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Date Created: 09/04/14
Comm 1 Intro 21014 629 PM Dolly Mullin SSMS 4117 dmuincommucsbedu Tuesdays 1 230 Thursdays 11am1230 Course Objectives Learn about comm processes in various contexts Not howto but what matters Grading Midterm 100 pts Final 140 pts 0 Paper 1 50 0 Paper 2 50 Section 10 Research Practicum 2 hrs required 5 deducted if not completed TOTAL 350 pts What is Communication Week 1 Lecture 2 21014 629 PM SECTION BRING PAPER ASSIGNMENT amp EXERCISE What IS Communication Recent history most subjects psych soc studied it We take a socia science approach 1 An exchange of meaningful symbols words expressions gestures body language culture writing 0 Can39t exchange meaning without them 0 We hope that meaning is shared 2 A process 0 An ongoing systematic activity 3 Contextual o Interpersonal dyads relationships groups media etc Contextual Levels of Communication comm contexts diff areas 1 communication within a person examples status updates thoughts amp decisions diary Thinking about other people amp processing information Example topics studied 0 Making attributions forminq impressions 2 Communication with another dyad o Face to face or point to point o Involves self disclosure relational developmentintimacy Example topics 0 Making friends becominq closefallinq apart conflict nonverbal messages 3 j Communication between members of different groups or cultures 0 Interaction amp identity influenced by group membership 0 Stereotypes influence how you interact with people Example topics studied 0 Inqroupoutqroup communication lanquaqe ethnicity gender age group communication o Ingroup amp outgroup relationships can change ucsb vs teacher student 4 interaction among three or more people 0 pursuing common goal social or task o interact as group Example topics studied 0 Group decision making juries work teams group dynamics peer pressure 5 E communication among members of organization or between different organizations 0 formal organizational structure 0 formal and informal networks rules norms Example of topics studied 0 Leadership organizational culture conversation networks collaboration 6 1 or a few individuals to an audience 0 Face to face but with a distance 0 Relatively one way Example topics studied o Rhetorical devices like imaqery used in speeches imagery in pop culture 7 messages disseminated on a large scale 0 mediated print or eectronic internet books magazines newspapers tv movies 0 typically professional communicators people making their living doing this 0 less immediate feedback Example topics studied 0 Effects of TV on behaviorattitudes role of media in society Comm happens at multiple contextual eves Chapter 1 Communication Essential Human Behavior 21014 629 PM Communication the process by which individuals use symbols signs and behaviors to exchange information The Functional Perspective Functional Perspective how communication behaviors work to accomplish our goals in personal group organizational or public situations Relationships the interconnections between 2 or more people that function to achieve some goal Interdependence what we do affects others and what others do affects us Expressing Affiliation Affiliation the affect or feelings you have for others This affects how you act towards that person and helps to maintain relationships Expressed by verbal nonverbal facetoface or mediated channels Achieving Goals We rely on communication to accomplish objectives goa achievement The way we go about this can be straightforward subtle bully your way indirect manipulative Influencing Others The ability of one person group or organization to influence others and the manner in which their relationships are conducted is called control Control is finite the more control one person has in a relationship the less the other persons have How We Communicate Characteristics of Communication Communication is o Comm relies on the use of symbols arbitrary constructions that refer to people things and concepts o The stronger the connection between symbol and object the clearer the message o Symbols can change and take on new meanings if at least 2 people agree that it will have that meaning Ex Romantic couple may create a symbol for their love look gesture o Groups amp teams may use symbols to create boundaries between them and outsiders handshake uniform Communication Requires a o Code a set of symbols that are joined together to create a meaningful message o Encoding the process of mentally constructing a message for production o Decoding the process of receiving a message by interpreting and assigning meaning to it o Sharing a code encoding and decoding messages correctly o Ex Language emoticons baseball players symbols Communication is o Culture the shared beliefs values and practices of a group of peope incudes language symbols norms and rules o Co cutures smaller groups of people within a culture who are distinguished by features like race religion age generation gender sex orientation economic status etc Communication o 2quot system of communication deals with expression of emotions or body movements and is unintentional o Distinction between the 2 systems is that the first is giving info amp the second is giving off info o Most spontaneous messages are reliable and readily interpreted but also are ambiguous Communication Occurs Through o Channel the method through which communication occurs Communication Is a o Transactional it involves 2 or more people acting in both sender amp receiver roles and their messages are dependent on and influenced by those of their partner o Once a message has been sent it cannot be reversed or repeated in precisely the same way o To understand communication more fully you assess the quality or communicative value of your communication using the 6 characteristics above Communicating Competently Competent comm that is effective and appropriate for a given situation Competent Communication is o Outcome the product of an interchange signing a contract o Process measures the success of communication by considering the methods by which an outcome is accomplished Competent Comm is more concerned with this o What is said and how it is said takes on greater significance o Mutual satisfaction is used as the gauge of success o Ethics the study of morals Competent Communication is 0 We communicate different ways depending on the situation and who we are communicating with 0 Appropriate Behavior communication is appropriate when it meets the demands of the situation amp the expectations of the person you39re communicating with o Behavioral flexibility your ability to have a number of behaviors amp your willingness to use different ones in different situations 0 Communication must also be effective hep you meet goals Competent Communication 0 Communication skills behavioral routines based on social understandings Icompetent Communication Modeling Communication 0 Linear Model a sender originates communication with words or action the words or actions create a message The message must be carried through a channel Along the way some interference noise occurs so that the message arrives at its target the receiver 0 Limited no info on whether or how the message was received 0 Communication between sender amp receiver that includes feedback 0 Feedback message from the receiver to the sender that illustrates that they have received the message The Competent Communication Model 0 Transactional the individuals communicate simultaneously sending and receiving messages at the same moment in time The Communicators Cognitions the thoughts that individuals have about themselves and others Behavior observable communication Cognitions inform your behavior Week 1 Lecture 3 21014 629 PM Models of Communication What is a model Abstract representation of the real thing Helps us visualize and organize understanding Makes us focus on key areas of interest Modeling Communication What to focus on 0 Key elements of comm People sourcereceiver messagesymbol channel noise feedback context 0 Important Characteristics of comm Coqnitive processes encoding decoding transmitting Transactional qualities exchange interdependence irreversibility Some Fundamental Models of Communication on gauchospace linear models 0 source 9 message 9 receiver 0 Shannon amp weaver Interactionprocess Models 0 Decoderinterpreterencoder 9 message 9 decoderinterpreterencoder 9 message Schramm Purely Transactional Models 0 Dance amp Watzlawick Beavin amp Jackson 0 Not just feedback but also So RE Models Each has a different focus No one model represents all aspects well Utility depends on the communication behaviors being analyzed Studying Communication as a Science Communication at UCSB We seek understanding of generalized patterns of communication variables attitudes behaviors etc o What is related to what Ex Compared to many middle eastern cultures Americans stand far apart when conversing Culture is related to nonverbal distance 0 What causes what Ex Eye contact increases perceptions of attractiveness o How do we know The Scientific Method 0 Formulate hypotheses about variables of interest Predictions based on prior studiestheory 0 Test hypotheses using empirical observations Gather objective data Three Major Social Science Research Methods 1 Survey Research 0 Ask people what they think or do 0 Can use telephone mail internet face to face o Purposes identify attitudesbehaviors in population 2 Ex How often do college students rely on FBTumblrTwitter to connect with friends Examine relationships between attitudesbehaviors etc 2 Is amount of fb use related to feeling connected to others 0 Need representative sample of participants 0 Need good questions 0 Limitations of surveys Reliance on selfreports Cannot make causal conclusions 2 OOOOO 2 Ex 2 vars may be related but it doesn39t mean its causaH Experimental Research Purpose draw causal conclusions Ex Do personal disclosures on FB make people seem more likeable Manipulate causal variables independent variable Ex Manipulate personal disclosures on FB 2 2 of participants shown thread with personal other 2 shown same thread without personal Control everything