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Date Created: 09/04/14
Week 1 9414 1044 AM Class 2 Converting slaves into Christians Cultivation of arts Slaves allowed to go to church with white o Forced to listen to sermons Some sermons contradicted their very existence o Music inconsistent with their music Slaves taught music by masters Free entertainment When did the process of discultivation begin Begin with Spirituals Week 2 9414 1044 AM Class 1 Spirituals Frederick Douglass 1845 narrative Ring Shout Dance Derived from wandering verses Characteristics Highly syncopated Pentatonic scale 5 tone scale From memory Broken English Sadness and pathos o Anti abolitionists argued that spirituals were proof that slavery was easy Class 2 Minstrelsy and ragtime Minstrelsy 1840s Ragtime Initially called Ethiopian minstrelsy Thomas Rice o Observed a black man and started darkening his face and mimicking him Zip coon o Urban slave Jim Crow o Slow ignorant o Rural slave o Synonym for segregation The blacks ran their White counterparts into vaudeville outcompeted them o Vaudeville a new form of theater 1980 Prepared blacks for entertainment Stereotypes arose about black people some around still today didn t die easily o Blacks are crazy violent o Black men have fascination for white women o They will touch you stab you Piano modifications occured o Handcrafted extremely expensive o After civil war blacks wanted to play keyboard instruments I Keyboard instrument was associated with the rich a statement of status Mimicking Waltzes improvising highly syncopating 0 Right hand syncopated melody left oompa Jig piano 0 OOOOO Completely improvised non literate Highly rhythmic People in search of wages traveled town to town Piano contests Became known as professors Harmonic Commercial ragtime OOOOO 0 Commercial form Form that was played in jukes Background music Designed to make you forget about everything else Lighter More complicated harmonically than jig Classic rag O OOOOO Scott Joplin Scott Joplin Most musically complex Written down Melody was introspective Harmonies were advanced Modulation key to key Died in Brooklyn buried in Queens 1917 John Smith College for Negros Maple Leaf Rag became very ambitious with his rags O attempted to Write opera I first one A Guest of Honor 393 no copies of it I second one Treemonisha 393 performed in 1915 the one we know about Week 3 9414 1044 AM Class 1 Blues DownhomeCountry blues o Men accompanied themselves on banjo or other folk style instruments o Came about later period of 19 century o Doesn t feature the characteristics of the blues we see today Vaudeville blues o Cultivated by people from vaudeville background by women o 20 century o accompanied by a small jazz ensemble Urban blues o started in the late 20s o by men I accompanied by small ensemble Typical paradigm o Phrase AAB statement repetition of statement and contrasting statement I Not a politically correct music o Metrical 12 bars divided equally each phrase has four bar o Harmonic structure 141541 or 14151 additional two points write a blues AAB structure doesn t have to be coherent typed Creoles of Color Came about in an unusual way o Children of slave masters and slave women I Had no definition are they free or slaves I Law Masters could determine for their children 1724 D In some cases masters gave large sums of money and even property Came to have a foothold in the economy Distinguished themselves in the arts Established a large class system o No White blood black negro 1 black 12 black mulatto 3 black quadron 78 black Had their own slaves OOOOO I Treated their slaves differently I Loyalty to the south questioned Louisiana legislative act 11 o Anyone of any black ancestry were black I Affected where they sat in train cars I But they didn t consider themselves black or white Many played a big role in Jazz o Were able to teach black Jelly Roll Morton o Great pianist o Pimp New Orleans in the late 19 century Major art center International stop Known for art and culture Port city o International people stopped through Prostitution o Very powerful o Aggravated the well to do o Prostitutes contributed to the economy politics liked having them Sydney Storyville o Created a 38 block area called Storyville I Prostitution legal o Huge powerful red light district o Gambling dives o Music ragtime blues etc the peoples music 1917 Tuxedo Club o had to close because 4 people died o very violent place Charles Buddy Bolden Trumpet player Jazz Died before 1910 o Many artists vied for the position as the top trumpeter I Joseph King Oliver 1911 Ragtime Jazz 1917 just jazz New Orleans Jazz derivation was ragtime rhythm section bass banjo and tuba front line trumpet improvise main melody trombone clarinet o collective improvising unit Ken Orwy Great trombonist Freddie Trumpeter Offered to record jazz album o Turned down because he didn t want anyone to copy his sound Louis Armstrong In the late 1890s Before you had multiple drummers