PRINCPLS OF SOCIOLOGY
PRINCPLS OF SOCIOLOGY SYG 2000
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Walter Prohaska on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SYG 2000 at University of Florida taught by Barbara Zsembik in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/206912/syg-2000-university-of-florida in Sociology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
KEY TERMS Chapters 9 and 10 Assimilation Race Ethnicity Ethnic group Ethnocentrism Dominant group Subordinate group Prejudice Stereotype Racism Discrimination Genocide Ethnic cleansing Segregation Ethnic pluralism lnternal colonialism Individual discrimination Institutional discrimination Gendered racism Theory of racial formation Objectification Sex Gender Sexual orientation Homophobia Gender identity Gender role Gendered institutions Sexism Gender bias Pay gap Pay equity Feminism Gender belief system Gendersegregated work Key terms for Education and Class E 5 quot 9 Caste system a system of social inequality in which people s status is permanently determined at birth based on their parents ascribed characteristics Income the economic gain derived from wages salaries income transfers governmental aid and ownership of property Manifest functions open stated and intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization or institution Slavery an extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others Class system a type of stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work that people do ntegration implementation of specific action to change the racial ethnic andor class composition of the student body Meritocracy a hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on people s ability and credentials Social mobility the movement of individuals or groups from one level of a stratification system to another Closed system boundaries between hierarchies of social stratification are rigid and people s positions are set by ascribed status Intragenerational mobility the social movement upward or downward of individuals within their own lifetime Life chances Max Weber s term for the extent which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food clothing shelter education and health care Social stratification the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources Credentialism a process of social selection in which class advantage and social status are linked to the possession of academic qualifications Intergenerational mobility the social movement upward or downward experienced by family members from one generation to the next Official poverty line the federal income standard that is based on what is considered to be the minimum amount of money required for living at a subsistence level Socioeconomic status a combined measure that in order to determine class location attempts to classify individuals families or households in terms of factors such as income occupation and education Cultural capital Pierre Bourdieu s term for people s social assets including values beliefs attitudes and competencies in language and culture Latent functions hidden unstated and Job deskilling a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job Open system boundaries between levels in the hierarchies are more flexible and may be influenced by people s achieved status Tracking the assignment of students to specific curriculum groups and courses on the basis of their test scores previous grades or both Education the social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge skills and cultural values within a formally organized structure Labeling process whereby a person is identified by others as possessing a specific characteristic or exhibiting a certain pattern of behavior such as a deviant Resources anything valued in a society ranging from money and property to medical care and education considered to be scarce because oftheir unequal distribution among social categories Underclass those who are poor seldom employed and caught in long term deprivation that results from low levels of education and income and high rates of unemployment Hidden Curriculum the transmission of cultural values and attitudes such as conformity and obedience to authority through implied demands found in the rules routines and regulations of schools of activities within an organization or institution Self fulfilling prophecy an unsubstantiated belief or prediction resulting in behavior that makes the originally false belief come true Wealth the value of all of a person s or family s economic assets including income personal property and income producing property VOCABU LARY Chapter 8 amp 15 key terms Global stratification the unequal distribution of wealth power and prestige on a global basis resulting in people having vastly different lifestyles and life chances both within and among the nations of the world Highincome countries nations characterized by highly industrialized economies technologically advanced industrial administrative and service occupations and relatively high levels of national and per capita income Middleincome countries nations with industrialized economies particularly in urban areas and moderate levels of national and personal income Lowincome countries primarily agrarian nations with little industrialization and low levels of national and personal income Capital flight the movement of jobs and economic resources from one nation to another Deindustrialization the closing of plants of factories because of their obsolescence or the fact that workers in other nations are being hired to do the work more cheaply Absolute poverty condition in which people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life Relative poverty exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living Subjective poverty measured by comparing actual income against the income earner s expectations and perceptions Standard of living material wellbeing that can be measured by the quality of goods and services that may be purchased by the per capita national income New international division of labor theory commodity production is being split into fragments that can be assigned to whichever part of the world can provide the most profitable combination of capital and labor Producerdriven commodity chains industries in which transnational corporations play a central part in controlling the production process Buyerdriven commodity chains industries in which large retailers brandname merchandisers and trading companies set up decentralized production networks in various middle and lowincome countries Global commodity chains complex pattern of international labor and production processes that results in a punished commodity ready for sale in