else same content format etc Measure effectoutcome dependent variable Need random Assignment Need good manipulation Limitations of Experiments Limited participant sample Artificial setting so poor external vaidity 2 Hard to generalize results beyond participants and lab environment Section 1 21014 629 PM Content Analysis systemic quantitative analysis of content of media messages You39re analyzing the content is it there Purpose describe media or other social networking sites Used to assess the image of a particular group in the media 0 Ex How are fathers represented in the media Clear and specific content variables Limitations it can only describe content cannot conclude an outcome content analysis survey amp experiment differences on TEST Paper 2 contextual levels of comm 2 language uses 2 nonverbal language uses emphasize concepts cite it define amp why it39s important in the context avoid intrapersonal APA citations Don39t write obviously Chapter 2 Perceiving the Self and Others 21014 629 PM Perception a cognitive process through which we interpret our experiences and come to our own unique understandings Perception Making Sense of Your World Communication Processing the means by which you gather organize and evaluate the information you receive Selecting Information Schemas Orqanizinq Perceptions o Schemas mental structures that put together related bits of information once put together these chunks of info form patterns to create more complex meaning The Function of Schemas o Help understand how things work or anticipate how they should proceed Challenges with Schemas and Perception o Mindlessness Mindfulness to be focused on the task at hand Mindlessness processing information passively schemas may make us do this 1 Reduced cognitive activity thinking less or having fewer thoughts 2 Inaccurate recall of info 3 Uncritical evaluation of what is being processed o Selective Perception Selective perception succumbing to the biased nature of perception Ex If we know a lot of info about the economy our schema for that is strengthened when we listen to a debate sometimes all we care about are the things we already have schemas for economy and we fail to notice other key issues o Undue Influence Occurs when you give greater credibility to something shown or said than should be the case Ex Some people give undue influence to male friends when talking about sports Attributions Interpreting Your Perceptions o Attributions personal characteristics that are used to explain behavior 0 Internal Attribution when we attribute behavior to someone s personality 0 External attribution situational o Fundamental attribution error our tendency to overemphasize the internal and underestimate the external causes of behaviors o SelfServing bias when it comes to attributions about ourselves we tend to do the opposite attribute our successes to internal factors and attribute failures to situationalexternal 0 Interaction Appearance Theory explains how people change their attributions of someone the more they interact Improving Your Perceptions 0 Verify your perceptions take time to come to conclusions 0 Be thoughtful when seeking explanations 0 Look Beyond First Impressions Perception in a Diverse World The Cultural Context Culture has a profound effect on the way we perceive ourselves and the people around us Perceptual Barriers Successful intercultural comm requires mindfulness being respectful of others and maintaining an accurate perception of the situation A Narrow Perspective People are often blinded by their own circumstances and can39t put themselves in other cultural circumstances Cultural myopia a form of nearsightedness grounded in the belief that one s own culture is appropriate and relevant in all situations and to all people Stereotyping and Prejudice Stereotyping the act of fitting individuals into an existing schema without adjusting the schema appropriately Prejudice a deep seated feeling of unkindness and ill will toward particular groups Cognition Perceiving Ourselves 1 SelfConcept Who You Think You Are Your awareness and understanding of who you are Your views about yourself are called cognitions Your perception of others is related to how your view yourself When you interact with others you get impressions from them that reveal how they evaluate you as a person and communicator Direct evidence compliments insults support negative remarks Indirect evidence innuendo gossip subtle nonverbal cues Social Comparison Theory we compare ourselves to others as we develop our ideas about ourselves 2 Sef Esteem How You Feel About Yourself how you feel about yourself usually in a particular situation high sef esteem more confident in interpersonal relationships have confidence being friendly Low sef esteem results from poor view of themselves inconsistent view of oneself 3 SelfEfficacy Assessing Your Own Abilities predict success from selfconcept and self esteem effects your ability to cope with failure and stress low efficacy dwell on shortcomings high efficacy blames shortcomings on external events and moves on self fulfilling prophecy a prediction that causes an individual to alter their behavior in a way that makes the prediction more likely to occur Assessing Our Perceptions of Self SelfActualization o The feelings and thoughts you get when you know that you have negotiated a communication situation as well as you possibly could SelfAdequacy 0 Assessing communication competence as sufficient or acceptable SelfDenigration o Criticizing or attacking yourself Behavior Managing our Identities SelfPreservation Intentional communication designed to show elements of self for strategic purposes Sef monitoring your ability to watch your environment and others in it for cues as to how to present yourself in a particular situation SelfDisclosure Revealing ourselves to others by sharing information about ourselves Technology Managing the Self and Perceptions 21014 629 PM Verbal Communication Language Important Features of Language Language is rue qoverned Language is capable of displacement Able to describe things that happenedthings that aren39t right in front of you Meanings of symbolswords are arbitrary Human made conventions Language and Meaning The Referential Function We use language to refer to things and ideas We categorize things and label them Example peach vs fruit vs citrus fruit Group things with similar characteristics The Triangle of Meaning Symbol object word ltarbitrary connectiongt referent fag picture of a flag Thought reference ltAmerica 4 ofjuygt Symbols and objects are arbitrarty what makes them have meaning is the thought that the symbols or objects provoke We need to be able to recognize different kinds of meaning EXAMPLE rock Context knowledge experience relationship etc Every wordphrase has 2 basic types of meaning Denotative Explicit agreed upon meaning dictionaryish Can have more than one denotation eg rock has many Denotative meanings typically widely shared among speakers of the same language One or a few people39s understandings of a word inside joke Connotative Emotional evaluative connections to a word Can have idiosyncratic andor shared connotations Importance of Connotations Compare House verses home Spending verses investment god terms widely positive ex Freedom hope Week 2 21014 629 PM Verbal Communication Power of Language powerless lang uses lots of hedges hesitations intensifiers tag questions disclaimers might may could would sort of ums ahs powerful lang fluent direct amp doesn39t use the above powerless markers studies show use of powerless lang lowers impression of 9 competence trustworthiness dynamism socialeconomic status message effectiveness 0 BUT can also be seen as more polite likeable good natured don39t confuse powerfulness with high versus low language in the text Nonverbal Communication Relationship to Verbal Comm Common misperception o truth is in the nonverbal Nonverbal comm can 0 Complement verbal Seinfeld bus driving example 0 Substitute for verbal most emotions o Regulate verbal shh sign when you want someone to stop talking raise your hand when have a question 0 Contradict verbal Ellen on Ed TV sarcasm Importance of Nonverbals Demonstrate immediacy you39re there and listening ex Eye contact nodding your head leaning in Gauge other s reactionsfeedback Nonverbal Codes ways of sending nonverbal messages Paralanguage parainguistics things we do vocally but aren39t words 0 Vocalizations crying laughing grunting 0 Voice qualities Pitch amp volume Rate amp fluency Quality resonance nasality Accent pronunciation Intonation question when voice goes up at the end and valley girl voices and sarcasm 2 EXAMPLE intonation providing emphasis Ididn t steal her dog Personal Appearance 0 Body displays hair colorstyle piercing etc 0 Clothing amp accessories Can signal authority legitimacy belonging Oculesics eye contactgaze o Avoidance often taken as dishonesty insincerity discomfort 0 Eye contact can signal confidence immediacy 0 Can increase perceptions of attractiveness Kinesics movement amp gestures o Illustrators o Emblems o Affect Displays 0 Adapters Proxemics space distance territory 0 Interpersonal distances 0 Claiming our space Chapter 4 Verbal Communication 21014 629 PM Language the system of symbols words that we use to think about and communicate experiences and feelings The Nature of Language Lanquaqe is Symbolic Words evoke responses because it s a type of symbol They have meaning because we agree that they do Words Have Multiple Meaninqs Denotative meaning its basic consistently accepted definition Connotative meaning the emotional or attitudinal response Thouqht Informs Lanquaqe Cognitive language specific system of symbols that you use to describe people things and situations in your mind influences language and message production related to thoughts attitudes co cutures Language affects thought Lanquaqe is Ruled by Grammar Grammar is important for communication clarity Lanquaqe is Bound by Context Language is bound by contexts like our relationship with the people we39re with the situation we39re in and cultural factors The Functions of Language Communication Acquisition not only learn individual