in forming an impression of another person iii Selffulfilling prophecy our behavior leads a person to act in accordance with our expectations of that person c Attributions for our own behavior i Actorobsenler bias tendency to overestimate situational influences on our own behavior but to overestimate dispositional influence on the behavior of others As observers our attention is focused on the person so we see him as the cause of the action As actors our attention is focused on the situation so we see the situation as the cause of the action ii Self serving bias the tendency to make attributions so that one can perceive oneself favorably False consensus effect tendency to overestimate the commonality of one s opinions and unsuccessful behaviors 2 False uniqueness effect tendency to underestimate the commonality of one s abilities and successful behaviors 6 How Our Behavior Affects Our Attitudes a When our behavior contradicts our attitudes i Student does a boring task then is asked to lie about it for 13 They do and then when asked later student says they enjoyed it ii Student does a boring task then is asked to lie about it for 20 They do and when asked later they say it was boring b Festinger s cognitive dissonance theory i Cognitive dissonance theory theory developed by Leon Festinger that assumes people have a tendency to change their attitudes to reduce the cognitive discomfort created by inconsistencies between their attitudes and their behavior ii AKA Smokers changing how they view smoking as being dangerous as they continue to smoke c Bem s selfperception theory i Theory developed by Daryl Bem which assumes that when we are unsure of our attitudes we infer them by examining our behavior and the context in which it occurs ii People don t change their attitude because of their behavior but rather use their behavior to infer their attitude People are motivated to explain their behavior not to reduce dissonance According to selfperception theory there is no dissonance to be reduced d The impact of roleplaying i Stanford prison study 1 Students dressed up as prison guards and prisoners 2 Had to be shut down within 6 days as the guards were harassing the prisoners and many individuals were on the verge of mental breakdown Neuroscience 1 The Neuron a The Structure of a Neuron i Brain and nervous system composed of two types of cells neurons and glial cells 1 Neurons responsible for informational transmission throughout the nervous system They send receive and integrate information within the brain 2 Glial Cells constitute the support system for the neurons Remove waste keep environment stable insulate neurons allowing them to work better ii Three main components ofa Neuron Dendrites cell body and axon 1 Dendrites fibres that project out of cell body Receive information from other neurons and pass this information on to the cell body 2 Cell body contains nucleus of the cell and other machinery to keep the cell alive Cell body chooses to pass information from dendrites on to other neurons 3 Axon long singular fiber leaving the cell body used to pass information from one neuron to the next Divides into axon terminals at the end b How Neurons Communicate i The Electrical Impulse 1 When a neuron receives a message by the dendrites of other neurons it is either excitatory tells neuron to generate electric pulse or inhibitory no pulse 2 If excitatory imput outweighs inhibitory a pulse is made 3 Impulse travels down axon to axon terminals at about 200 mph iii 4 Stronger stimuli lead to more neurons generating impulses with more frequency 5 Myelin Sheath insulating layer of white fatty substance for the axon The presence ofthe sheath speeds impulse speed because it has less distance to travel 6 Multiple sclerosis deterioration of the myelin sheath Eventually leads to trouble moving and other behavioral changes Chemical Communication between Neurons 1 Neurotransmitters a naturally occurring chemical for transmitting information 2 When impulse reaches axon terminals the vesicles open and neurotransmitters come out and go into the synaptic gap the microscopic gap between neurons 3 Binding neurotransmitter molecules fit into the dendrite receptor sites Brain Scans 1 Neurons require oxygen and blood sugars 20 of blood goes to brain 2 25 of oxygen goes to brain Without oxygen neurons die in minutes 3 Positron Emission Tomography PET Scans harmless radioactive sugar introduced to the bloodstream moves to most active points and emits positrons that are detected and measured by a computer tested while doing diff activities 4 Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI focuses on amounts of oxygen in areas of the brain The more active areas have more oxygen flow Used to study the functions of various brain parts and locations Much sharper picture c Neurotransmitters Drugs and Poisons iii iv 1 Agonist Drug or poison that increases activity of one or more neurotransmitter 2 Antagonist Drug or poison that decreases activity of neurotransmitters Acetylcholine neurotransmitter involved in learning memory and muscle movement Alzheimer s patients have low levels of Ach 1 Botulinum poison toxin involved in food poisioning blocks the release of Ach at muscle junctures leading to paralysis Dopamine neurotransmitter that impacts our arousal and mood 1 Low level dopamine in the basal ganglia leads to Parkinson s disease 2 Bloodbrain barrier a barrier made by the blood capillaries that prevents dangerous substances from accessing the brain 