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by: Gregory Bergnaum V


Gregory Bergnaum V
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gregory Bergnaum V on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 3620 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/206851/ant-3620-university-of-florida in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 09/18/15
Language and Culture Exam 2 Review A Sociolinguistics and Ethnography of Communication 1 Main points of Duranti s second paradigm adurantis second paradigm incorporating anthro topics and methods into the study of language 2 Definition of sociolinguistics ethnography of communication a study of language use across speakers and activities to discover patterns of linguistic variation beth of comm P P PP E J Purpose to understand how language is influenced by the context of speech events and to discover culturally relevant features of variation Settings Topics Participants Goals Forms of communication at the gator game a ritualized communal chants b nonverbalcommunication c cheers 3 Method used by sociolinguists to study language use a Field notes b Recordings transcripts c Participant observantion dnforma intervires eAudio recording 4 Important aspects for conducting an ethnography of communication speech B Class Dialect PPN Settings Topics Participants Goals 1 Dialects differ systematically in three main areas phonology syntax and lexicon 2 Accent regional phonological variation 3 Dialect leveling and dialect variation in the US Hyde County NC study aafrican Americans and European Americans have lived together since the 1700s bsimilar dialect across races 1 now what s happening a African American english is becoming more distinct from SAE mainly younger group 4 Idiolect ahas their own distinct way of talking or idiolect 5 quotstandardquot English Who speaks it adoesn t exist 9quot Postvocalic r deletion is a phonological feature of which regional dialect aNew England 7 Dialects may emerge as the result of which two types of isolation ageographic and social 8 Burns Aphasia article and lecture a Uses anthro methods to understand aphasia bNotes 10410 C Race Ethnicity and Ideology Ava lecture In San Felipe Yucatan some fish species have Spanish names and some have Maya names Why is this aif fish previously had a use value before spanish colonization more likely to have a mayan name bthose that have Spanish name prolly weren t used regularly by mayan 2 Why do they continue to come with new names for fish species a named fish among themselves based on what they ve seen it do 3 According to the quotNerdsquot article appropriate quotwhitenessquot requires aappropriate whiteness requires appropriation of blackness but only once those black styles became deracalized and no longer confer racial markedness 4 Why does Bucholz focus on white nerds instead of some other group a 5 Does each group the readings from this week use language as a form of resistance If so how do they accomplish this a Hip hop artists nerds latino workers 6 In the introduction to the quotFresh Prince of BelAirquot TV series what themes are contrasted Watch it and see don t make assumptions based on what you think you know about the show htt www outubecom watchvhBe0VCsoO sampfeaturerelated a City versus urban white versus black rich versus poor 7 Barrett s research at the Mexican restaurant Mock Spanish his methods for studying a Observation of conservations between most Spanish speaking workers and English speaking managers 8 Does each group the readings from this week use language as a form of resistance If so how do they accomplish this a D Sex Gender Language and Power 4 Gender is performative what does this mean aGender must be constantly reaffirmed and publicly displayed by performing particular acts in accordance with cultural norms Results of experiment in which men and women where equally well informed on a subject Holmes awhen equally well informed men speak more to women than to men why In the study of courtroom witnesses it was demonstrated that quotwomen39s langaugequot was used more by which group What are some examples of llwomen s language 1 hedges a its is sort of hot I guess 2 super polite forms a ifyou don t mind 3 empty adjectives a charming lovely 4 women a married housewife 114 b married work unknown 84 c pathologist experienced witness18 5 men a ambulance attendant new on job 139 b d supervisor b Low social status associated with high wl features across sexes c Better understood in terms of power and status than sex Santiago Ruiz 1 What are the 2 most vulnerable aspects of globalization but the Garifuna have used them as sources of resistance 0 According to Santiago ruiz multilingualism and gender have historically been the most vulnerable aspects of globalization but for the garifuna arte sources of resistance 2 Characteristics of Garifuna language origins and gender differences 0 What are the origins of the garifuna lang and ppl I Arawaks and caribs o How do men and women speak differently And have different roles in language transmission E I Lexicon Diff personal pronouns I Women have central role in language transmission Language as Social Action 1 Iquot Blum39s quotNaming Practices in Chinaquot what does she say about names and how they relate to socialization and society in general anames are not static and forever but occur on a daily basis in china brelationships are constructed on a daily basis through interactions relationships emerge through speaking kinship terms c children are taught how to address people d Rituals