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Greek and Roman Mythology

by: Naira

Greek and Roman Mythology

Marketplace > Classical Studies > Greek and Roman Mythology
GPA 3.3

Professor Lynch

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About this Document

These notes are lectures that are taken Tuesdays and Thursdays every week. The notes are 7 pages long and consists of 3 lectures. More will hopefully be added, but only in bundles. So I will po...
Professor Lynch
Class Notes
Greek, Roman, mythology, Deities, Gods, Greece
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naira on Thursday September 4, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 257 views.


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Date Created: 09/04/14
Greek and Roman Mythology Notes 082814 0 Rational interpretations of classical myth are explanations of why something exists 0 Not very common o Etiological and allegorical rational 0 Psychoanalytical interpretations of classical myth are based on our experiences emotions and minds in general o Mind has trouble articulating I Deep in our mind Fear of darkness 0 Latent fears fears we have trouble confronting o Example Viewpoints of a car crash Victim vs bystander o Universal archetypes are stories that reappear over and over again I These are clues to latent fears 0 Structuralism interpretations of classical myth are listen to recording 0 Anthropomorphic actions of the gods o Humans believe if a god can act like a certain way then it its okay for humans to do as well Validates human behavior 0 Apollo and Daphne o Example interpretations I Etiological 0 Why Apollo39s symbol is a laurel I Psychoanalytical What would happen if you don39t get married 0 Wanting what you can39t have I Structuralist 0 Repulsion vs love attraction 0 Need to find balance between two extremes Apollo and Daphne Geography Chronology and Sources 0 Focuses mainly the Ancient Greek area on the Mediterranean sea 0 Greeks weren39t good with sailing or in general water 0 Overview of Greek History 0 Bronze Age I Age of Heroes I Maintained power through wars 0 Warfare was key in this age I Prehistoric inspires later epic story I Society collapses unknown reasons why 0 During this collapse there is depression o Ability to write develops from the Greeks Takes approx 500 years for this to happen o Stories get passed down orally I Stories would sometimes get changed over time 0 Storytellers told stories about events that took place in the Bronze Age 0 Archaic Classical and Hellenistic Periods I Heights of literature art and culture I Greek culture is strong and confident 0 Artwork based on their values 0 Archaic to Classical Greek vs Persians fought over good vs evil 0 Great confidence on their victory on Persians egos in amed 0 Classical to Hellenistic 0 Death of Alexander the Great transition I Wanted revenge on the audacity of Persians wanting to battle the Greeks I Expands Greek world to India I Named buildings and artifacts after himself Example Alexandria Egypt I His aw was that he didn39t think he would die 0 No heir to continue his power and expansion 0 Friends of Alexander the Great fought over to see who would take Alex39s place when he died at 32 o Shift to individualism because Greek minds were narrow Communal religion to Salvation 0 Cleopatra was a Greek had an affair with Iulius Caesar then Mark Anthony 0 Anthony wanted the powerful goods the wealth of Egypt as he wanted to defeat the powerful Romans 0 Roman soldier Octavian later called Augustus defeats Mark Anthony Octavian gets Egypt 0 Romans respected the Greeks and respected their values artwork Romans adapted all Greek values and fit their own needs 0 Roman Domination I Adopts and adapts Greek culture and myths I Successor of Roman empire is the Byzantine empire I Aneas smother is Aphrodite 0 The Citadel of Troy Period BRONZE AGE 0 Stories that were told didn39t have to be accurate but relevant to the message that was supposed to be sent 0 No archeological evidence of Helen I There was archeological evidence of women 0 Statue of a Youth Greek Period Archaic o Nudity was a key attribute characteristic re ects Greek values 0 You want to see the fitness of the male body it39s a metaphor of the fitness of the mind Fit male bodies re ect their intelligence 0 Egyptians adopted Greek statues 9Statue of Thutmosis III Egyptian 0 The Parthenon Athens Greece Period Classical 0 Hellenistic sculptures have more emotion a kind of story visceral or primitivebasic simple 0 Statue of Augustus First Roman Emperor Period Roman 0 Sources of knowing all of this information I Ancient original literature 0 Many originally oral stories 0 Authors biases ad goals 0 There is no one canonical official or undisputed version 0 EarlyPrehistoric I Ancient Art 0 Tells a story narrative 0 Iconography Imagery 0 Conventions and attributes 090214 Creation of the Greek Gods Read Chapter 3 amp 4 go on Blackboard for reference guide and study guide 0 Hesoid author of Theogony Translation Birth of the Gods and Works and Days 0 Poetry sung oral tradition o Divinely inspired by Muses daughters of Zeus 0 Hesiod s Goals 0 Creation and genealogy of the gods 0 Cosmogony creation of the physical world Purposes Zeus power 0 o Civilization dominance over chaos o Humankind s place in the world 0 First generation of Gods 0 Chaos 9 EarthGaiaGe Tartaros underworld 9Love Eros 0 Erebus Night Aetheramp Day 0 HeavenOuranosUranus 0 Hills 0 Pontus Sea o Children of Earth Parthenogenic o Parthenos virgin 0 Oceanus is the offspring of Earth Gaia and Heaven Ouranos I Gaia and Ouranus breed 12 children the first was Oceanus and the last child was Cronus 0 Cronus is the scheming intriguer cleverest child of he brood who hated his lecherous father Ouranus Children of Heaven and Earth are called TITANS Gaia and Ouranos creates Cyclopes o Then