words in a language but also learn to use that language appropriately and effectively in the context of the situation 1 Usinq Lanquaqe as a Means of Control used to influence oneself others and the environment 2 Usinq Lanquaqe to Share Information informing using language to both give and receive info Questioning Describing Reinforcing Withholding info 3 Usinq Lanquaqe to Express Feelinqs used to send messages to express how we feel about ourselves them or the situation Expressing feeling is primarily relational 4 Usinq Lanquaqe to Express Creativity Imagining ability to think play and be creative in communication 5 Using Language as Ritual Ritualizing involves learning the rules for managing conversations and relationships Example saying the right things at speeches saying congrats to a newly married couple saying hi or bye or please in the right context Problems with Language Words can lead to confusion hurt feelings misunderstandings and anger Abstraction and Meaning Language can range from being very vague to very specific Abstraction Ladder top rungs of ladder are high eve abstractions ower eve abstractions are more specific High Abstractions can accomplish certain comm goals 0 Evasion to avoid providing specific details 0 Equivocation using words that have unclear or misleading definitions used to get out of uncomfortable situations o Euphemisms inoffensive words or phrases that substitute for terms that might be perceived as upsetting Slang language that is informal nonstandard and particular to a specific group High level abstraction Jargon technical language that is specific to members of a given profession or interest group Situation and Meaning Semantics the relationship among symbols objects people and concepts and refers to the meaning that words have for people Pragmatics the ability to use the symbol systems of a culture appropriately The Limits of Labelinq Example feminists have a stereotype that is more or less untrue Most people think of feminists as females who hate males but in reality there are many different kinds of people who are feminists The labels we choose for our beliefs affect how we communicate them to others and how others respond If we place role labels on others we sometimes ignore individual differences Derogatory labels demean entire groups of people The Dangers of Biased Lanquaqe Biased Language subtle meanings that influence our perceptions about the subject Politically Correct Language when language openly excludes certain groups we often attempt to replace the biased language with more neutral terms 0 Ex Handicapped physically challenged fireman firefighter Problems PC focuses attention on rhetorical arguments rather than real issues underlying language substitutes euphemisms for clarity makes comm more difficult by placing certain words and phrases off limits Profanity Rudeness and Civility Profanity words or expressions considered insulting rude vulgar or disrespectful Civility the social norm for appropriate behavior Language in Context 1 Language Reflects Context language we use reflects who we39re around where we are and what kind of cultural factors are at play 0 Speech repertoires call on diff language to meet the demands of a situation 2 Language Builds on Context language builds based on the context of a situation relationship or environment 3 Language Determines Context we can create context by the language we use if you tell someone to call you Lexi they39ll be more open amp informal if you tell them to call you Dr Lim they39ll be more formal and closed off Relational Context Language reflects and creates relational context Labels can define relationships girfriendquot friendquot or confer status and create understandings among individuals bossquot coHeaguequot The Situational Context Different situations require different speech repertoires High Language more formal polite language in business context classrooms and formal social gatherings Low Language slang when we39re in more comfortable environments Sex amp gender can affect the kind of language we use in a situation women amp women interaction men amp men interaction The Cultural Context Cross cutura communication can be confusing things can get lost in translation Culture Words and Thouqhts Language can affect our thoughts example tribe that doesn39t have a word for numbers above two When doing tasks like counting and copying objects they were not able to accurately copy the amount of objects if the was above 3 Sapir Whorf Hypothesis the words a culture uses influences thinking if a culture lacks a word for something the members of that culture will have few thoughts about that thing or concept Linguistic Determinism language influences how we see the world around us Linguistic Relativity speakers of different languages have different views of the world Gender and Lanquaqe Women see conversations as negotiations for closeness and connection men see it as a struggle for control and hierarchy Interruptions men interrupt women more if power amp status is equal Intensifiers women tend to intensify words more Qualifiers hedges and disclaimers language that sounds hesitant or uncertain women display this more Tag questions adding a question at the end of a statement women do this more Resistance messages men amp women express resistance in different ways We are less bound by our sex than by language choices we make Geography and Language Accommodation Changing our communication behavior to adapt to the other person Code Switching amp Style Switching types of accommodation where communicators change their regular language and slang as well was tonality pitch rhythm and inflection to fit into a particular group Mediated Contexts Media gets confusing to understand underlying meanings of messages Chapter 5 Nonverbal Communication 21014 629 PM Nonverbal Communication the process of intentionally or unintentionally signaling meaning through behavior other than words The Nature of Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Behavior is Communicative You can communicate nonverbally when you use nonverbal behaviors in addition to words Nonverbal Communication is often Spontaneous and Unintentional Nonverbal Communication is Ambiguous Nonverbal Communication is more Believable than Verbal Channel Discrepancy a situation in which one set of behaviors says one thing and another set says something different Functions of Nonverbal Communication Reinforcing Verbal Messages Repeating mirrors verbal message shake your head while saying no hold up 3 fingers while saying three Complementing reinforcing verbal messages patting a friend on the back while saying good job 0 Accenting clarifying and emphasizing specific information in a verbal message Substituting Verbal Messages Substituting replacing words Contradicting Verbal Messages contradicting nonverbal conveys meaning opposite of verbal sarcasm prying for attention fishing for complements Regulating Interactions Regulating nonverbal coordinate verbal interaction raising your hand in class Creating Immediacy A feeling of closeness involvement and warmth sitting close to the other person turning and leaning towards smiling making eye contact Mimicry synchronized amp usually unconscious pattern of imitating or matching gestures body position tone and facial expressions to create social connections between people Deceivinq Others Deception attempt to convince others of something that is false Nonverbal Communication Codes Nonverbal codes symbols we use to send messages without words Gestures and Body Movements Kinesics aspects of gestures and body movements that send nonverbal messages Emblems movements that have a direct verbal translation in a particular group or culture shaka sign represents hang loose or aloha Illustrators reinforce verbal messages and help visually explain what is being said holding hands 2 ft apart while saying the fish was this big Regulators help us manage our interactions raising your hand indicates you want to speak raising eyebrows indicate you want info from others Adaptors satisfy some physical or psychological need rubbing eyes when tired twisting hair when nervous Affect Displays convey feeling moods and reactions slumping in a chair boredom first thrust high in air joy Facial Expressions Sadness anger disgust fear interest surprise and happiness are inborn don39t need to be taught to know cross cutura Masking replacing an expression that shows true feelings with an expression that shows appropriate feeling for an interaction Eye Behavior Voice Oculesics the study of the use of the eyes to communicate Paralanguage vocalized sounds that accompany our words Pitch involves variations in the voice that give prominence to certain words or syllables Tone modulation of the voice usually expressing particular feelings or moods Volume how loud or soft the voice is Also includes pauses vocal quality and rate amp rhythm of speech Pronunciation accents Vocalizations cues that give info about our emotional or physical state laughing yawning crying moaning Back channe cues help regulate conversations Physical Appearance Physical appearance and clothing uniforms dictate what people think about us Artifacts accessories carried or used on the body for decoration or identification Space and Environment Proxemics The study of the way we use and communicate with space Intimate 018 inches Spouses romantic partners close friends and family members Personal 18 inches 4ft friends relatives colleagues Social 4 12ft professional settings Public 12ft amp beyond Performances or public speaking Territoriality The claiming of an area through continuous occupation of that area Environment Our environment d cor layout communicates to others about who we are and what we39re about Touch Haptics the study of touch Functiona professiona touch to perform a job Socia poite touch a polite acknowledgment of another person handshake Friendship warmth touch liking and affection between people who know each other well hugging Love intimacy touch kissing embracing caressing Sexua arousa touch reveals intimacy Time Orientation Chronemics the study of how people perceive the use of time and how they