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Experiment Foods Lab

by: Heaven Wehner

Experiment Foods Lab FOS 4310

Heaven Wehner
GPA 3.98


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heaven Wehner on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FOS 4310 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/206859/fos-4310-university-of-florida in Food Science & Technology at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 09/18/15
FOS 4310L Experimental Foods Carbohydrates I Sugar Solutions Sugars are carbohydrates Ingredients found in many foods Naturally present in fruits and other plant tissues Sugars play several different roles in foods 0 Sweetening agents 0 Tenderizing agents ie baked goods 0 Increase fluidity of some batters o Nonenzymatic browning of baked goods 0 Essential in fruit jellies 0 Principal ingredient in candies crystalline such as fudge and noncrystalline such as caramel or taffy Crystalline Candy Control of crystallization is the major aim of the candy maker Crystallization is affected by 1 the presence of many crystalline nuclei in solution upon cooling and 2 the degree of sugar saturation of the solution Jamesen pg 33 Fudge Making Preparation of crystalline candies can be summed up in 4 major steps 1 Dissolving sugar completely No crystals remain to seed the cooked candy and start premature crystallization 2 Concentratin the sugar solution to the appropriate degree During boiling water is vaporized and the solution gradually becomes more concentrated Sugar remains in the pan The boiling point is an indicator of the sugar concentration and consistency of the final product 3 Supersaturatin to the appropriate degree Fudge cooked to a final temperature of 112 116 0C 234 240 0C at sea level is generally soft but moldable Cooling to 400C 1040F allows development of highly saturated solutions 4 Crystallizing to give the desired sugar crystal size The presence of many nuclei favors this process It is also is encouraged by rapid beating Cereal Grains Grains of most common cereals consist of Carbohydrates Nitrogenous compounds ie proteins Lipids Mineral salts Vitamins Enzymes Small amounts of other substances Carbohydrates are quantitatively the most important component in grains 83 of the total dry matter in wheat barley rye corn and rice 79 of the total dry matter in oats Included in the category of carbohydrates are cellulose hemicellulose dextrans and sugars Carbohydrates play an important role as dietary fiber in human nutrition Other information is found in Jamesen page 125 Calculation for Increase in Volume Cooked Voume Uncooked Volume X 100 increase in volume Uncooked Volume FOS 4310L EXPERIMENTAL FOODS Water Reactions in Foods Water is a common yet vital ingredient in food and food preparation It eXists in three states 1 liquid 2 solid ie ice and 3 gas ie steam or vapor Each state requires a different amount of energy to maintain and transform to another state Water in Foods Water can eXist in foods as bound or free 1 2 Bound or absorbed water is I Connected to other substances in foods I No longer exhibits ow properties I No longer has solvent capabilities Free water is I Not chemically or physically bound I Available for microorganisms to utilize I Exhibits ow properties I Has solvent capabilities Water Measurements Moisture Content Moisture This is a determination of the total water within a product Typically the product is rst weighed then oven dried and reweighed The weight loss is presumed to be water 1 Moisture can be determined by several means A Oven drying methods I Forced draft oven I Microwave oven I Vacuum oven I Infrared drying B Chemical methods I Titrations such as Karl Fischer or Volumetric Analysis C Physical methods I Electrical 7 conductivity I Hydrometry 7 specific gravity density I Refractometry 7 use of a prism to bend light Though moisture content is important it is not an indicator of the free water in a sample 1 Water Activity aw Water activity can be generally de ned as an indication of the free water in a sample 2 aw Vapor pressure of water in a sample Vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature The water activity of pure water is 10 Since water is locked Within the structural matrix all food products have aw less than 10 For example aw 095 9 N 10 Raw meats and most produce aw 08 909 Aged cheesesjamjelly dried fruit aw 069 07 Corn syrup Because microorganisms require water for survival too much free water in a product can serve as a medium for reproduction travel and contamination 2 Spoilage bacteria yeasts and molds will thrive at the various aw of most foods Therefore aw becomes an important evaluation tool of food safety spoilage and is a better indicator of food perishability 1 aw 075 9 N 10 Various bacteria such as C Perfringens Pseudomonas Salmonella amp Vibrio aw 060 9 090 Yeasts and molds One of the quickest and most commonly used methods of water activity measurement is with a water activity meter The sample is placed in a small closed chamber at constant temperature with a relative humidity sensor The sensor measures the amount of moisture in the equilibrium headspace above a sample of food product This amount correlates directly with the sample water activity 1 Water Crystallization in Frozen Desserts Most frozen desserts are solutions of sugar that have been held at a reduced temperature for crystallization to occur The presence of foreign molecules or ions in solution delays crystallization until a colder temperature is reached The temperature must be below 0 C for this to happen 3 Development of crystal size will depend upon 1 Speed offreezing 2 Turning speed 3 Ingredients present in solution Variations in crystal size can contribute to several sensory attributes such as teXture perceptions and mouthfeel References 1 Nielson S Suzanne 1994 Introduction to the Chemical Analysis of F oods Chapter 7 Moisture and Total Solids Analysis Jones and Bartlett Publishers International One Exeter Plaza Boston MA 02116 USA M V AquaLab WaterActiVity Measurement Operator s Manual Revision 2 anquuaLab Literature Decagon Devices Inc PO Box 835 Pullman Washington 99163 USA W V Jamesen Karen 1998 Food Science Laboratory Manual pp 22 7 23 MerrillPrentice Hall Upper Saddle River New Jersey


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