US SINCE 1877
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Civil Rights Movement 195565 KEY THEMES amp ISSUES 1 The Brown decisions 2 Methods of struggle nonviolent direct action 3 Massive Resistance 4 Federal responses The Brown DeCI5ions 1 May 17 1954 Brown decision Supreme Court declares segregated schools inherently unequal amp unconstitutional May 31 1955 Brown 2 Court calls for school desegregation with all deliberate speed Greeted as death knell for segregation in all areas of southern life Montgomery 19556 1 Rosa Parks arrested Dec 1 1955 Boycott Dec 5 1955Dec 20 1956 Builds on existing activist tradition NAACP ED Nixon Parks Women s Political Council JoAnn Robinson Montgomery Improvement Association Martin Luther King Jr Learns about Nonviolent Direct Action during boycott After Montgomery Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC Period of indecision 195760 White Massive Resistance hardens Southern Manifesto 1956 legal maneuvers Freedom of Choice acts White Citizens Councils Mob Action Little Rock 1957 NonVIolence in Action Sit Ins The SitIns Greensboro NC Feb 1 1960 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC SNCK students dominate Seminary roots but gradually more secular John Lewis nonviolent direct action tactics grass roots organizing biracial until c1967 NVDA 2 Freedom Rides Congress of Racial Equality Boynton Decision 1960 Buses leave DC May 4 1961 White Violence Anniston amp Birmingham Ala Bull Connor SNCC resumes rides Montgomery more violence Mass arrests in Jackson Miss AttorneyGeneral RFK amp Interstate Commerce Commission Birmingham 1963 Strong local activist tradition Rev Fred Shuttlesworth SCLC action wellplanned amp timed Easter economic leverage Birmingham white community disunited Businessmen want change 2 rival administrations Movement gets dramatic media images mass arrests amp white brutality Violence compels federal lntenention RFK JFK proposes Civil Right bill June 11 1963 Act passed by LBJ 1964 Voting Rights Voter Education Projects 1961 Mississippi Freedom Summer 1964 SNCC amp CORE Chaney Schwerner amp Goodman Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Atlantic City Convention Fannie Lou Hamer LiberalLBJ betrayal Selma 1965 LBJ amp the Voting Rights Act of 1965 The limits of liberal reform Statutory equality Conclusions Brown amp Montgomery marked the tentative start of a new phase of mass southern protest building on a long tradition of activism After Brown Montgomery amp other protests amp suits Massive Resistance intensified in the South A truly mass southern civil rights movement emerged with the sit ins amp freedom rides of 19601 Nonviolent direct action was the most effective way to exert economic amp moral pressure on the South win national support amp ultimately federal intenention Federal govt initially responded to the civil disorder white violence which greeted black protest amp only belatedly addressed the deeper causes ofthose protests l 00 A 0quot Women 18771929 KEY THEMES amp ISSUES 1 Separate Spheres 2 Women and Social Reform 3 The Suffrage Campaign 4 After the Vote Manners amp Morals in the 1920s Before the Vote Separate Spheres Women occupy the domestic sphere morality education family values Men occupy the public sphere competition individualism Women and Social Reform Progressive causes Settlement Movement Jane Addams Hull House Social Purity Movement Prohibition Women s activism in social reform extends moral concerns of domestic sphere to public sphere The Suffrage Campaign 1 Seneca Falls Declaration 1848 Ratification of 19th Amendment 1920 National American Woman Suffrage Association Pre191O targets individual states Only 4 western states grant full suffrage Post1910 seeks federal amendment Alice Paul more militant protest tactics Wilson and women s role in WW1 Suffrage Campaign 2 Opposntion Vote is a challenge to separate spheres amp gender norms Many men amp women believed women s interests served by household suffrage Vote acknowledged women s individuality amp distinctive interests Liquor interests Elements in white South fear that federal voting legislation could be extended to blacks Ratification After the Vote low political participation dissension among feminists Equal Rights Amendment 1923 Alice Paul s National Women s Party ERA amp special protection Muller vs Oregon 1908 Manners amp Moral in the 19205 1 The Flapper Drinking Dancing Jazz Fashion Smoking Manners amp Moral in the 19205 2 women as consumers Magazines amp Movies Dating Marriage amp Sexuality cars college coeds Freud contraception sex State Street Swingers You Drink Too Much Conclusions Continuity amp Change in the Lives of