the marketplace Demography a subfield of sociology that examines population size composition and distribution Fertility the actual level of childbirth for an individual of a population Population group of people who live in a specified geographic area Mortality incidence of death in a population Life expectancy estimate of the average lifetime in years of people born in a specific year Migration movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of changing residency Population composition biological and social characteristics of a population including age sex race marital status education occupation income and size of household Sex ratio term used by demographers to denote the number of males for every hundred females in a given population Population pyramid graphic representation of the distribution of a population by sex and age Positive checks mortality risks such as famine disease and war Preventive checks limits to fertility NeoMathusian llnew Malthusians have reemphasized the dangers of overpopulation earth is a dying planet with too few people and too few food resources Demographic transition process by which some societies have moved from high birth rates and death rates to relatively low birth rates and death rates as a result of technological development Density number of people living in a specific geographic area Community a set of social relationships operating within given spatial boundaries or locations that provides people with a sense of identity and a feeling of belonging Metropolis one or more central cities and their surrounding suburbs that dominate the economic and cultural life ofa region Human ecology study ofthe relationship between people and their physical environment Gentrification process by which members of the middle and uppermiddle classes especially whites more into a centralcity area and renovate existing properties Exchange value profits that industrialists developers bankers and others make from buying selling and developing land and buildings Use value utility of space land and buildings for everyday life family life and neighborhood life Urbanism distinctive social and psychological patterns of life typically found in the city Global city interconnected urban areas that are centers of political economic and cultural activity City relatively dense and permanent settlement of people who secure their livelihood primarily through nonagricultural activities Polity and Economy Key Terms JI l 04 4gt U39I Isn 9 to l NH Jgt O N O Politics the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups Government the formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders State the political entity that possessed a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals Power according the Max Weber the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others Authority power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive Traditional authority power that is legitimized on the basis of longstanding custom Charismatic authority power legitimized on the basis of a leader s exceptional personal qualities or that demonstration of extraordinary insight and accomplishment that inspire loyalty and obedience from followers Rationallegal authority power legitimized by law or written rules and regulations Nationstate unit of political organization that has recognizable national boundaries and whose citizens possess specific legal rights and obligations Monarchy political system in which power resides in one person or family and is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance Authoritarianism a political system controlled by rulers who deny popular participation in government Totalitarianism a political system in which the state seeks to regulate all aspects of people s public and private lives Democracy a political system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives Pluralist model an analysis of political systems that views power as widely dispersed throughout many competing interest groups Special interest groups political coalitions made up of individuals or groups that share a specific interest they wish to protect or advance with the help of the political system Power elite comprises leaders at the top of business the executive branch of the federal government and the military Political party an organization whose purpose is to gain and hold legitimate contrl of government Economy social institution that ensures the maintenance of society through the production distribution and consumption of goods and services Goods tangible objects that are necessary or desired Services intangible activities for which people are willing to pay N N N N W N Jgt N U N O N l N to W O W Primary sector production the sector of the economy that extracts raw materials and natural resources from the environment Secondary sector production the sector of the economy that processes raw materials from primary sector into finished goods Tertiary sector production the sector of the economy that is involved in the provision of services rather than goods Capitalism an economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without government intervention Corporations largescale organizations that have legal powers such as the ability to enter into contracts and buy and sell property separate from their individual owners Transnational corporations large corporations that are headquartered in one country but sell and produce goods and services in many countries ie WalMart Oligopoly a condition existing when several companies overwhelmingly control an entire industry Conglomerates a combination of businesses in different commercial areas all of which are owned by one holding company Socialism an economic system characterized by public ownership of the means of production the pursuit of collective goals and centralized decision making Welfare state a state in which there is extensive government action to provide support and services to the citizens Profession high status knowledgebased occupation Occupations categories of jobs that involve similar activities at different work sites Primary labor market sector of the labor market that consists of highpaying jobs and good benefits that have some degree of security and the possibility of future advancement Secondary labor market consists of lowpaying jobs with few benefits and very little job security or possibility for future advancement Underground economy activities through which people make money that they do not report to the government and in some cases their endeavors may involve criminal behavior Unemployment rate percentage of unemployed persons in the labor force actively seeking jobs
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