structure time in their relationships Use of time sends a message without a word Influences on Nonverbal Communication Culture and Nonverbal Communication Contact cultures depend on touch as an important form of communication Noncontact cultures touchsensitive avoiding touch Mediated Nonverbal Communication The Situational Context Pubic private dimension physical space that affects our nonverbal communication Informalformal dimension more psychological dealing with our perceptions of personal versus impersonal situations Intrapersonal Communication 21014 529 PM Perception Processes Intrapersonal comm involves making sense mentally of peopleworld 3 cognitive processes 0 attention 0 organization o interpretation Attention We are selective about what we perceive Internal factors affecting attention 0 Physiological filters when sick tired sad Our physical state limitations of our senses o Psvcholoqical filters Motivation or interest Past experience or expectations Example Paris in the the springtime o External factors affecting attention Salience Stimulus stands out from others visual contrast sound movement etc Vividness stimulus provokes an emotional response Organization We structure our perceptions Proximity we perceive separate stimuli as related if close to each other Similarity we perceive stimuli as related if similar to each other Closure we see incomplete patterns as complete Figure Ground we perceive images as having an object figure and background ground Interpretation We evaluate our perceptions o Interpret make sense and draw conclusions Perceiving the Social World How do we understand ourselves and each other 0 We simplify the complex info we perceive o Biases influence our conlcusions Two research areas we39ll explore 0 Making attributions o Forming impressions Attribution Processes The way we assign explanations for people39s behavior When we notice behavior we can attribute it either to internal or external causes 0 Internal attribution we see it as caused by the personself within the person39s control 0 External attribution we see it as caused by the situation or other factors outside the person39s control How do we decide 0 Compare person39s behavior to other s and to knowledge of person39s past behavior Fundamental Attribution Error 0 Tendency to assume other s behaviors are caused by internal factors The SelfServing Bias 0 Our positive outcomes successes9 due to internal factors 0 Our negative outcomes faiures9 due to situational external factors Impression Formation The way we combine information to get a general sense of a person Attend to some information not all Organize information into a weighted average What gets the greatest weight 0 Information about stable traits Information about central traits Information from a credible source Information we receive first primacy effect Information about extreme or unusual behavior OOOO Intrapersonal amp Interpersonal 21014 529 PM Reminder Impression Formation the way we combine info to get a general sense of a person Attend to some info but not all Organize info into a weighted average Biases in Impression Formation Halo Effect o Initial impression pos or neg influences how we weigh other information Contrast Effect o Impressions influenced by what just came beforehand a tough act to follow Stereotyping 0 Assume person has certain traits or behaviors because of group membership 0 Normal to categorize the world and divide into us and them 0 Minimizes cognitive work don39t have to actually get to know them Managing the self BIRG and CORF o BIRG Bask In Reflected Glory 0 CORF Cut Off Reflected Failure Interpersonal Communication Characteristics Focus is on interaction amp relationships between people Most transactional context The Dual Level of IP Messages 0 Content Level The what of the message Easiest to convey verbally o Relational Level Info about how interactants feel about themselves and each other in the rel Can be conveyed verbally or nonverbally more often nonverbally Often expressed ambiguously Can be consistent or inconsistent with content level 0 Q Which level do you respond to How do Relationships Develop Attraction What brings us together Physical attractiveness Similarity Proximity Reducing Uncertainty We attempt to get info about other person Passivey observe the other Activey seek info from 3rd party Interactivey tak to the other Reducing uncertainty finding similarities increases liking Self Disclosure Deliberately revealing info about oneself two dimensions of disclosure 0 O O O O O O O O O O OOOOO breadth of information depth of information more varietymore breadth religion money family increasing levels of depth ritualized infosocial roles facts unique to self opinionsattitudes deep feelingscore values more personamore depth Functions of Sef Discosure Impression management Intimacy management Reciprocity Catharsis Sef carificationvalidation Developing and Maintaining Relationships 21014 629 PM Interpersonal relationships the interconnections and interdependence between two individuals Interpersonal communication the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages between two people who have a relationship and are influenced by the partner39s message Types of Interpersonal Relationships Relational network web of relationships that connect individuals to one another Family small social group bound by ties of blood civil contract and a commitment to care for one another in a shared household Friendship close amp caring relationship between 2 people that is perceived as mutually satisfying and beneficial Availability caring honesty trust loyalty empathy Romantic Partners Contains love amp intimacy Online Relationships Social information processing theory communicators use unique language and stylistic cues in their online messages to develop relationships that are just as close as those that grow from face to face content Hyperpersonal communication comm that is more personal and intimate than face to face interaction Why We Form Relationships Functions of Relationships Companionship o Inclusion to involve others in our lives and to be involved in the lives of others o Loneliness can be a motivation to create relationships Stimulation 0 People need intellectual emotional and physical stimulation Achieving Goals 0 Satisfying needs provide stimulation relationships with influential people in your field of interest Interpersonal Attraction Proximity 0 Nearness we tend to get to know the people who surround us dorm floor teammates classmates 0 Can have virtual proximity with people through mediated channels Physical Attraction 0 Beautiful people have more success in the real world but beauty has many definitions D Similarity o Attracted to people who are similar to us 0 Attraction simiarity hypothesis the extent to which we project ourselves onto another person is the direct result of the attraction we feel for that person 0 Matching hypothesis we seek relationships with others who have comparable levels of attractiveness o Genetic simiarity hypothesis 2 individuals who come from the same ethnic group are more genetically similar than 2 individuals from diff ethnic groups Managing Relationship Dynamics Costs and Rewards Social exchange theory relationships begin grow and deteriourate based on an exchange of rewards and costs Rewards things about the person that benefit you in some way 0 extrinsic external advantages such as social status or professional connections 0 Instrumental the resources amp favors partners give to one another 0 Intrinsic personally satisfying rewards that result from an exchange of intimacy safety intellectual stimulation Costs things that may upset or annoy you cause you stress or damage your own self image Reducing Uncertainty Uncertainty reduction theory when 2 people meet their main focus is on decreasing uncertainty about each other Reducing uncertainty increases ability to predict that person39s behavior Passive Strategies 0 Observing others in communication situations without actually interacting with them Active Strategies 0 Seeking information from a third party like a friend Interactive Strategies 0 Speaking directly with the person Dialectical Tensions Relational dialectics theory dialectical tensions are contradictory feelings that tug at us in every relationship External between people they interact with internal within their relationship Autonomy Versus Connection Tension between independence and dependence We want to be our own person while also being a part of something else Openness Versus Closedness Tension comes as partners strive to find a balance between sharing information and a desire to keep things private Predictability Versus Novelty Most people have a simultaneous need for stability through predictable relational interaction as well as a need for new and exciting experiences in personal relationships Sef Discosure and Interpersonal Relationships Social Penetration Theory Explains how partners move from superficial levels to greater intimacy Onion as a metaphor keep peeling the onion until you reach the core Communication Privacy Management Explains how people perceive the info they hold about themselves and whether they will disclose or protect it May be affected by dialectical tensions Requires cultural situational and relational rules or expectations by which people must be willing to abide Boundary turbulence if there is a threat to your privacy boundaries you must readjust your need for privacy against your need for sef discosure and connection Strategic Topic Avoidance Used by one or both relational partners to maneuver the conversation away from undesirable topics because of potential for embarrassment vulnerability or relational decline Stages of a Relationship Initiating Stage You make contact with another person Use first impressions to gauge whether or not you39re interested in moving forward with the relationship Exploratory Stage Seeking relatively superficial info from your partner Sma tak observe partner closely o learn more about them Intensification Stage When relational partners become increasingly intimate and move their communication toward more personal sef discosures Nicknames