American Women 1 Women were important in social reform movements prior to getting m N b 90quot the vote Vote was an important victory for women yet most did not exercise it and left politics to men Women entered the workplace especially in WW1 amp became increasingly important consumers Flappers used leisure amp style to register a limited revolt against old gender codes amp social values Most women in the 1920s were not Flappers Even the Flappers were usually looking toward marriage not a career amp were largely indifferent to politics and social causes Cold War at Home amp Abroad US Foreign Policy Collective Security Containment Korea JO AntiCommunism at home McCarthyism The US amp WW2 Economic Prosperity amp Growth Need to secure postwar markets World Bank amp International Monetary Fund 1944 Collective Security United Nations 1945 Organization of American States 1948 North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949 The Russran quotProblemquot Wartime allies to peacetime foes Yalta amp Potsdam Conferences 1945 Tacitly recognise spheres of influence Tensions US fear of spread of Communism democratic creeed need for open markets Soviet security interests ideology vs reapoitik Atomic Diplomacy US ABomb 1945 US HBomb 1952 Arrogance of Power Soviet ABomb 1949 Soviet HBomb 1953 Nuclear Arms Race Mutually Assured Destruction MAD Dr Strangeove dir Stanley Kubrick 1963 The Birth of Containment The Truman Doctrine 1947 Greek civil war Containment US pledges to confront the spread of communism by all necessary economic diplomatic and military means National Security Act 1947 CIA amp Nat Sec Council NSC68 1950 Containment extended foster seeds of destruction in USSR Cold War in ASla The fall of China 1949 Triumph of Mao Zedong s communists SinoSoviet Pact 1950 increased fears of international communist conspiracy Loss of China huge psychological blow to US intensifies search for communist infiltration in US increases pressure on Truman to adopt hardline approach to communist expansion NSC68 Also helps explain commitment oftroops in Korean War Korea 19503 Domino Theory US supports Syngman Rhee in S Korea USSR amp China support Kim ll Sung in N Korea who wants a unified Korea June 1950 invasion of S Korea Repelled by USUN troops From Containment to Rollback Gen MacArthur invades N Korea China joins to protect N Korea Stalemate US govt debates using nuclear weapons idea rejected The Domestic Cold War 1 House UnAmerican Activities Committee HUAC Truman s Executive Order 9835 1947 Fed Employees Loyalty amp Security Program Internal Security Act 1950 McCarran Act The Spy Cases Alger Hiss Robert Oppenheimer Klaus Fuchs Ethel amp Julius Rosenberg executed July 1953 The Domestic Cold War 2 Targets of McCarthy s Redbaiting State Dept Democrats Millard Tydings civil rights groups NAACP unions CIO liberals Henry Wallace Hollywood Hollywood Ten educators Johns Cttee Fl gays Johns Cttee too ironic J Edgar Hoover army seeds of McC s downfall in 1954 Eisenhower objects Chilling effect on all dissent protest amp nonconformity Talking John Birch Blues Bob Dylan 1963 1 The Communists was acoming round They was in the air they was in the ground They was all over So I run down most hurriedly ampjoined the John Birch Society Ultra Conservative anticommunist group I was looking every place for those Goddarned Reds Looked up my chimney hole even deep down inside my toilet bowl They got away I heard some footsteps by the front porch door So I grabbed my shotgun from the floor Snuck around the house with a huff and a hiss Saying Hands up you Communist It was the mailmanHe punched me out I quit my job so I could work alone Got a magnifying glass like Sherlock Holmes Found some clues in my detective bag discoveredRed stripes in the American flag Betsy Ross Talking John Birch Blues Bob Dylan 1963 2 Now Eisenhower he s a Russian spy Lincoln and Jefferson and that Roosevelt guy To my knowledge there sjust one man That s really and truly an American guy And that s George Lincoln Rockwell US Nazi Leader I know for a fact that he hates the Commies Because he picketed the movie Exodus I finally started thinking straight When I ran out ofthings to investigate Couldn t imagine nothing else So now I m home alone investigating myself Hope I don t find out too much Conclusions 1 US recognized the need for formal alliances amp collective action in the postWW2 era to secure its economic amp security goals 2 US saw itself as the guardian ofthe free democratic world against communist oppression aggression subversion amp resolved to contain that threat wherever it appeared though refrained from nuclear option 3 Frustration at inability