in which object names is auspicious 1 Zazio dates fruit 2 Are eaten at weddings to encourage the early comings of sons 3 Zao early zison 4 The word for quotdatesquot is homophonous with llearly sonquot e Ina uanaet or medicine counsel 1 used to advise or counsel potential medicines in order to activate or make them effective 2 with counsel anything can become medicine 3 through language objects are transformed 4 unlike other indigenous groups do not use consciousness altering substances in ceremonies a whoever holds microphone doesn t haver to take the exam and will get an a everyone wants the mic The mic has been changed through language It has a desirable purpose etc Performative utterances are not used to describe something Can they be judged as true or false a Performative utterances are not used to describe and are thus not true or false 1 Notes 92910 II Guest speaker A teach for America i close leaming gap for low income students ii 11000 signing 2000 bonus iii Teachforamericaorg III Section 2 sociolinguistics A 5 weeks i Ethnography of communication oct 11 ii Exam 2 oct 29 iii 2 quizzes tba B This week i Intro to sociolinguistics C Next week i Read burns article by Monday ii Will release exam answers mon IV Durantis second paradigm A Incorporating snthro topics and methods into the study of lang B Sociolinguistics i Study of lang use across speakers and activities to discover patterns of linguistic variation ii Goal to styiudy lang acrtoss speakers and activities iii Prefer unit of ana 1 speech community communicative competence repertoire lang variety speech event speech act genre C Ethnolingiuistics i Straddle line between lSt and 2quotd paradigm V Ethnography of communication A Purpose to sunderstand how lang is in uenced by the context of speech events and to stydu lang in its widest cultural and social context in otder to discover culturally relevant features of variation B 4 key components of the speech event i Setting where does the event take place How does the setting in uence the nature of the speech event ii Participants who is foint the talkinggt what is the relationshop between speakers Does gender age or social status or where the speakers are from in uence iii Topics where atr they talking about iv Goals what is the purpose of the speech event convey ingfo give directions get to know one another C Methods i Field notes ii Recordingstranscripts iii Participant observantion v Informal intervires v Audio recording vi Resources 1 readings bonvillian under resources office hours VI An ethnography of communication A how do students communicate at a gator football gamegt B try and view it as an outsider a student of culture and language C setting i sept 25 711 pm ii uf vs Kentucky iii stadium iv row 72 student section 1 stadium divided based on socioeconomic status a skyboxes vs nosebleed section 2 degree of association relationship with universities a students visitors band bull gators alumni 3 setting is related to society ones place in society is related to distinct speech patterns D all part of a larger ritual gameday 39 mass consumption of drink and food ii games ii39 socializing iv changes with technology changes in speech patterns badgood wasted trashed is a good thing on gameday E post game i partying to celebrate a victory ot forget a loss assertion of identity and communitas 1 song ofthe south 2 dance party 3 eating 4 to the bars parties ritual and liminal moments i a time of transition celebration not de ned ii rules become fuzzy suspended iii social lines are blurred sense of community iv behaviors that would otherwise be unacceptable are ok G participants i students 1 uniforms a orange and blue b white button down shirt i orange and blue tie sunglasses sunglasses holder for a night game ii khacki pants shorts iii shoes insider outsider dillemma iv sun dresses v androgyny and strict gender roles lt 3911 c physical emotional stat i drunk hot dehydrated excited H forms of communication ritualized communal chants cheers i ii iii iv 1 2 3 4 5 a two bits orange blue orange blue kickoff lets go gators a subversive variation i you suck assholes gator jaw clap key jangling we are the boys from old orida individual spontaneous comments 1 that wasn t brantleys fault 099N what is your fucking problem you suck he is awesome give it to demps for fucks sake tend to be on the extremes vulgarity acceptable syntax negotiable Choose from a stock acceptable statement and themes nonverbal communication 1 2 3 4 5 high 5 double high approval elation head grasp head shake despair bouncing hands clasped anxiety signs first down no good its good pa1roting official gestures roar of the crowd I 2 3 individual spontaneous use of noise a in response to actions on the eld b cultural norms c becomes collective boo Negative follows bad call by ref elongated score by opponent yay And variations of positive evaluations 1 why make noise demonstrate support for the home team inhibiting the ability of the other ram to communicate their plan for iii i39 action to demonstrate solidarity with other fans and the team by participating in common rituals l 2 3 team specific go gators general jump around celebration show of approval VII VIII 4 individual comments what the fuck is their problem the speakers must know that their message can not be heard by the recipient 5 individual function social release through yelling J the use of silence is situational and socially de ned i offense on field 7 quiet i39 offense is in huddle more quiet ii39 prior to extra point extremely silent iv moment of silence national