PRINCPLS OF SOCIOLOGY
PRINCPLS OF SOCIOLOGY SYG 2000
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Walter Prohaska on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SYG 2000 at University of Florida taught by Barbara Zsembik in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/206912/syg-2000-university-of-florida in Sociology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
ruchLy 39 quot toget enough uf39 39 39 39 quushehe 39 39 quot 39 rlnt39llina amt household goods Of cial quot c u 39 39 Minimum wage for 2009 14500 Minimum wage BARELV suf cient for 2 people to subsist hope for no medical expenses or car repair Far from suf cient for breadwinner family working dad stayathome mom 2 kids Subsistence Poor quality oflife Crime Substandard housing Substandard education Constrained access to work and food and health lnterferes with investment in human capital ie no college cumulative quot quot 39 1 39 39 in39fe quotquot by early adulthood of cial r 1 OTC medira nn quot products quot39 t quot 39 5 etc Of cial 3 quot 39 39 quot 39 39 quot transfer programs 39 39 transfer g h 39 39 39 quot h housing food or health care subsidies from state perceived as quotwelfarequot Other state transfer programs NOT seen as welfare education vouchers social security Medicare and Pell Grants Explanations for origins and persistence Con ict Marx Classic capitalist class exploits working class by underpricing value of their labor which inevitably leads to class con ict Contemporary capitalists control own labor or labor of others and working class who have no control over their labor or the labor of others Weber Classic class structured by combo of wealth prestige and power Contemporary Fummnahsm Strati cation i quotHammaym WK x W mm d Wampumsemnawmrumem Duh mum mm We quammve mdex am mmmmn mszwlnr mm lunmnnnlsmety menmvzcv devdmnzhzahnm manulamlw 5mm mpnnarm 11 mm edurznnn m mm puma mm upw and awemers a1 mxupannna mama mmmmmzmpuu anspenp elmm mchmmupwmddxem mm Equzhty rummm qmnnn zbnmsmety what a 0 degree and charmer nlsncwz mummy m m u s I mragenwznnna zndmmrsemrznnnz max mhmlywrsmvznsmmmnm many quotpa m muemm mm s rewarded maimrhle man newca mm mmnmmg mznmnmcharwesnuz mm in individuals 39I39 I 39luckquot segregation because makes the rules different for minorities than whites This de on links ideology of equal opportunity to modern capitalism Equality of condition if everyone has an equal starting point in the game then the rules of the game equality of opportunity fairly distribute a 39 39 qual Q t quot 39 g quot g 39 39 Af rmative Action programs aka quotsocial engineering chievement But some groups start off at a disadvantage so Equality of 39 39 39 39 will regardless nffairness of game Most socially engineered quotFrom each according to his ability to each according to his needsquot Marx Education Chapter 12 Education social institution responsible for transfer of knowledge skills and cultural values in a formally organized structure 1 Functional Perspective on Education 039 9 d i Durkeim Education is quotinfluence exercised by adult generations on those not yet ready for social life ii Moral values are the foundation of a cohesive social order and that schools have the responsibility of teaching a commitment to the common morality Group is greater than the individual iii Contemporary Functionalists believe that education is responsible for teaching US values Manifest Functions of Education Manifest functions open stated or intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization Education serves 5 major manifest functions in society i Socialization Teach the quotstudent role specific academic subjects and political socialization 1 Primary and secondary schools teach information on specific subjects college then expands on these subjects ii Transmission of Culture Transmit culture norms and values 1 Assimilation for recent immigrants to learn dominant cultural values and behavior so that they may become productive members of society iii Social Control teaching discipline respect obedience punctuality and perseverance Teaching young to work hard and follow the rules iv Social Placement Students are channeled into programs based on individual ability Schools identify most qualified people for bestjobs in the workforce by awarding levels of graduation v Change and Innovation New programs are introduced to meet social needs 1 Sex and drug education 2 College faculty partaking in new research Latent Functions of Education Restricting Activities Mandatory education laws children must go to school till age 1 Restricts kids from labor market until older ii Matchmaking and production of social networks peers of similar agesocial classethnicity meet future marriage partners and develop social networks that will last a long time iii Creating a Generation Gap Students learn information that is contrary to what their parents learn Generation gap is created if the students embrace the new information Dysfunctions of Education i Some argue that US education isn t promoting the high levels in reading writing science and math that are needed in the workplace and global economy ii US scored 15th among other countries in an 8th grade education test iii Dysfunctions exist in nation s education 1 2 Only fixed with more stringent academic requirements Teacher training and consistent testing of instructors 2 Conflict Perspective on Education b 9 i Schools perpetuate racial ethnic and gender inequalities as some groups seek to maintain