more intimate Stable Stage Feel comfortable with their motives for being in the relationship 0 Integrating becoming one making same friends making joint opinions and sharing property Bonding two partners share formal symbolic messages with the world that their relationship is important and cherished Declining Stage When the relationship begins to come apart Uncertainty events 0 Events or behavioral patterns that cause uncertainty in a relationship Interference 0 Timing family or friends problems with work or money can all contribute to the decline of a relationship Unmet Expectations 0 Unrealistic expectations cause problems 0 Realistic expectations can increase relational satisfaction and improve interpersonal communication Relationship Repair Repair tactics improving communication focusing on positive aspects of each partner and of the relationship itself reinterpreting behaviors with a more balanced view reevaluating the alternatives to the relationship and enlisting the support of others to hold the relationship together Termination Stage Passing away the gradual fading of a relationship Sudden death abrupt unexpected termination of a relationship Reconciliation 0 A repair strategy for rekindling an extinguished relationship Spontaneous development Third party mediation High affect Tacit persistence Mutual interaction Avoidance Week 4 21014 629 PM Interpersonal Comm continued Relationship Development 0 Attraction 0 Reducing uncertainty 0 Selfdisclosure Relational Stages Knapp39s Staircase Model 0 Differences in communication at each stage Stages of coming together 0 Initiating amp Experimenting exploratory Initial display of self small talk audition o Intensifying SD increases nicknames we pronouns personal idioms wordstokens of affection 0 Integrating Cultivate opinions as coupe others treat you as couple common property speak alike sense of obligationidentity together 0 Bonding Public ritual formal binding social and institutional support 0 Note txtbk groups integrating and bonding under the stable heading Stages of coming apart 0 Differentiating Talk about differences more meyou than we express autonomy o Circumscribing Less info exchange topics controlled superficial comm less reciprocity o Stagnating and Avoiding Almost no comm marking time avoid face to face 0 Terminating Summary statements future apart talk Movement through stages 0 Motivated by rewards and costs 0 Does not have to be linear Relational Dialectics Perspective Agues that relationships do not progress in stages Always have contradictory feelings in relationships 0 Autonomy vs connection 0 Openness vs closedness o Predictability vs novelty certainty vs uncertainty Relational communication is dynamic process of dealing with these tensions Interpersonal Conflict Conflict Styles Escapist styles 0 Want to prevent or get away from conflict Managing Conflict in Relationships 21014 529 PM Understanding Conflict Conflict a negative interaction between two or more interdependent people rooted in some actual or perceived disagreement Conflict management the way that we engage in conflict and address disagreements with our relational partners Unproductive Conflict Conflict that is managed poorly and has a negative impact on the individuals and relationships involved When conflict is handled poorly peole can experience medical problems Productive Conflict Conflict that is managed effectively Productive Conflict Fosters Healthy Debate 0 Debate allows us to exchange ideas evaluate the merits of one another s claims and continually refine and clarify each other s thinking about the issue under discussion Productive Conflict Leads to Better Decision Making o Helps individuals amp groups make smarter decisions Productive Conflict Spurs Relationship Growth 0 As people work on disagreements productively they build on the relationship Conflict Triggers Inaccurate Perceptions Misunderstandings are a common cause of conflict Incompatible Goals Conflicts arise when goals are perceived as incompatible Unbalanced Costs and Rewards Conflict arises when we are struggling to get a share of some limited resource such as money time or attention Provocation The intentional instigation of conflict Aggression fear amp defensiveness are common reactions Identity management insults can threaten identity Lack of fairness when someone uses more than their fair share of resources Incompetence Relationship threats Factors Affecting Conflict Power Dynamics People can use their power over you to influence your decisions Attitudes Toward Conflict Certain attitudes about conflict in general or about specific disagreements can cause people to avoid dealing with it Communication Boundary Management reluctant to discuss certain topics with particular people Communication Climate Communication climate conflicts can stem from certain atmospheres or feelings surrounding different relationships Uncertain climates at least one of the people involved is unclear vague tentative and awkward about the goals expectations an potential outcomes of the conflict situation Defensive climates people involved feel threatened mistrust suspicion amp apprehension Supportive climates communicators are open to one another s ideas and feelings and together construct a reality that induces productive resolution to the problems Culture amp Conflict Individualist Versus Collectivist Cultures 0 European Americans individualist amp ow context o Tend to view conflict as necessary way to work out problems and feel that specific conflict issues should be worked out separately from relational issues 0 Rely on amp compete for tangible power resources Latinos amp Asians collectivist amp high context 0 Conflict is seen as having a negative effect on relational harmony and conflict issues cannot be divorced from relationships 0 Avoid conflict amp use less direct communication Sex and Gender Women are more inclined to voice criticisms and complaints Men tend to avoid engaging in such discussions 4 destructive behaviors predictors of relationship dissolution criticism and complaints contempt attacking your partner39s sense of self worth defensiveness making yourself the victim and stonewalling refusing to engage in conflict women criticize more than men men stonewall more Communication Channel Conflict can arise from poor channel choices as we perceive things differently depending on the channel used Channel choice influences conflict management Online Anonymity and Conflict Flaming the posting of online messages that are deliberately hostile or insulting toward a particular individual Trolling the posting of provocative or offensive messages to whole forums or discussion boards in order to elicit some type of general reaction Cyberbullying multiple abusive attacks on individual targets conducted through electronic channels Strategies for Managing Conflict Escapist Strategies 0 People try to prevent or avoid direct conflict Challenging Strategies 0 Individual goals are pursued relationship is threatened o Referred to as assertiveness 0 People employ this strategy when they need to defend themselves from a perceived threat Cooperative Strategies 0 Benefit the relationship serve mutual rather than individual goals and strive to produce solutions that benefit both parties Focus on Issues Verbal aggressiveness attacks on individuals rather than issues Debate and Argue Probing asking questions that encourage specific and precise answers Help parties explore the pros and cons of an issue Devil39s advocate pointing out the worst case scenarios to make sure the person has considered all the possible outcomes of his decision Consider Options and Alternatives Consider the Importance of the Outcome Reassure Your Partner Conflict Outcomes Compromise Both sides give up a little to gain a little Trading one partner offers something of equal value in return for something he or she wants Random selection taking a vote or flipping a coin Win Win Solution that fully satisfies each of the participants Lose Lose Conflict resolved without either side getting what it wants Separation Removing oneself from a situation or relationship ends a conflict without necessarily creating clear wins or losses for either party Allocation of Power Decide with the other person which of you will have the power to make certain decisions in the relationship Interpersonal Conflict 21014 629 PM Conflict Styles Escapist Styles Want to prevent or get away from conflict Conflict Avoidance 0 Goal stay away from conflict entirely o Ignores own needs and others needs Avoidance Tactics 0 Physical avoidance Changing the subject Denial Postponement Resort to formal rules Controlling the process argue about how to argue Gunnysacking someone does something wrong to you you ignore it but keep it in your memories 0 Sarcasm Conflict Accommodation 0 Let other have hisher way appease 0 Shows some concern for other but Accommodating tactics o Openly giving in 0 Passive agreement Passive Aggression Goal express discontent but not openly Tactics 0 Keep main grievance to self 0 Send subtle indirect negative messages 0 Passiveagreesivenotescom ChallengingCompetitive style Goal I win you lose Concern is mostly with self Competitive tactics o Assertiveness 0 Direct aggression hostility o Presumptive attribution you39re only arguing with me because you think I can39t handle things for myself OOOOOO o Threat Ultimatum Cooperative Styles Seek to benefit both partiesrelationship Compromise 0 Goal both gain something 0 Trade off both lose something too Compromising Tactics 0 Restating positions instead of needs 0 Experimental Integration 0 O O O 0 Collaboration Goal win win outcome Flexible goals perspective Collaborative tactics Focusing on needs instead of positions High disclosure avoiding blame Showing empathy validating needs Managing Conflict Tactics that tend to escalate conflict 0 O O O O Labelingname calling Threats Issue expansion Coalition formation Breaking relational rules Tactics to reduce conflict OOOO 7728 Ask for more information Metacommunication Respond to different levels of conflict facts amp feelings Accept responsibility InterculturalIntergroup Comm 1031 21014 629 PM Communicative