anthem H lt grading A instructions online grading online B worth 25 pts grading on 3 components i content qualityu of analysis applying analysis composition ii 2 pg double 3 max Notes 10110 Fish names and naming fish in the yucatan peninsula A San felipe conzumel B 2 maya words that have entered the English language i Hurricane huraca n god of storm ii Xoc shark 1 mid 1600s Hawkins and fishing creates shark 2 by mid l7Lh century was accepted lang san felipe yucatan A language Spanish and maya yucatacan maya specifically i maya lang is dying and there is stigmatism towards the racelang have to be old to know the lang girls forbidden to date man because the mans last name was mayan B actan chuleb original mayan name to san felipe i place where the chuleb bird drinks C dive for lobsters since 1970 i govt initiated fisherman s cooperative ii lobster has no traditional use value lobster grouper octopus main commercial species lobsters accessible with intensive technology export mriented economy diving for lobsters first hand view of marine environment methodology 39 freelisting ii 46 cards with photos of sh 42 fisherman named the fish iii Commercial versus non commercial exchange value versus no exchange value if not in demand less likely to have spanish name EDITING quotH H 1 Fish San felippe canane i1 Peurto rico colirubbia ii39 English yellowtail snapper XI XIII XIV iv Names are not always shared outside of community Some of sh have mayan names some have English names some spanish 1 if sh previously had a use value before spanish colonization more likely to have a mayan name 2 those that have Spanish name prolly weren t used regularly by mayan sh with mayan names 1 maxkil dirty woman woman who does not bathe very often 2 chata cazon 3 chacchi red mouth sh chi mouth 4 5 lt v39 chacchi Amarillo mayan name with Spanish quali er bulkai 6 common names based on looks or danger involved vii naming is an ongoing process 1 kagona sh the big pooper seen sh ltering food from sand named sh among themselves based on what they ve seen it do 2 chata atype of cazon shark pan de cazon name all of the types of cazon you know jaqueton chata tutzun dzusum canwai canxoc tabasqueno also canXin xocotico xoccito little shark Fr F939r39F QOWFDQ9 9 Notes 10410 Guest professor burns Admin details A Essay due next Monday B Turn in through sakai i Due time class starts ii Ethnography description in context C Burns i Uses anthro methods to understand aphasia Speaker A Talking about aphasia B Lang and culture focuses on rst hand data C What happens when people speak D Talked to a patient for a long time and do in depth analysis of reactions P1 Other group studied length of silence number of times laughed were not associated with data had no background info on patient Didn t talk in hospital because was an arti cial not natural place to conduct linguistic work instead interviewed in natural environment of home When you speak and when you don t speak what situations expected to talk informally football game or formally Ethnography understand where you might talk and when you do talk when u talk formally or informally speak Spanish at home but English when friend is over then it feels unnatural Right side brain damage can talk perfectly but emotional bubble around language is broken talking normally and suddenly they are crying or laughing Sociolinguistics part context of your speech and how people interpret the words in those context XV Sociolinguistics and aphasia A Aphasia i What is it 1 aphasia is an acquired communication disorder that impairs a person s ability to process language but does not affect intelligence a aphasiaorg ii from strokes N 40 head injuries through accidents trauma etc iii approximately one million people are diagnosed with aphasia iv are there others V Is aphasia defined by cultural or physiological criteria B Types of aphasia i Broca s aphasia 1880 s first diagnosis of aphasia made by dr broca could only say tom but completely intelligent in other areas ii Wemickies aphasia speech clear and intonation great but didn t make sense verbal incontinence iii Brocas aphasia difficulty in speaking iv Wemickies aphasia0 comprehension long sentences v Transcortal aphasia C Sociolinguistics and aphasia Who are the participants ii What are the topics that make up talk iii What is the setting iv What is the sequence of talk v What are the registers formal informal humor etc vi What are the norms of politeness and interpretation vii How speech associated with a role in a community viii What is the role of bilingualism ix How can an intervention be created x language occurs in a social environment 3911 Q F 3 4 H XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI XXII Notes 10610 Week 7 A Mon burns sociolinguistics and aphasia B Weds American tongues regional dialects i Office hours ii 3530 C Fri at social differences in speech Week 8 A Mon eth of spch due B Submit under assign tab before 155 pm C No ares reading for next week only blum D Exam responses are open to see E No class on Friday American tongues A Is there a standard American way of speaking Differences between accent and dialect What are the historical roots of different American dialects When do you hear ppl speaking different dialect what makes them different from the way you talk i Phonological syntactic ort lexical differences How is the way we speak related to i Social status where we grew up region and socioeconomic The way we live out lives How we are perceived by others B C D m Dialect A Everyone has their own distinct way of talking