GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY ANT 2000
Popular in Course
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gregory Bergnaum V on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 2000 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/206853/ant-2000-university-of-florida in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Florida.
Reviews for GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/18/15
1 p all 39 2 Cultural rm 39 39 39L 39 L 39 Physicalbiological Human evolution paleoanthropology Genetics modem variation and adaptability growth and develnnment fnren in v o A l 39 39 ocial and cultural 39 39 39 L Archaeology Study ofhumans through analysis ofmatenal remains generally about the past but modern material culture too 3 Anthropologists use eldwork and participant observation Holistic Comparative r 39 39 r 39 A 39 39 quot 39 39 A 439 r r39 L 39 L 4 7 V 39 39 39 Ul 39 s own Cultural quot 39 quot quot39 according to the standards and values of others Emic 39 39 point or view Etic 39 L s point ofview 5 Defining characteristics of culture ith learned symbol based adaptive shared pattemed everchanging and it mediates the environment r i i Mechanisms causing culture change D39 fusion direct indirect and forced Globalization world system that links societies and cu tures in economic an political relations that are inherently unstable 7 estioning divine creation Discov ofNew 394 A 39 39 39 39 L 39 39 ueiure seen In 1514 r 39 L quot A 39 s noti fixed at center ofuniverse later elaborated by Galileo me 39 39 39 39 39 natma laws e g gravity Through 18th c most still attributed a Lamarck 39 39 39 decreased use these acquired traits wouldthen be passed on to offspring 9 In uencing Darwian thinking Izyell implied slow gradual change L liarmu 39 39 10 Adeninethymine guanine cytosine 11 Gene a unit ofDNA that produces a functional chain ofprotein 12 Mutation alteration in the base sequence of genes deletions additions and reversals in codons The only mutations that matter are those in DNA ofsex cells 13 Mendel s laws Law f 0 39 p 39 39 39 39 39 39 A L 9 L p t 39 A 39 39 39 39 Independent Assortment genes 14 Genome genetic makeup Pheno ge physical expression ofa trait 15 Pea plants only have a dominantrecessive relationship 16 Linkage nenaneie ioi 39 same pair Crossing over when durinn meini L l L one another A L A matenal i e 39 l l ene lo one recessive allele on X Y is blank while females need to inherit two Polygenesis control ofa trait by more than one gene Pleiotropism control of multiple traits by a single gene 17 Natural Select differential reproductive success Geneti D random changes in gene frequencies due to small sample size Gene Flo interbreeding ofpopulations when gene ow stops speciation can occur speciation requires banier to gene ow or uui an Structural generalization enables behavioral exibility 19 Prim ive Single upper limb bonet uiu e 39 ranin andtihia minim n r1 v39 39 39 39 opposability 2o Denved Depth perception 3D vision Color vision Decreased dependence on sense of smell Larger and more complex brain 21 Arboreal A t 39 H L 39L A 39 clavicle scapula on side in nouruer39 39 39 rounded joint tails prehensile among New World monkeys ischial callosities sitting pads 22 Adaptations for 39 39 39 inwardcln ing 39 long forelimbs 23 Prosimians generally nocturnal long wet noses whiskers in pan rappin L claw A 439 39 391 l L tnnthmmh r A39L39 special scent glands Tarsiers are more closely related to anthropoids 24 Anthropoids monkeys apes humans 25 Pla nhines new world mo eys at noses Catanhines old world monkeys apes humans long slender noses 2o Nonhuman primates display empathy sympathy generosity amp con ict resolution Protective live in groups elevator effect Reese s groom to relax 27 39 39 L 39 from forests 39 in n Fayum ofE 28 n l l t ancestor t quot 439 39 39 39 Afrqpithecus ancestor to later African hominoids Sivapithecus ancestor to the Asian ape orangutan D ggithecus and other Miocene genera are evolutionary dead ends 29 Great apes and humans shared a common ancestor 914 mya nuuuuliu JUI Molecular clock says 85 mya L39 p 39 na u 39 39 39 39 39 39 man living chimps Thicker 39 L 39 39 manrate 39 anine ea 4 39 31 Bipedalism anatomy Foot arch great toe aligns others Pelvis basin shaped legsto ide 39 39 39 39 39 39 Spine Sshaped lumbar curve Appear 39 39 4 32 Advantages ofBipedalism Adapting to savanna habitat incl thermal efliciency Free hands to use weapons amp tools Hunting Food provisioning Available fossil evidence is uncritical 33 Robust Australopithecines Paranthropus ethiopicusP robustusP boisei suggesta diet ofhard tough foods thus open habitat Sagittal crest massive cheek bones large palate massive molars thick enamel cranial capacity ofca 520 cc 34 Grad eform african ica39 ca 2 mya 39 39 acks sagittal crest smaller molars reduced canines but still dimorphic cranial capacity ofca 450 cc 35 Most famousA afarensis Lucy 39 39 39 4m 39 capacity A L39 39 39 long M P highly dimorphic in size females 3 54 11 males up to 5 11 3o Hominins scavenged carnivore kills No good evidence for base camps hunting 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 I 39 39 likely early hominins 39 39 39 39 L 39 39 39 but no evidence yet 37 Homo habilis 2 41 6 mya East Africa few in South Africa 631 cc average39 Anetralnnith 39 39 rnhu t Australopiths in east Africa rate 38 Homo erectus 1 8 mya to at least 200000 BP and maybe 30000 BP in Java Africa Asia Europe 1000 cc low forehead football snap u ranial 39 39 39 39 39 bone fairly large posterior teeth Sagittal ridge Nuchal torus Pentagonal shapedrear view widest near base shovelshaped incisors oresiensis hominin dwarfedH erectus Island ofFlores Indonesia 94000 13000 40 Fully modern humans large brain 39 relativel small hrnvvririne 39 39 relativel small teeth de nite chin r 39 breadth 39 39 Steinheim skull 1100 cc cranial capacity pronounced brow ridge rounded occipital wide parietals Swanscombe skull two parietals and occipital estimated 1325 cc cranial capacity thick skull bones like zrzctus but higher cranial width Neanderthals large brains gt1400 cc average low forehea 39 39 39 39 39 lack of chin occipital torus 43 39
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'