their privileged position at the expense of others Culture Capital and Class Reproduction i Access to quality education is closely related to social class ii Pierre Bourdieu 7 3 E G School legitimates the social elite Cultural Capital Social assets that include values beliefs attitudes and competencies in language and culture knowledge about what is quotcoolquot books music right clothes etc Middle and High class students learn from their parents more cultural capital than low class Standardized tests aim to group students by cultural capital and therefore students with dominant cultural values are more highly rewarded by the education system Educational system aims to reinforce values that sustain elite position in society The Hidden Curriculum Hidden Curriculum transmission of cultural values and attitudes such as conformity and obedience to authority through implied demands found in rules routines and regulations of schools i Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum 1 EEE IE Schools for upper class have more stimulation creative activities critical thinking skills Schools for middle class have a stress on the process involved in getting the right answer Schools for lower class focus on procedures and route memorization little decision making Credentialism Process of social selection in which class advantage and social status are linked to the possession ofacademic qualifications a Related to meritocracy social system in which status is assumed to be acquired through individual ability and effort Conflict theorists believe that the hidden curriculum determines in advance that the most valued credentials will primarily stay in the hands of the elite so the United States is not actually as meritocratic as some might claim 3 ii Gender Bias and the Hidden Curriculum 1 Reading materials classroom activities and treatment by teachers and peers contributed to feelings among girls that they were less important This over time led to undermining of the girls selfesteem and discouraged them from taking courses such as math and science subjects usually dominated by male teachers and students 2 Some educators do not provide females with as much information about economic trends and relationships among curriculum coursetaking choices and career options as they provide to male students from middle and upper income families 3 Latinas are particularly affected by hidden curriculum as it relates to gender race and language n L Svmbolic39 39 39 on quration Symbolic interactionists focus on the relationship between education and inequality symbolic interactionists focus on classroom communication patterns and educational practices such as labeling that affect students self concept and aspirations a Labeling and the SelfFulfilling Prophecy i Labeling is the process whereby a person is identified by others as possessing a specific characteristic or exhibiting a certain pattern of behavior ii In school teachers and administrators are empowered to label children in ways such as grades written comments on behavior and placement in classes iii As a result of standardized tests students are labeled as quotspecial ed or quotgifted and talentedquot iv Seb fulfilling prophecy unsubstantial belief or prediction resulting in behavior that makes the originally false belief become true IQ tests are a good example of this b Using Labeling Theory to Examine the IQ debate i Teachers were informed about the false IQ scores for their class ii Teachers then began to teach the high IQ students differently than the low IQ students As a result the high IQ students outperformed their quotlowquot peers Even though they were all of equal intelligence iii In the same way what if a teacher sees colored students as less capable of learning iv Herrnstein and Murray The Bell Curve Intelligence and Class Structure 1 Intelligence is genetic On average Asians score 15 points higher on IQ tests than Americans and African Americans score lower than Americans 2 Low intelligence leads to social pathology such as high rates of crime dropping out of school v Two major flaws found in Herrnstein and Murray s studies 1 Authors used biased statistics that underestimate the impact of hardtomeasure factors such as family background 2 Used scores from the Armed Forces Qualification Test an exam that depends on the amount of schooling that people have completed Based on acquired skills not natural intelligence Problems Within Elementary and Secondary Schools 1 Lquot UJ Unequal Funding of Public Schools a Unequal funding of schools is based off of property taxes b Middle and upper income families move into suburban areas where they have their own higher property tax so that their children can go to new schools with the latest text books and computers c Voucher systems allow students and their families to spend a specified sum of government money to purchase education at the school of their choice Dropping Out a 10 of people between the ages of fourteen and twenty four have left school before earning a high school diploma b Latinos are highest in dropout rates 24 followed by African Americans 122 nonHispanic whites 79 and Asian Americans 10 Racial Segregation and Resegregeation a Racial segregation remains in schools today b Attempts of integration have failed in many districts quotmagnet schoolsquot with specialized programs such as science or the fine arts change racialethnic composition at schools c Roots in racially segregated housing patterns lead to segregated school areas