FORENSIC APP SPCH
FORENSIC APP SPCH SPA 2014
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Petra Hansen on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPA 2014 at University of Florida taught by James Harnsberger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/206796/spa-2014-university-of-florida in OTHER at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
SPA 2014 Voice Speech and Intoxication Ethanol Intoxication Process Absorption of alcohol by the body Distribution of alcohol by the body Alcohol elimination Ethanol Intoxication Process Measurement of alcohol concentration Bloodalcohol concentration BAC Grams alcohol per 100 ml blood Breathalcohol concentration BrAC Weight alcohol per volume breath Often converted to BAC scale Ex 008 limit for driving BACBrAC Curve BAC or BrAC 0 T Time Theoretical blood alcohol BAC or breathalcohol BrAC curve 1 absorption phase 2 plateau 3 diffusiomequilibration 4 elimination General Behavioral Effects Visual System Impairment of dynamic visual acuity Reduction in glare resistance longer recovery time Impairment of color discrimination Impaired depth perception General Behavioral Effects Reaction time speed accuracy Slowing under higher doses in response to auditory stimuli Error rates increase speed decreases in typing tests Cognitive functions Color intensity discrimination Divided attention tasks Scanning Increased fixation time Shortterm memory General Behavioral Effects Dosage dependant Low Improvement in motor functioning during rise phase of bell curve Higher doses 003 to 005 Impairment of visual acuity 005 008 Muscle control affected 010 Articulation and other fine movement affected gait abnormality 030 Coma 040 Death from respiratory failure Implications for Speech Increase in misarticulation and substitution rate Increase in fundamental frequency f0 Increase in f0 variability Decrease in speaking rate Increase in number and duration of pauses Reduction in amplitude level and variability Perception of Intoxication in Speech Overall accuracy rate at assessing level of intoxication 7O 80 No significant effects of expertise Speech sample effects Extemporaneous speech allows for easier classification of intoxication level than read speech Forensic Relevance Qualitative assessments by Police officers therapists bartenders lawyers Analysis of evidence recordings when degree of intoxication is relevant Example ExxonValdez case 1989 Case Study Exxon Valdeez httpwwwvoutubecomwatchvLZNMm zzzRyU httpwwwevostcstateakus httpwwwcnncomNATURE990322val dezfishermen Chin and Pisoni chapter on class web page SPA 2014 Speaker Identi cation 3 EanNitness Lineups Introduction EanNitness Lineup Definition A target voice is presented among a set OT TOII v0Ices TOI auditoryonly identification Background to eanNitness lineups Victimwitness is not familiar with perpetrator s voice Latency between crime and earwitness lineup Victims are untrained in assessing speech and voice characteristics Emotional effects on speech during criminal act Individual differences in recalling voices 2172009 Individual Differences Intelligence Shortterm memory capacity Musical aptitude Auditory perception Lineup Methods Issue 1 Listener expectations Does the lineup have to include the perpetrator s voice False alarm bias Issue 2 Sample size quality Issue 3 Foil selection Issue 4 Test Administration 2172009 2172009 Sampbs All exemplars foils and suspect should be equal in length and recording quality Equal or equivalent texts Extemporaneous speech on a neutral topic and read speech on topic FmIVomes Five to Eight voices ranging in similarity from most to least Biasing for or against a suspect Auralperceptually based selection Foils should be equivalent in Age Dialect regional socioeconomic Only nonactors Foil selection should be vetted Mock trial with naive listeners Who should be unable to identify the suspect as Unique in voice Sounds like a criminalquot 2172009 Test Administration Recorded speech only no live presentations No feedback Administrator should be blind to the identity of the recording of a suspect Simultaneous or sequential presentation Listener decision in two stages Is any one of these voices the voice of the perpetrator If so which voice Simultaneous Presentation Evidence recording and foils are all presented within the same trial Single trial vs multiple trial Single trial is said to be more comparable to eyewitness lineups Random orderfor each run in multiple trial presentations AdvantagesDisadvantages of each 2172009 Sequential Presentation Listenercontrolled protocol Order of presentation of each voice controlled by eanNitness EanNitness controls repetition of stimuli
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