GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSY 2012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jabari Douglas on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at University of Florida taught by Brian Howland in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/206715/psy-2012-university-of-florida in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Charlie Neal Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology The Four Major Research Perspectives Perspectives Emphasizing Internal Factors Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes Four kinds of psychology research perspectives Biological Perspective focus on how the brain nervous system and other psychological mechanisms produce behavioral and mental processes mpact of brain chemistry Eg depressed because of chemical imbalance Zoloft nvolvement of the various parts of the brain and nervous system on our behavior and mental process Eg the brain controls the center for sight and eyes Cognitive Perspective focuses on how our mental processes such as perception memory and problem solving work and impact our behavior Categories of information organized in our brain Eg prototype FRUIT orange Random lapse of memory or random retrieval of memory of person or event Why How do we attempt to solve problems reason or decide Perspectives Emphasizing External Factors Behavioral Perspective Focuses on how external environmental events condition observable behavior We behave the way we do because of our environment Classical conditioning Pavlov explains how we learn fear and other emotional responses taste aversions and other behaviors Charlie Neal Operant Conditioning involves the relationship between our behavior and its environmental consequences reinforced behavior increase Punished decreases Environmental events condition our behavior and are the causes of it Sociocultural Perspective Focuses on how other people and the cultural context impact behavior and mental processes Kitty Genovese murder 1964 Bystander effect All felt someone else would help Hindsight Bias after learning about an outcome to be overconfident in one s abilities to have predicted it Research Methods Used by Psychologists Descriptive Methods Observational techniques Direct observation in lab or otherwise Naturalistic Observation behavior observed in natural setting without intervention Researcher observes and describes objectively Observers must not intrude so as not to effect results Participant observation studies observer is a participant in the group undercover Case Studies Life history is developed Information gathered over extended amount oftime Usualy used on patients suffering specific deficits or problems Used to gather information to help in treatment of patient Hypothesis experiment Survey Research uses questionnaires or other forms to collect information about E39i Charlie Neal behavior beliefs and attitudes of particular groups of people Word order or phrasing can lead subjects to be biased Socia desirability bias Subjects tend to respond in more socially acceptable manner rather than the truth Population Sample representative of pop Random Sampling Correlation Studies two variables are measured to determine if they are related Variable factor that can take on more than one value Age height gpa iq Etc Correlation Coefficient calculates the strength of the correlation 10 10 Positive correlation suggests direct relationship High on one high on another Negative correlation suggests inverse relationship between two variables One high other low Eg Time watching tv grades in school Strength of correlation is judged by absolute value of correlation and it s closeness to 0 The closer to 1 or 1 the correlation is the greater the strength Scatterplot visual depiction of correlational data CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION Eg lowered self esteem does not cause depression Third Variable Problem another variable may be responsible for the relationship observed between the two variables Experimental Research All third variables must be kept constant Charlie Neal Random assignment is used so that there are no differences in individual characteristics of the participants such as intelligence that would influence them differently During an experiment Starts with a hypothesis the cause effect relationship between two variables Independent variable is the hypothesized cause Dependent variable is the variable that is the hypothesized variable to be affected Experimental Group The group exposed to the independent variable Control Group group that is not exposed to the independent variable Operational definition description of the operations or procedures the researcher uses to manipulate or measure a variable Placebo effect improvement due to the expectation of improving because of receiving treatment Placebo Group group of participants who are receiving treatment but are not Inferential statistical analyses statistical analyses that allow researchers to draw conclusions about the results of a study by determining the probability the results are due to random variation The results are statistically significant ifthe probability is 05 or less Double blind procedure neither the experimenter nor the participant know which participants are in the experimental and control groups Experimenter expectation experimenters unconsciously treat placebo group different and thereby affect their behavior Or record data differently based on expectations III 3 Charlie Neal How to Understand Frequency Distributions Descriptive Statistics Statistics that describe the results ofa research study in a concise fashion Mean median mode you know this shit already No point oftyping it down Range Standard deviation average that numbers vary from mean Normal Distribution a frequency distribution that is shaped like a bell 68 of the scores fall within 1 standard deviation 95 within 2 standard deviation and 99 within 3 standard deviation Percentile rank the percentage of scores below a specific score in a distribution of scores Frequency Distributions A depiction in a table or a figure of the number of participants receiving each score for a variable
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