3 Ldopa drug for Parkinson s that can pass through blood barrier Contains precursors to dopamine and once in brain is converted to dopamine Side effects of L dopa are similar to schizophrenia hallucinations etc Serotonin and norepinephrine 1 Cocaine blocks the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine two neurotransmitters involved in levels of arousal and mood sleep and eating 2 Selective Soretonin Reuptake inhibitors Prozac Zoloft achieve their agnostic effect by selectively blocking just the reuptake of serotonin GABA Glutamate 1 GABA the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system Lowers arousal and anxiety and helps regulate movement 2 Glutamate Main excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system Involved in memory storage and pain perception 3 Endorphins group of neurotransmitters involved in pain relief and pleasure Morphine and Heroin have their effects through endorphins Endorphins are also involved in placebo effects on pain 2 The Nervous System and the Endocrine System a The Central Nervous System i Interneurons integrate information within the CNS by communicating with each other only in the CNS ii Sensory neurons carry information to the CNS from sensory receptors EG Eyes iii Motor Neurons carry movement through rest ofthe body from CNS iv Most sensory nerves tons of neurons enter the CNS through the spinal cord v The Spinal Cord spans from the brain stem to the center ofthe spinal column 1 Two main functions a Conduit for both incoming sensory data and outgoing movement commands b Provides for spinal reflexes vi Spinal Reflex simple automatic action not requiring involvement of brain Knee 1 For most spinal reflexes interneurons are involved b The Peripheral Nervous System i Gathers information about the external environment and internal environment through sensory nerves Also transports brain s commands to rest of body through motor neurons ii Has two parts working together Somatic nervous system and Autonomic NS 1 Somatic NSB carries sensory input from receptors to the CNS and relays commands from the CNS to the skeletal muscles to control their movement 2 Autonomic NS regulates the functioning of the internal environment a Sympathetic NS in control when body is aroused as in emergency b Parasympathetic NS in control when body at rest c The Endocrine Glandular System i Endocrine Glandular System bodies major communication system 1 Communicates through messengers in the blood stream 2 Endocrine glands secret substances in bloodstream Exocrine glands sweat 3 Hormone chemica messenger produced by endocrine glands adrenalin 4 The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland which releases hormones essential for human growth and that direct other glands to release hormones 5 Thyroid gland affects growth and maturation 6 Adrenal gland fight or flight response 7 Pancrease digestion and maintaining blood sugar levels d Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System i The three components of emotion 1 Physical component state of physiological arousal triggered by the autonomic NS a EG breathing incrase blood pressure surge sweat so on b Prepares us to react emotionally to the situation 2 Behavioral component outward expression of emotion expression movement a Nonverbal expressive behavior facial expressions smile frown body language etc Facial feedback hypothesis brain uses facial expression to determine what emotion to feel 3 Cognitive component appraisal of the situation to determine which emotion we are experiencing and how intensely we are experiencing it a We perceive the changes in bodily arousal and behavioral responses within the situational context then determine what emotion to experience b EG if palms are sweaty butterflies in stomach mouth is dry you are probably about to give a speech in front of a crowd and are nervous ii Theories of Emotion 1 Commonsense explanation a Subjective experience of the emotion triggers physiological arousal and behavioral response Eg Out hiking see a bear recognize danger react emotionally with fear 2 James Lange theory a Said emotional feeling follows physiological arousal and behavioral response b Physiological arousal and backing away are responses to the stimulus of seeing the bear You then interpret these autonomic and behavioral responses as the emotion fear You determine you are afraid because you are sweating heart racing and backing away 3 Cannon Bard Theory a Arousal patterns for different emotions are too physiologically alike to be used to determine which emotion is being experienced b Emotion provoking stimulus bear sends messages simultaneously to peripheral NS and the brain c The autonomic ns produces the physiological arousal heart racing and the motor nervous system produces behavioral response backing away while the brain produces the emotional feeling fear all simultaneously BOTH OF THESE THEORIES ARE PROVEN WRONG 4 Schachter Singer two factor theory a Two important ingredients in determining the emotion i Physiologicalarousal 1 Tells us how intense the emotion is ii Cognitive Appraisal 1 Allows us to identify the emotion leading to feeling fear iii Cognitive appraisal precedes the emotion 3 The Brain a Going Up the Brain Stem i The Central core 1 Brain Stem spans from the Spinal cord to the thalamus 2 Medulla links the spinal cord to the brain a Involved in regulating heartbeat breathing blood pressure digestion and swallowing


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