Differences Across Cultures Politeness Proxemics interpersonal distancespace Oculesic behaviors eye gaze Chronemics time 0 Western cultures VERY time conscious o EX Dinner invitation at 7pm when arrive Scandinavians precisely at 7 Americans some 1015 min later Latin Americans about 9 Javanese wouldn39t turn up at all 0 Monochronic cultures cultures that line up 0 Polychronic cultures cultures that do not line up Beliefs about talk vs silence 0 Many Western cultures aversion to silence 0 Many other cultures only talk after comfortable How do we explain all these differences Individuaism Collectivism Emphasize individual goals Value individual competition sef esteem sef reiance independence privacy Collectivistic cutures Emphasize group goals Value comp btween groups obligationsloyalty to group social roleposition Low Context High Context How important is the context for comm Low context cultures 0 Only minimal attention to context Verbal directness important High context cultures 0 Contextual cues critical for understanding 0 Nonverbal with indirectness UnderstatementHyperbole Understatement 0 Low intensity low context indiv Cultures Hyperbole 0 High intensity high context cocutures How to cope with these differences The Traditional Solutions Have intercultural knowledge Have lots of contact 0 Just get diff groups together for quality time Accommodate a bit 0 Give and take speak same language But that doesn39t really work Same language 0 Whose language Esperanto 0 Remember that accommodation is tied to group identity Knowledge important but 0 Cant learn it all 0 Can even use cultural knowledge against people Contact 0 Often only perceive something funny 0 Can actually reinforce intergroup biases Intergroup Biases Individuation amp subtyping Behavioral affirmation amp confirmation Attributional Biases o For ingroup members When pos internal attribution When neg external attribution o For Outgroup members the opposite So what can we do Need to understand intergroup biases Have good comm with typical members of outgroup Need to understand socia historica economic political forces that shape one s social identity Public Communication and Persuasion 115 21014 529 PM Public Communication One speaker or panel to an audience FtF w a distance What makes speaking effective o Style and substance are important Effective Style Appears natura Reinforces not distracts from message Is varied not monotonous Demonstrates immediacy What helps o Preparation and rehearsal o Effective notes Effective Substance The right message Delivered by the right source To the right audience Let39s focus now on how this works for PERSUASION o Using comm to change people39s attitudes or behavior Message Characteristics Appeals to Positive Emotion o Vivid message designed to arouse good feelings o Ex Humor joy love sentimentality hope Effective if can condition a response pair the good feelings with the argumentproduct BUT potential problem with entertaining ads vampire creativity Appeals to Negative Emotion o Designed to arouse unpleasant feelings ex Guiltshame sadness The Fear Appeal o Basic human needs threatened eg Safety personal relationships o Most effective when audience sees Threat is serious Threat is likely to happen to them Specific steps to ward off threat II Public Communication and Persuasion 11721o14 529 PM Message Characteristics Use of Evidence supporting arguments Factual statements statistics or study findings Examples or personal testimonials Sayingsquotations Analogies or metaphors Onesided or Two sided arguments o Present own side only or present both and attack opposing view o Onesided better if audience agreesleaning toward you already not much controversy amp low familiarity with issue o Two sided better if audience disagrees controversial amp high familiarity Use of Narrative Tellingshowing a story often with persuasive goal as the key to the happy ending Appeals to higher order human needs Social status eg snob appeal Being normal eg plain foks or anti snob Consensus eg bandwagon approach Appeals to broad cultural valuesmyths Family patriotism triumph over adversity Source Characteristics Credibiity how believable is a source Two different dimensions Expertise the amt of perceived training knowledge experience of source on given topic Trustworthiness amt of perceived honesty integrity of source including biases Similarity with target Shared characteristics between source and receiver 0 Eg Attitudes values demographics even appearance Likeability May include being friendly interesting having positive attitude seeming secure in self but empathetic to others Physical Attractiveness Celebrities Audience Factors Audience members have 0 Beliefs truths in mind about something 0 Attitudes evaluation goodbad of something 0 Behaviors actions things people do Do attitudes relate to behavior 0 Sometimes yes sometimes no How to understand your audience 0 Demographics sex race income 0 Psychographics lifestyles interests needs 0 Understanding cultural values Communication and Culture 21014 529 PM Culture a learned system of thought and behavior that belongs to and typifies a relatively large group of people Culture is Learned Learned through communication Worldview set of shared perceptions and models for appropriate behavior Culture affects communication We use comm to express our culture Intercultural Communication Matters Intercultural comm the comm between people from different cultures who have different worldviews A diverse society Mobility Mediated interaction Diverse organizations Communication and Cultural Variations High amp Low Context Cultures High context cultures Japan Korea China Latin America contextual cues time place relationship amp situation to interpret meaning and send subtle messages o Ex Someone remaining silent is not rude more likely that the person is quiet because the situation called for restraint and politeness Lowcontext cultures US Canada E language and relies on situational factors to communicate Collectivist and Individualist Orientations Collectivist China Japan Latin America perceive themselves first as members of a group emphasize cooperation and group harmony group decision making and long term stable friendships Individualist US Europe value individuality place value on autonomy and privacy individual achievement rewarded and individual blame is assigned Comfort with Uncertainty Uncertainty avoidance adapting behaviors in order to reduce uncertainty and risk High uncertainty avoidance cultures cultures that are more anxious about the unknown o Comm governed by formal rules consensus valued low tolerance for differences in opinion Low uncertainty avoidance cultures higher tolerance for risk and ambiguity Masculine amp Feminine Orientations Masculine culture places value on assertiveness achievement ambition and competitiveness make clearer distinctions between 1 aggressiveness in men amp passiveness in women Feminine culture place value on relationships and quality of life affection friendliness amp social support between people Approaches to Power Distance Power distance the way in which a culture accepts and expects the division of power among individuals High power distance cultures people with less power accept their lower position as a basic fact of life Low power distance cultures tolerate less difference in power between people and communicate with higher status people with less anxiety Time Orientation The way that cultures communicate about and with time Monochronic cultures treat time as a limited resource Polychronic cultures comfortable dealing with multiple people and tasks at a time less concerned about making every moment count Value of Emotional Expression Hyperbole vivid colorful language with great emotional intensity collectivist Understatement language that downplays the emotional intensity or importance of events individualistic Understanding Group Affiliations Co Cutura Communication Co cutures groups whose members share at least some of the general culture39s system of thought amp behavior but have distinct characteristics that unify them and distinguish them Generation a group of people who were born into a specific time frame Gender and sex Social Identity and Intergroup Communication Social Identity Theory you have a personal identity which is your sense of unique personality and you have a social identity the part that comes from group memberships Ingroups groups which we identify with Intergroup communication how communication between groups affects relationships Salient our identification and comm shift depending on which group membership is salient at a given moment Intercultural Communication Challenges Anxiety Ethnocentrism A belief in the superiority of your own culture or group amp a tendency to view other cultures through the lens of your own Discrimination Behavior toward a person or group based solely on their membership in a particular group Behavioral affirmation seeing or hearing what you want to see Behavioral confirmation when we act in a way that makes our expectations about a group come true Improving Intercultural Communication Changing thinking Changing feelings Changing behavior Be mindful o Intercultural sensitivity mindfulness of behaviors that may offend others Desire to learn Overcome Intergroup Biases o Intergroup contact theory interaction between members of different social groups generates a possibility for more positive attitudes to emerge Accommodate Appropriately 0 Accommodation adapt and adjust your language and nonverbal behaviors 0 Convergence when speakers shift their language toward each other s way of communicating Practice your skills Listening 21014 629 PM How We Listen Hearing the physiological process of perceiving sound Listening the process of recognizing understanding accurately interpreting and responding effectively to the messages you hear The Listening Process Selecting choosing one sound to listen to over another Attending being willing to focus attention of both the presence and communication of someone else Understanding interpreting and making sense of messages 0 Remembering recalling information Responding generating feedback or reaction