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Date Created: 09/04/14
TV and American Society Thursday August 28th Lecture One Why Television What us television o The most powerful and prevalent mass communication medium in America and the world Mittel 2010 What is a mass communication medium Mass o large heterogeneous anonymous audience o Institutional organizational sources Communication o reciprocity response and feedback constant two way communication o feedback o response Medium refers to the channel of message delivery Why Television o Mass communication especially television is important because what we see and read shapes our reality and in some cases becomes our reality We spend more time watching Tv than doing anything else except working and sleeping We spend more than half our leisure time watching TV Tv functions in society television can be defined by any of its six functions commercial industry democratic institution textual form site of cultural representation part of everyday life technological medium Television as commerical industry a Multibillion dollar industry o Advertising cable fees dvd sales merchandising o Multiple competing and converging interests o advertisers networks local affiliates c There is a dual marketplace in all mass communication marketplaces One marketplace deals with advertisement placement and costs and the other deals with the buying and selling of audiences o Chief function of TV is to attract audiences for advertisers Television as democratic institution o informing citizens and serving the public interest o facilitation communication between candidates leaders and citizens o regulated by public policy agencies and rules FCC Television as cultural representation promoting a common identity among viewers national identity gender racial ethnic and other identities transmitting cultural and social values promoting societal norms and expectations Television as textual form television is a distinct creative form with its own set of genres genres arise through a process of pseudoindividualization tv genres have the same broad general characteristics tv genres have minor differences that make each unique Genres are defined largely by their use of narrative structure exposition climax resolution labeling with genres help people develop pre decided stereotype connotations that help the consumer know what to expect and gauge their own personal response Television as technological medium o television is a box that projects images o television is something you can watch online 0 the technologies surrounding television have significant influence over who is controlling content distribution and use of the medium Circuit of Culture o the six elements of television all overlap Three historical eras of television o Classic Network Era o MultiChannel Era o Convergence Era The Invention of Television 0 several different scientists worked on systems of scanning to produce television pictures between 184 and late 1920s o 1884 Paul Nipkow s German mechanical television division of motion picture into points and lines by using the Nipkow Disk 1924 John Logie Baird39s Scottish electromechanical television1st televisiontelevision in color 1927Philo T Farnsworth American allelectronic teevision 1st fully functional electronic television 1929Vladimir Zworykin cathoderay tube television transmission and reception 1939 NBC began regularly scheduled broadcasts at the NY World s Fair 19391945 Progress slows 1940 National Television System Committee NTSC established by FCC 1941 NTSC established technical standards for TV sets 1941 First two commercial licenses by FCC 1945 Nine commercial stations licensed with six on the air Networks 1936NBC founded by RCA 1927 United Independent Broadcasters UIB 1928UIB bought ad renamed CBS 1943ABC NBC Blue radio splits from NBA 1945 NBC Blue renamed ABC 1948ABC NBC Blue television splits from NBC 1967Corporation for Public Broadcasting PBS created and funded by the government in an attempt to provide the citizens with public good television material 1986Fox Broadcasting established Eras of Television History Classic Network Era mid1940 s to mid 1980 s established norms for viewing and for programming multi channelera mid 1980 s through late 2000 s narrowcasting evolved the convergence eracurrent era tv no longerjust a domestic activity Milestones in Tv Technology 1940Color Tb 1948Cable 1956Remote Control 1962Satellite UHF 1972VCR 1976Betamaxanother version of a VCR but could not record for as long and faded out 1981HDTV 1982Surround Sound Direct Satellite 1996DVD 1999DVR 2009Digitalonly broadcast Growth of TV 1946 Less than onehalf of one percent of American homes had a TV 1950 9 of American home shad a TV 195124 of American homes had a TV 196090 of American homes had a TVEconomic Growth 200899 of American homes had a TV 2011967 of American homes had a Tv dip due to cable aternatives internet netflix hulu Tv Marketing Penetration 0 0 0 0 0 TVU 0 0 0 1156 million Tv households in the US 289 million Tv s250 television sets per home in US183 in UK down from 293 television sets in US in 2010 and 23 in UK in 2003 5 million Zero Tv Households How are viewers watching video content 27 via computer 16 via web browser 45 have DVR 23 growth in households that access free broadcast TV and internet television from 20111012 90 of US households have cable television 30 of US households have satellite television estimated 30 satellite television homes by 2018 90 of US households pay for a TV subscription cable telephone or sattelite 51 of US households have a video game console sage On average Americans spend 34 hours a week watching television Who watches the most TV 1Senior citizens 2 children up to the age of 12 3 Women 4 Ethnic minorities 5 poor people that aren t working have the most time to watch TV during the day Milestones in TV Programming 1947Meet the Press first national newscasts first live broadcast of the World Series 1948Ed Sullivan Showfirst late night show host 1951I Love Lucy 1958 The 64000 Question one of the first popular game show 1960 The Flintstones 1962Johnny Carson becomes host of The Tonight Show 1964CBS buys rights to NFL Beatles on Ed Sullivan 1967First Super Bowl 1968JuiaFirst Interracial kiss on Star Trek 1969Sesame Street 1971All in the Familyshow that address the issues of society and political issues 1975Saturday Night Live first same sex couple on Hot In Baltimore 1975The Jeffersonsfirst show to portray African Americans as cultured and wealthy 1977First miniseries Roots 1980Nightlinefirst concept of 24 hour news coverage 1982Late Night with David Lettermanfirst late night talk show 1983MASH finale125 million views still a time when pure television programming could capture such an efficient TV rating before the market was fragmented amongst shows one of the most highly watched clips of all time 1984The Cosby Showfirst show to portray African Americans as upper middle class successful model citizens and on social equivalence with whites show based around emphasis on sound morals and portray African Americans in a better light on television 1985 The Golden Girls show centralized around the concept that women can still live a fun promiscuous life even at an older age pushing the boundaries of socially acceptable comedy 1986The Oprah Winfrey Showraising the bar and setting a precedent for daytime television 1986 Fox NetworkMarried With ChildrenA show that also pushed the boundaries of socially acceptable humor on network television brought the show a lot of heat Major Events on Tv Specifically News 1963Kennedy Assassinationat the time the news was not prepared for such a catastrophic tragic event 1986Explosion of Challenger space shuttle Fall of the Berlin Wallhelped form the idea of live tv drama through news coverage 1991 Coverage of Desert StormFirst Gulf War 19945OJ Simpson car chase trial and verdictthe real time entertainment captivated Americans and lead to an interest in crime and legal tv shows 1997Death of Diana 2000presidential election recount in Florida 2001911 2003Columbia space shuttle breaks u on re entry 2004Janet Jacksons wardrobe malfunctionone of the most played TiVo clips of all timeaso brought about the concept of YouTube 2008election of Barack Obama Assassination of Osama Bin Laden Wedding of Williamportrayed as a Disney picture perfect wedding 175 million viewers worldwide