Someone created the foot pedal trap drum set Class 2 Chicago Jazz Collective improvisation to solo improvisation Louis Armstrong set the standard for improv Small ensemble was augmented o More than one clarinet trumpet etc Coleman Hawkins o Saxophone New instrument vibraharp today a vibraphone Emphasis on four beats Hot style of jazz o Emphasis on improve Sweet style more written o Paul Whiteman I 1 million dollars a week Duke Ellington Boogy woogy 1920s Week 4 9414 1044 AM Class 1 quiz Class 2 cancelled Week 5 9414 1044 AM Class 1 Midterm Prep Spirituals What was the view of the anti abolitionists Abolitionists o Proof that the slaves were living in despicable conditions Accompanied with ring shout Minstrelsy Thomas Dartmouth Rice o Actor o Blackened his face with black cork 1846 THE theatrical form Jim Crow Caricature of rural slave Characteristics pathetic ignorant down trodden sad Caricature of urban slave Characteristics pretentious Blues Phrase structure AAB Metric structure 12 bars Harmonic 14151 141541 Scale hexatonic scale Creoles of Color Code of Law in 1724 regulated the blackness of the children of slave women and white masters o Were they free or were they slaves o Identity issues New Orleans o All the free blacks in one area Creoles separated themselves o Built for themselves a huge economy Class caste system o No White blood Negro o 18 sacatra o 12 mulatto o 14 quardroon 0 78 Rich white men would create contracts with parents of Creole girls to become their mistresses o Why would they want that I Upgrading raceincreasing whiteness Could pass for white Jelly Roll Morton was a Creole Jig Piano o Different from commercial because it is completely improvised Commercial o Relaxation recreation what you would hear in a brothel Classic o Different from commercial rag because this is very elevated and sophisticated o Scott Joplin I Born died 1917 I Published first rag in 1899 I Treemonisha Two things that allowed ragtime to ourish o Keyboard piano I Cheaper more available I Piano is a big deal because it represented wealth 393 People wanted this symbol of wealth and status 0 Civil war I Redefinition of themselves after the war First person to record a rag William Krell white 1897 Mississippi Rag First black to publish rag Harlem Rag Thomas Turtin Storyvillle Sydney Story 38 blocks prostitution was profitable closed 1917 Josephine Oliver Louis Armstrong Jazz Set the standard for solo improvisation o Used to be collective art before New Orleans Jazz Small ensemble Consisted of rhythm section frontline trumpet mainlead trombone slow moving counter melody clarinet faster Conductor drums they kept the rhythm Chicago Jazz Ensembles were changed by becoming bigger created need for composers Shifted emphasis of how jazz was performed o You can t improvise with a big group o Play by sections that play against each other Piano became a standard solo instrument a standard part of the ensemble these things eventually lead to swing the section playing the increased need for conductor and composed music boogy woogy introduced the walking bass Swing Small ensemble Principle ensemble 4 trump 4 trombone 4 o Rhythm section guitar bass piano Principle Darnell Hampton Vibraphone vibraharp Principle composer Luke Ellington How do you get holy water you boil the hell out of it Week 6 9414 1044 AM Class 1 Bebop First political jazz style Drug use if it was negative they did it on purpose to piss you off interracial dating Christianity is contradictory religion o Black people got lynched all the time Bebop motif o Cross rhythms o Two playing against each other Harmonies complex Piano virtuosos Class 2 There many artists disenchanted by swing Swing didn t provide much room for improve o Emphasis was on how the band could interact Dated white women Minton s playhouse Louis Armstrong Bebop Artists not entertainers Christianity is contradictory Charactersistics o Cross rhythms o Poly rhythms o Improv virtuosity o Variation of compliment o Harmonic complexity o upbeat Reaction o West coast studio o Anti bepob Led to new style of jazz cool 19481957 characteristics o harmonic rhythm Aaron Copeland Highly rep by Whites Miles Davis o Former beboper o Birth of the Cool o Limitations I Lacked harmonies I Virtuosity wasn t an issues I Symphonic in a Way Back to the roots Soul jazz Based on folkspirituals Pop style coming about in the same time soul music Jazz rock 1970 Ramsey Louis Week 8 9414 1044 AM Class 1 Boogy woogy Basis of rhythm and blues which is basis of rock Starts 1900 Three phases o 190030 characterize by improv I started as blues piano style I left hand walking bass pattern I right hand improvised melody against it mimicked the environment train sounds cowbells etc I lumber industry and railroad industry o 1930 40s no longer contained to piano I even harps I infused with rhythm and blues I associated with jazz o 194050 becomes more mainstream I everyone is doing it Review blues Down home blues o Principle performers men