to make the world conform to its democratic amp capitalist ideals despite power led to a search for scapegoats notably domestic anticommunism 4 Anticommunist paranoia ruined amp ended lives stifled creativity amp suppressed meaningful debate on important domestic issues amp foreign policy for decades The New Deal 2 KEY THEMES amp ISSUES What were the main sources of opposition to FDR amp the New Deal 19331940 l What were the grievances ofthese opponents JO What was the impact ofthis opposition on FDR amp the New Deal on US presidency amp politics Opponents 1 Mainstream Genuine bipartisan concerns re Imperial Presidency FDR s dictatorship 4 terms expansion of federal government Supreme Court NRA ruled unconstitutional 1935 FDR s Court packing plan 1936 Republicans Alf Landon 1936 Wendall Wilkie 1940 Opposmon 2 Slthern Conservatives Fiscal Conservatives Carter Glass Harry Byrd VA States Rights Beliefs fear of federal intervention in racial affairs Economic Report on Condition of the South 1938 Conservative Manifesto FDR s Purges 1938 Walter George GA Ed Smith SC Opposition 3 Radicals Socialists Norman Thomas Communists Popular Front from 1935 Fellow Travelers Unions Govt still generally supportive of employers despite some protection of labor ie Wagner Act Opponents 4 Demagogues Father Charles E Coughlin The Radio Priest WJRDetroit The Radio League ofthe Little Flower National Union for Social Justice 1935 New Dealer to protofascist Dr Francis Townsend Revolving Pension Plan needs of elderly need to revive spending Huey P Long The Kingfishquot1 New Dealstyle programs from 1928 Heir to Populists amp Progressives defeats New Orleans political elite Choctaw Machine public welfareworks programs takes on Standard Oil amp railroads educational amp health reforms But The Louisiana Dictatorship Corruption and terror The Kingfish amp National Politics 1934 Nationwide Share Our Wealth Campaign Wealth redistribution tax reform Huey Long Everyman A King 1935 Why weep or slumber America land of brave and true With castles and clothing and food for all all belongs to you Ev ry man a King ev ry man a King for you can be a millionaire If there s something belonging to others there s enough for all people to share When it s sunny June amp December too or in the Winter time or Spring There ll be peace without end ev ry neighbor a friend and ev ry man a King Shot Sept 1936 After The Kingfish The Union Party 1936 Led by William Lemke amp GLK Smith includes share the wealth clubs plus Coughlin amp Townsend supporters Post1938 Challenges to FDR of reduced impact FDRNew Deal programs increasingly radical amp reformist undercut leftist criticisms Escalating concerns re foreign affairs dissentcriticism increasingly seen as unpatriotic Conclu5ions Distress of the Depression encouraged interest in radical alternatives from both left amp right 3 main sources of opposition to FDR amp the New Deal Those who sawthe New Deal as too radical and intenentionist as at worst creeping socialism at best as fiscally irresponsible Those who sawthe New Deal as too moderate and advocated more centralized government control over US social and economic affairs c Those who opposed FDR s lmperial presidential style regardless N Oquot oftheir attitude to New Deal policies 3 New Deal policies were influenced if only indirectly by the existence of these opponents and alternatives Crash Depression amp Response KEY THEMES amp ISSUES 1 Causes ofthe Crash amp Depression fiscal problems structural problems international factors 2 Symptoms ofthe Depression 3 Hoover s response The Wall Street Crash Black Tuesday 29 October 1929 End ofthe Speculation Boom Roots of Crash in 1920s Boom 1 Fiscal Problems Uneven distribution of 1920s prosperity Andrew Mellon s tax cuts for rich Overreliance on Credit Inadequate regulation of banks amp stock exchange Federal Reserve Board Irresponsible illegal amp unregulated speculators Florida land boom amp bust Roots of Crash in 1920s Boom 2 Structural Problems Overproduction Agricultural Distress Transitional Moment in US Economy Relative Decline of Old Heavy Industries New consumer industries relativey underdeveloped International Factors 1920s US is creditor nation but Europe can t repay debt Trade with Europe is precarious Crash ruins European Economies Dawes Plan 1924 Young Plan 1929 US Restrictive TariffsProtectionism FordneyMcCumber Tariff 1922 HawleySmoot Tariff 1928 Signs of the Depression Bank failures Deeper agriculture crisis Suicides Migration to find work Songs of the Depressmn Woodie Guthrie Washington Talkin Blues The dust came on amp the price went down so I didn t have the money when the bank came