creates 3 Hecatonchires Multiple heads and hands 0 Ouranos shoves them back into Earth because they are bad and ugly Phaethon son of Helios who is son of Hyperion and Theia Gaia talks to Cronus to do the right thing to stop Ouranus o Cronus chops off Ouranus genitals and releases to the sea I Sea Oceanus and the genitals create Aphrodite Goddess of Love has a more primordial origin than the other gods such as Zeus I BloodFuries GIANTS some nymphs o Cronus assumes he can take the power I Rhea Cronus Demeter Hera Poseidon Zeus Hestia and Hades children of sons who already overthrown his father I Cronus starts to eat his children so they cant overthrow him I When Rhea is finally pregnant with Zeus the Gods of Heaven and Earth hides them so Zeus can grow up safely 0 Zeus is born in Mt Lykaion I Cronus doesn39t even pay attention to when Rhea wraps a rock and veils it as a baby He eats the baby quickly Etiological explanation power of love prevails over everything that has happened Psychoanalytical jealousy hatred passion Oedipus complex fear of castration Structural Earth and Sky hate and love male and female Chaos and Civilization Order Hierarchy Feminist Male has more power over females and female are responsible for producing children damsel in distress o Males have more power however females are exercising their own power ex Theia is protecting Zeus from Cronus Zeus consolidates his power o Must overthrow Father Cronus Titanomachy 10 year battle I Olympians Cyclopes Hekatonchires some of the Titans VS Cronus and the rest of the Titans I Cronus loses and spits back out all his children 0 Themis God of Divine Law and Order and justice is allied with Zeus 0 Cronus and the rest of the losers titans are imprisoned by Zeus 0 Gigantomachy Battle against the Giants Zeus wins and imprisons them 0 Gaia Tartaros Typhoeus o Zeus fights Typhoeus and he o All symbols are triumphs of civilization and justice over uncivilized and unruled people 0 Succession myth Divine precedent of succession from father to son THERE IS NO SUCCESSION AFTER ZEUS because after the battle of titans he distributes his powers to other Gods Olympus o Zeus represents model leadership 0 Allegory for human leadership teaching those values Creation of Mortals o Zeus alone did this or Zeus worked with other Gods 0 Q Prometheus created men out of clay I Athena breathed life into this clay figures 0 Women are created separately o Prometheus vs Zeus o Prometheus tricks Zeus twice I Prometheus eats an animal but gives the bones wrapped in skin leftovers to Zeus I Prometheus steals fire from Zeus and gives to the mortals o Zeus decides to punish both Prometheus and mortals I Zeus hangs Prometheus up on a mountain and eagle eat his liver as soon as he heals the vultures do it again 0 Hercules eventually saves him I Zeus punishes the mortals by creating some ugly and distasting woman He creates Pandora and with her box that she gives to Prometheus son the box releases evil sorrow pain disease etc everything except hope 090414 Questions 1 Zeus ancestry a Chaos 9 Gaia Ouranos 9 12 Titans Kronos 9Kronos Rhea 9 Olympian Gods Zeus was the last 2 Two binaries in Hesiod s creation story a Civilization vs chaos b Heaven and Earth Ouranos and Gaia 3 Example of the universal unconscious a Civilization is the dominance over chaos Good vs evil good always prevails b Fear of father being overthrown by son 4 Example of Etiology a In Apollo and Daphne39s story an explanation is why Apollo39s symbol is a laurel b Why volcanoes exist explains Giants are trapped underneath trying to break out eruptions 5 Hesiod s creation story is really about the foundation and explanation of life came to be It shares how the first Gods were created who then procreated the first titans then the Olympian Gods In addition it provides theories of how mankind was born a The need for civilization order and how it trumps chaos and evil Zeus is a model for leadership Ovid Roman author Humans fashioned from mud clay mix of earth and rain by Prometheus Athena breathes life into the clay o Earth and rain Binary opposition Hesiod s version of creation of mortals o Five Ages of Man I Gold Humans created by the gods when Cronus was king lived without toil and old age the earth covered them and they live on as benevolent spirits I Silver Humans created by the go long childhood and short adulthood destroyed by Zeus because they do not worship the Gods I Bronze Bronze race of humans created by Zeus war like destroyed by their own deeds I Heroes Humans made by Zeus valiant and just some killed in the Trojan war and some live on ruled over by Cronus on islands at the age of the earth I Ion Made my Zeus and still inhabiting the earth end of toil and woe no defense against evil etc Relationship of Mortals and Gods o Gods need humans because they gain power through worship o Zeus dislikes mankind o Prometheus champions mankind always looks out for the humans Mankind s punishment from Zeus Pandora39s box Zeus is still mad so he sends a great ood o Only Deukalion son of Prometheus and Pyrrha daughter of Epimetheus survive 0 They are the parents of mankind I Flood is an important archetype Characteristics of Zeus o Married Hera but slept with a lot of women o King of the Gods o Wrathful jealous unpredictable but also the arbiter of justice o Archetypal husband unfaithful o Cannot change Fate can be disobeyed Attributes of Zeus o Enthroned 0 Eagle 0 Staff lightning o Bearded Olympia first discovered and identified in 1776 German excavations since 1875 still going Location of ancient Olympic Games 0 Main focus of worship is Zeus Zeus and Hera 0 Further enactment of sacred marriage Hera often appears as vehement wife intent on revenge She is a champion of morality marriage women childbirth Attributes of Hera veil peacock


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