accompanied themselves with banjo or self style instrument like guitar Vaudeville o Vaudeville women o Accompanied by small jazz ensemble Phrase structure AAB Harmonic Metric 12 bars Gospel Music Not spirituals Charles Tinley o Hymns performed in Gospel style two decades later Thomas Dorsey o Not white jazz artist o Blues pianist and composer o Established one of the first great gospel publishing companies Swing Always had vocalists Ella Fitzgerald Tisk and a Tasket Louis Jordan o Aspiring singer sax player o Principle rhymth and blues group of the 40s I Tympany Five Upbeat form of swing o Jump swing o Jump blues June 1949 Billboard renamed it to rhythm and blues not race and blues o Rockrock n roll I Allen Free referred to white groups as rock n roll Precursor of rap Rhythm and Blues Rhythm section played by sax o Harsh and very unlike sax of swing which was sultry and romantic I Honkers almost always a sax solo o 1950s started to change mid 40s o son of an ambassador who loved black music created a company for Black artists I Ray Charles was very interested didn t have his own style yet 393 I got a savior to I got a woman gospel quality of sound but secular lyrics Icon of rhythm and blues Thomas Gordon I got a woman Chick Web Class 2 Bebop Followed swing Issues with swing o Conform to existing stereotypes of black people o Swing didn t allow enough space for personal improvisation Cool How did they go about creating bebop o Jam sessions I Where Memphis playhouse in Harlem after hours place Concerns about bebop behaviors o Interracial dating o Did things to provoke the system o Showed support for Britain s enemies on stage I At the beginning of the fall of the British empire which was a symbol to them about Western arrogance Called themselves hipsters Not Without controversy themelves o Culminated cool More lyrical Based upon swing effect of Lester Young o Laid back feel Only jazz style that Style that rediscovered the big band Lasted 194858 After came the style of Soul Jazz and Soul Music o After Soul Jazz came Avantgarde nationalism Avant Garde nationalism Free jazz Jazz rock o Ramsey Louis o Took off in the 1970s I Miles Davis I Very commercial form of jazz I Similar to fusion and smooth jazz simply popularizing jazz I Noble Washington Jr BoogieWoogie 1900s blues style phase 1 190030 o characteristics improv left hand walking base right hand pattern against it o railroad and lumber industry I sounds of the environment I many songs named after trains I 1928 first boogie woogie published phase 2 193040 phase 3 mainstream o loses blues orientation Icon of rhythm and blue of 1940s Louis Jordan Nickelodeon Machine you put a nickel in and it shows you a clip of the music Video Led to full music Videos Ray Charles I Got a Savior I Got a Woman quiz 5 to 10 questions Week 10 Independent Record Companies Atlantic Records 1947 Ray Charles Ruth Brown Joe Turner Early 40s 50s Vivian and James Bracken Chicago record company Became principle black record company until Motown Country music Axton and Jim Stewart Satellite Records 30 miles down Memphis Detroit songwriter Motown Jazz musicians were basis o Funk Brothers 1940s 16251 harmonic structure for Newhop Sam Cook Soul artist 1964 died Class 2 Review Day The four record companies Atlantic Records o Who created it o Year 1947 o Writiers LaVerne Baker Ruth Brown Ray Charles 1953 BJ Records o started by Vivian James Brackins o focused on doowop o El Dorados Spaniels the Pips 9414 1044 AM o 1961 big hit Duke of Earl o what great group was introduced the o closed in 1966 went bankrupt 1959 StacksSatelite o Jim Stewart and Estelle Axel o Memphis o Intended for countrywestern station I Not successful in that became rhythm and blues o Became basis for southern soul and sound RampB Detroit Motown 1959 o Barry Gordon o Studio band Funk Brothers o Name 5 people from o After Motown Philly International Sound Records Jazz styles Bebop o Motif at the end of phrases and fragments two notes usually isolated that seem to say bebop Bebop cool o Cool had classical association Most celebrated artist of bebop Charlie Parker Trumpeter You stole my wife you horse thief name of club that beboppers had Minton playhouse in Harlem where they had jam sessions spirituals based on pentatonic scale two caricatures in minstrelsy urban slave zip coon rural Jim crow proliferated after the civil war blacks drove the whites into vaudeville blues phrase structure metric harmonic duwop structure 16451 the style of the 50s most important composer of ragtime Scott Joplin died in 1917 when was opera finished and staged what factors led to ragtime three different styles 0 jig o commercial o classic Thomas Dorsey What mediums are used to express Gospel musis Small Vocal ensemble Choir Solo Voice Phases of boogey woogey 190030 3040 4050 1928 Pine Tops Boogey earliest known jazz artist in new Orleans Charles Buddy Bolden first person to have rag comp William Crow in 1897 Mississippi Rag first black Harlem Rag