around Good land you can grow anything you plant if you can get the moisture Went looking for ajob but the man said no so I hit the skids on the old skid row Been to Arizona been to California too found the people was plenty but thejobs are fewain t no money changing hands just people changing places Herbert Hoover Herbert Hoover The Great Engineer Progressive Credentials 1915 Belgian Relief Operation 1920s Urges FRB to tighten up fiscalstock market regulations Post1927 Mississippi Flood Agricultural Relief Program Federal Farm Board Hoover s Response 1 Hoover is traditionally vilified for a donothing attitude in the face of hardship of depression The Bonus Marchers 1932 Initially reluctant to intervene because Believed depression would be short Believed economy would correct itself Preferred industry agreements to govt regulations Reluctant to abandon conventional laissezfaire wisdoms on the economy Republican power had rested on leaving business alone Hoover s Response 2 19302 Hoover increases government intervention Govt buys wheat amp cotton to raise farm prices 1931 National Credit Corporation to bolster banks 1932 Reconstruction Finance Corporation to help firms in trouble 19302 Spends 3bn on public works to create employment FDR criticized this deficit spending in 1932 campaign Conclusions The seeds ofthe Crash and the depression which followed were sown in the years of boom A mixture of immediate local causes international factors amp deeper structural problems in the US economy combined to create the depression Herbert Hoover may have been unjustly treated by many historians for his handling of the crisis 4 Hoover did manage to break albeit tentatively and reluctantly l 00 with the Iaissezfaire tradition of nonintervention and thereby set some ofthe precedents associated with Roosevelt s New Deal Race Relations 18771932 KEY THEMES amp ISSUES 1 Jim Crow amp Disenfranchisement in the South 2 Sources of African American resistance 3 Techniques of African American resistance Origins of Jim Crow 18771910 1890s South moves from de facto to dejure segregation amp disenfranchisement Political factors aftermath of Populism elite disenfranchisement of poor blacks amp whites Economic factors cheap labor needs sharecropping crisis African American activism first generation of southern blacks not born slaves National factors nativism scientific racism Pessy vs Ferguson 1896 separate but equal doctrine l 00 b Separate amp Unequal Sources of ReSIstance Individual acts of refusal Institutional Churches colleges fraternal organizations etc Organizational NAACP Urban League etc Cultural jokes folktales speech patterns dance music etc Resistance promoted 1 Individual amp collective pride I 2 Group solidarity amp identity I 3 A possible basis for action amp protest Techniques of Re5istance 1 Accommodation Booker T Washington Tuskegee Machine Atlanta Exposition Address 1895 Up From Slavery 1901 BTW rejects open struggle for civil amp voting rights Favors educational amp economic initiatives Techniques of Resistance 2 Education Tuskegee Fisk Emphasis on vocational training agricutlure crafts etc Economics amp Business National Negro Business League Techniques of Re5istance 3 Unions United Mineworkers of America Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Techniques of Re5istance 4 Politics New York Roscoe Conklin Simmons Memphis Robert Church Direct Action Street Car Boycotts 19008 Armed Resistance Robert Charles Riot New Orleans 1900 Techniques of ReSIStance 5 NAACP Classic Progressive organization Expertise propaganda protest Courtroom challenges AntiLynching campaign Dyer Bill AntiPeonage Cases Bailey Case 1911 Due Process Cases Moore vs Dempsey 1923 AntiDisenfranchisement Cases Guinn 1915 World War One Du Bois Close Ranks Suspends activism to help war effort Blacks fight for Democracy abroad Jim Crow continues at home Race Riots East St Louis 1917 Tulsa 1921 1920s nativism amp KKK revival Marcus Garvey Back to Africa United Negro Improvement Association Black Star shipping line Negro World Race Pride Black Consciousness Harlem Renaissance Conclusions 1 The Jim Crow system in the South solidified between 1890 amp 1910 to leave African Americans in the region legally disenfranchised and segregated 2 Beyond the South even in the absence of such rigid legal restrictions racial prejudice amp discrimination continued to deny African Americans equal political social educational and economic opportunities 3 Throughout the nation African Americans adopted a wide range of resistance strategies to combat the material and psychological effects of racism
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