of idiolect B There is no standard English but rather many dialects of a language i Mutually intelligible forms of a language that differ in systematic ways 1 lexicon syntax phonology C dialects tells other people information about our class education and where we come from Phonological differences A Regional phonological variationsaccent i Pahk the cah 7 ne usa ii Pillow iii Crayon iv Pecan v Wash vi Others Syntactic differences A AAE African American English i I late ii I be late B SAE standard American English XXIII XXIV XXV XXVI XXVII i I am late ii I am habitually late C The sentences are constructed according to different syntactic think grammatical rules D Although the SAE version is considered correct English both are governed by rules of sentence construction and are thus grammatically correct from a linguistic standpoint Differences in lexicon A We have different words to describe things unique vocabularies i Us regions 1 schlep nebby wicked 2 carry nosy awesome usEngland 1 lift lorry buff fanny 2 elevator truck gay ii Notes 10810 Do you speak American i httppbsorgspeak Burns leacture on sakai yucatan study abroad info Essay due mon 155 under assignment i No paper copy No ares reading next week Video again Dialect A Sae is an idealization B Dialect of a language mutually intelligible forms of a lnaguuage that difer in systematic ways i Lexicon vocabulary gumband skully ii Syntax he be late iii Phonology pecan cement warsh iv Accent deals exclusivlely with phonology OW WU Creation of regional dialects A New England pittsburgh and southern dialects come from regionalism in uk Lack of postvocalic r is a feature of American and Canadian English all down the eastern seaboard i Why Western migration leveled dialectical differences Barriers preserve dialects Geographical barriers to human interaction mountains island rivers i Tangier island Appalachia Social barriers not all dialects are equally valued in society but persist because their speakers are isolated not by physical barriers but because of social economic and educational barriers i Inner city is not separated from the city by real barriers 03 0 gt w XXVIII Why study aae A 1960s concern with aae because dialect of African Americans considered less capable than whites civil rights movement Aae inferior speech due to generic differences and cultural deprivation Remember boas and cultural relativism as a reaction to evolutionism The systematic study of aae was a response to similar concerns with racial determinism i Labov 1969 the logic of nonstandard English ii Studied African American speech in diff settings iii Uncomfortable informal setting remained silent difficult w sae iv Due to social conditions not genetics E Remember burns applied anthropology to address real world issues XXIX Differences between sae and aae A Syntax i Aaae or aav 7 African American English or vernacular 1 He happy 2 he be happy ii SAE standard American English 1 he is happy now 2 he is habitually late iii although the sae version is considered correc English bothh are governed by tules of sentence construction and are thus grammatically correcy from a linguistic standpoint B phonology i there are also systematic phonological differences ii r deletion XXX regional dialects relate to popular perceptions of speakers and their way of life A northeastemers in a hurry cold rude B southemers slow warm i thick or heavy accent C Texans open direct D Californian laid back XXXI Reinforced in popular representation of reginal dialect A Imagine a movie or tv representation of i A villain ii A newscaster iii A hip hop artist iv A well educated person v An authentic American XXXII Notes 101110 A Key questions B How do the different groups communicate in relation to standard English C How are these ways of communicating related to i Social and racial challenges ii The way groups perceive themselves in comparison to dominant social norms and values U003 U Why would groups choose to alienate themselves from dominant society when they know that this is a disadvantage E What is race XXXIII cow rum XXXIV COW XXXV gt F1509 XXXVI wgt D E XXXVII Dialects re ect societal preferences White black Urban rural Educated uneducated Certain dialects mark speakers i Assumptions and prejudices about person made on the way they speak ii Disadvantages So why doesn t everyone adopt SAE Powerful cultural decisions to sell ou or keep it real are made through the use of language i This applies to everyone HH artists Philip from boston and even white nerds Dialect labeling Move towards greater uniformity away from dialect variation Why Social desirability in uence of media But dialect variation is actually INCREASING in the US Fresh prince i Phillie to Bellaire but dosnt adopt Bellaire dialect Hyde county NC African Americans and European Americans have lived together since the first decade of the 1700s Similar dialect across races Now younger blacks speak differently from older whites and blacks Race ethnicity more important than region in this case AAE is becoming more distinct from SAE Dialect is related to a number of factors Race and ethnicity Place i Inner city ii Rural Alabama iii Integrated or segregated communities Socioeconomic status i Education ii Wealth There is no formula or universal pattern for dialects or the way that a dialect is perceived But there are patterns within dialects Language and ideology A You are how you speak 031 i Marking We re ect our place in the world and attempt to construct olut world through speech


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