Active listening vs passive listening Listening fidelity the degree to which the thoughts of the listener and thoughts of the message producer match following comm Personal Listening Preferences Peope oriented listeners listen with relationships in mind Action oriented listeners focused on tasks Content oriented critical listeners who carefully evaluate what they hear Time oriented most concerned with efficiency Why We Listen Informational Listening Critical Listening Analyze info when there is evidence Empathetic Listening Understanding how people are feeling openness Appreciative Listening Take pleasure in the sounds that you are receiving ChaHenges Environmental factor Hearing and Processing Challenges Multitasking Boredom and Overexcitement Unethical Defensive listening Selective Listening Selfish Listening Hurtful Listening Pseudolistening Communicating in Groups 21014 529 PM Understanding Groups Characteristics of Groups Group a collection of more than 2 people who share some kind of relationship communicate interdependently and collaborate toward a shared purpose A shared identity common goals interdependent relationships Group Types Primary groups ong asting groups that form around the relationships that mean the most to their members Support group set of people who come together to address personal problems while benefiting from the support of others with similar issues Social group opportunities to form relationships with others Problemsolving group group with specific mission Study Groups Focus groups come together to give opinions on specific issue Team group that works together to carry out a project or specific endeavor or compete against other teams Sef directed work team group of skilled workers who take responsibility for producing high quaity finished work Group Development 1 Forming group members try to negotiate who will be in charge and what the group39s goals will be Types of Networks 0 Chain networks 0 A channe networks 0 Collaborationgroup text Wheel networks 0 Like a spider web Individual Differences Cultural Factors Communication Apprehension o Lack of self esteem o Status differences o Unbalanced participation Small Group Communication 21014 529 PM What is small group comm 3 people working towards a common goal Workinginteracting as a group team juries educational hobby What do you think of small group work What are the effects of working in groups Social loafing too many cooks in the kitchen not doing their share Social facilitation people spurring each other on What factors influence whether we get loafing or facilitation Group size o Numbers aren39t exact approx 325 0 What happens with larger groups Few people tend to dominate talk More time needed to reach decisions Subgroups tend to form 0 Optimal size 57 Productivity in small groups productivity and of people has a negative linear relationship Group Cohesiveness o How close connected mutually liked are group members o As cohesiveness increases Commparticipation amp cohesiveness have a positive linear relationship increases Satisfaction amp cohesiveness have positive linear relationship increases Productivity amp cohesiveness have curvilinear relationship more cohesive lower productivity amp less cohesive lower productivity Midde higher Group leadership 0 Good vs Bad leadership What factors determine whether someone will be a good leader Assigned vs emergent leaders 9 low Having the right traits intelligence attractiveness 9 low Having a certain leadership style 9ow o Situational Approach highl Situational Leadership OOO o Leader39s effectiveness depends on Ability to know the groups needstalents Ability to adapt style to fit those needs 0 Two aspects of leadership to adapt Task Orientation amt of attention to the group39s tasksdutiesassignment Relationship Orientation amt of attention to the group members relationshipsconflictsemotion 1119 amp 1121 Org Comm 21014 629 PM Situational Approach Leader39s effectiveness depends on 0 Ability to know the group39s needstalents 0 Ability to adapt style to fit those needs Two aspects of leadership to adapt 0 Task Orientation Amt of attention to the groups tasksdutiesassignment Task Orientation selling HighHigh participating LowHigh teing High Low delegating LowLow Relationship orientation Group Leadership cont Can also have more than one leader in a group Organizational Communication Org comm involves System of individuals Typically organized in a formal hierarchy Pursuing multiple goals Within complex communication networks Organizational Leadership Management vs Visionary Leadership Manager Asks how can we do this best To manage 0 Develop plans budgets etc o Comm is to organize control accomplish tasks Visionary Leader Asks why should we do this at all To lead 0 Envision ong range goals ideals o Comm is to listen inspire cultivate Flow of Messages Downward Comm How do bosses communicate o Often take comm for granted Usually trained in another area 0 Tend to rely on official channels Requests orders memos guidelines policy statements 0 Downward Distortion Selective 2 Exposure attention retention action Upward Comm 0 How do subordinates deliver messages 0 Upward distortion Condensed simplified synthesized Standardized idealized Informal Comm 0 the social grapevine o Distortion leveling sharpening assimilation Organizational Culture Shared beliefs values of the org 0 Norms for working interacting 0 Some are widespread org norms Ex Industry wide jargonoffice speak Workplace traditions casual Fridays 0 Some norms are specific to one org Org culture created sustained amp modified through Stories amp myths told Rituals and ceremonies The social grapevine OOOO Leadership and Decision Making in Groups 21014 529 PM Understanding Group Leadership Leadership the ability to direct or influence others behaviors and thoughts toward a productive end Five Sources of Power Legitimate power comes from an individual s role or title electedappointed leaders Coercive power a person39s ability to threaten or harm others Reward power an individual s capacity to provide rewards Expert power the information or knowledge that a leader possesses Referent power the admiration respect or affection that followers have for a leader Shared Leadership Members feel more satisfied with the group process and more motivated to perform Competence and Ethics Culture and Group Leadership Gender and Leadership Studies show that men amp women39s leadership styles are often dictated by factors other than sex Context and Power Distance High context cultures are more indirect amp ow context are more direct Power distance extent to which less powerful members of a group accept that power is distributed unequally o High need to reassure employees to voice their thoughts o Low don39t need much reassurance Forces that Shape a Group39s Decisions Cognitive Forces a group members thoughts and beliefs Psychological Forces a group members personal motives emotions attitudes and values Social Forces group standards for behavior that influence decision making The Probem Soving Process Identifying the Problem Analyzing the Problem Generating Solutions Evaluating and Choosing Solutions Implementing the Solution Assessing the Results Leadership in Meetings Planning Meetings Effectively o Justify the meeting 0 Clarify the purpose and the participants 0 Set an Agenda Managing Meetings Effectively 0 Arrive prepared Keep the group focused Summarize periodically Keep an eye on time Manage Conflict 0 Follow Up Using Technology in Meetings 0 Group Decision Support Systems computer programs specifically designed to help groups collaborate amp make effective decisions Evaluating Group Performance Informational Considerations Procedural Effectiveness Interpersonal Performance OOOO Communicating in Organizations 21014 629 PM Organizations groups with a formal governance and structure Organizational communication the interaction necessary to direct an organization toward multiple sets of goals Approaches to Managing Organizations Classical Management Approach An approach that likens organizations to machines with a focus on maximizing efficiency Division of labor the assumption that each part of an organization must carry out a specialized task in order for the organization to run smoothly Hierarchy the layers of power amp authority in an org Human Relations Approach Considers the human needs of organizational members Managers express more interest in employees so that everyone has a greater sense of belonging Human Resources Approach Considers organizational productivity from workers perspectives and considers them assets who can contribute their useful ideas to improve the organization Managers learned that workers will be more productive if they tended both to their higher eve amp ower eve needs The Systems Approach universities Views an organization as a unique whole made up of important members who have interdependent relationships in their particular environment Openness an organizations awareness of is own imbalances and problems Adaptability the ability to adjust Communicating Organizational Culture Organizational culture an organization39s unique set of beliefs values norms and ways of doing things Organizational Storytelling The communication of the company39s values through stories and accounts both externally amp internally Organizational heroes individuals who have achieved great things for the organization through persistence and commitment Learning about Organizational Culture Organizational assimilation the process by which newcomers learn the nuances of the organization and determine if they fit in Relational Contexts in Organizations SupervisorSupervisee Relationships Schedule adequate time for important conversations Minimize distractions or interruptions Ask supervisees for suggestions amp ideas Demonstrate you39re listening MentorProt g Relationships Mentor a seasoned respected member of an organization who serves as a role model for a less experienced individual prot g Peer Relationships Peer communication communication between individuals at the same level of authority in an organization Having a workplace best friend makes workers 7 times more likely to enjoy their work and be more productive Challenges Facing Today39s Organizations Communication Technology Media richness the degree to which a particular channel is communicative Surveillance monitoring of employees to see how they39re using technology Globalization The growing interdependence and connectivity of societies and economies around the world Human trafficking the recruitment of people for exploitative purposes Work Life Balance Burnout a sense of apathy or exhaustion that results from long term stress or frustration Work ife balance achieving success in one s personal and professional life Sexual Harassment Mass Communication 1 121 Nature of Mass Comm Messages sent to large and diverse audience Messages mediated through print or electronics Professional communicators as sources Comm is less transactional o Feedback reduced and delayed Knowing your receiver 0 audience more difficult Within US different mass media include o Print media books newspapers mags o Movie industry including theatrical releases DVDs o Broadcast media over air radio amp TV Digital technology media convergence DEAD WEEK Mass Communication cont Influences on Media Content Government influence Technological influence Economic influence Consequences of Economics Need hits big audience 0 Trad view Media content must be dumbed down o Competing viewpoint Competition for audiences leads to both stupid and smart content o TV is getting increasingly smart Shows with narrative complexity etc o NOTE narrowcasting now increasingly possible esp for cablesatellite TV tho ratings still matter What about print media Very little risktaking o Do not want viewers or advertisers offended OOO O Boycotts can sometimes be effective Industry sef censorship is common standards amp practices But controversy can boost ratings Repeat what works sequels remakes spinoffs re reeases Media39s Influences on Us What kinds of effects do the media have 0 It depends Three major trends in empirical research 1 3 A Powerfu Media View 1920s 1940s Scholars argued that media act as hypodermic needle or magic bullet Effects thought to be direct immediate uniform But no research support so now a ong gone viewpoint Limited Effects View 1940s thru present Researchers noticed not everyone is affected amp not in same way Audience is active Selective exposure amp attention Chooseinterpret media to fitreinforce existing attitudes Use media to serve needs see uses amp gratifications in reading Filter messages through relationships Powerful but subtle Effects View 19605 through present Social Learning of behaviors Soc Cog Theory Learn behavior by watching models Studies show imitate rewarded or unpunished behavior short term effects certain factors can inc or dec imitation Cultivation of views about reality Argument is that heavy TV leads to beliefs that match the TV reality Studies show TV viewing is related to beliefs But not clear evidence that TV causes this Communication and Online Technology 125 Internet Access 1995 only 3 of Americans had ever used the Internet 2000 almost 80 had Issues for Interpersonal Comm Lack of nonverbal o Less immediacy than face to face o How do we compensate o Creative use of keyboardenriched text Typing in ALL CAPS colors Emoticons Connection or fragmentation 0 Facebook parody the IT crowd Studies show increasing use for socialrelational purposes Most common motivation for FB keeping in touch with friends No less intimacy that FtF but can take longer Online comm can even be hyperpersona BUT do have to manage the tension of overlapping social spheres Issues for Group Comm Sense of anonymity Sense of community o Exchange of info amp support But also flaming amp trolling Netiquette o brief messages valued no sales or spam o acronyms amp shortcuts common IMHO ROTFL POS o Each group has its own norms too Media convergence alert 0 Grp amp IP messages online can reach millions like mass comm Issues for Org Comm Information based society more specialized knowledgeskills o Increased need for collaboration 0 Comm networks critical o The rise of the virtual organization Issues for Mass Comm Narrowcasting vs broadcasting o much more selectively targeting audiences OOOOO 0 so how mass it is varies widely from highly localized to major org amp mass media markets A Democratizing Technology open up participation in the culturepolitics o No real skills required so anyone can use it o Gives voice to marginalized groups News that mainstream media avoid 2quot opinions on everything fledgling political partiesmovements A democratizing technology o INDIVIDUALS have voicesempowerment User generated content digital video essays blogs Citizen journalists fan groups 0 Media convergence aert Interactivity amp feedback like IP Understanding Mass amp Mediated Comm 21014 529 PM The Nature of Media Defining Mass and Mediated Communication Mediated communication occurs when there is some technology that is used to deliver messages between sources and receivers Mass communication when mediated communication occurs on a very broad scale Media Convergence the merging of traditional mass comm with digital computing and telecommunication technologies The Pervasiveness of Media Media multitasking using more than one media type at the same time Understanding Mass Media Messages The business of media 0 Sources of revenue consumer purchases amp advertising o Exponentiality relatively few items bring most of the income while the rest add only a little Broad versus narrow appeal 0 Low culture entertainment that appeals to most people39s baser instincts typified by lurid sensational images and stories with sex violence scandal and abuse o Narrative complexity complicated plots and connections between characters blurring of reality amp fantasy and time that is not always linear or chronological o Narrowcasting niche marketing the process of targeting smaller specific audiences Minimizing Risk o Selfcensorship carefully monitoring their own content and eliminating messages that might offend viewers 0 Media tries to repeat what has proven to work Free Speech and Media Bias 0 The First Amendment o Electronic Media Regulation Broadcasting signals carried over the airwaves FCC can regulate which companies can broadcast over them Only apply to cable and satellite channels amp radio o Media Bias Effects of Mass Media Selectivity and the Active Audience We make specific choices about what messages we will select and attend to People have different reactions and interpretations of media messages Uses amp Gratifications o What we do with media the way we make media choices in order to satisfy our needs amp goals o Media dependence we come to expect that media will serve certain needs Reinforcing Existing Attitudes o We select and evaluate media in ways that confirm our existing views The Third Person Effect o We assume that negative media messages and bias have a much greater influence on other people than ourselves Influences on Attitudes and Behaviors Social Cognitive Theory we learn behavior by watching the behaviors of those whom we have identified as models More likely to imitate modeled behaviors when we see them get rewards Media provides many modeled behaviors Violence more likely to be imitates when aggressiveness if rewarded rather than punished on TV Behavior is likely to be imitated when it is realistic justified and committed by people the child identifies with Cultivation Theory A steady ong term diet of heavy TV viewing results in perceptions of reality that match the view of reality presented on TV Agenda Setting The idea that extensive media coverage of a particular issue will set the agenda for what issues people are thinking amp talking about Converging Media Technologies Democratic and Social Participation Traditional media only professionals are the gatekeepers that control the creation amp distribution of info amp entertainment Internet use doesn39t require this Connecting Marginalized Voices Technology connects people interested in similar things or charities Social capital the valuable resources that come from having connections and relationships among people Empowering Individuals Citizen journalists User generated content Marketplace of ideas the open forum in which ideas compete Barriers to Participation Digital Divide technology use is divided by household39s annual income Ineffective participation 0 Information overload the difficulty in sorting through and making sense of vast amounts of information 0 Also sometimes difficult to evaluate the quality of info Becoming a More Mindful Media Consumer Media literate developing an understanding of your own media habits and critically evaluating and analyzing media sources and messages Monitor your media use and exposure Consider the source of media messages Be aware of media effects Understand the grammar of media Actively evaluate media messages Review Session 21014 629 PM Groupthink Perceptual biases warm person better overall person Selective perception we have schemas about how the world is going to be we39re more likely to select things that we think are true and not things that we think are not true 0 Women aren39t taken as seriously in the business workplace Understanding Outgroup Biases We attribute certain things usthem Focus more on external factors when it comes to outgroup biases Perceptual bias Consensus need message characteristics the need to feel norma appeas to higher order needs Sharpening focusing on details of the story and intensifying it amp exaggeratingleveling getting rid of detailsassimilation when you have your own personal bias and you change the story because of that Sleeper effect as time goes on TABLE Different types of managing style highhigh focused on tasks and relationships Affirmation choosing what you want to notice what you notice think teens are more lazy you wil notice when teens are Confirmation Taking actions that already confirm what you think Boss of a teenager you will have them do what it is easier Human resources Human relations Extrinsic views before a speaker vs Intristic views after a speaker talks credibility Mass Comm Uses and Gratifications o We use media to gratify certain needs 21014 629 PM