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by: Walter Prohaska


Marketplace > University of Florida > Sociology > SYG 2000 > PRINCPLS OF SOCIOLOGY
Walter Prohaska
GPA 3.97

Barbara Zsembik

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Barbara Zsembik
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Walter Prohaska on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SYG 2000 at University of Florida taught by Barbara Zsembik in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/206912/syg-2000-university-of-florida in Sociology at University of Florida.




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Date Created: 09/18/15
Chapter 13 Vocab JI l 04 4gt U1 0 l 9 to O UJ Jgt Authority Power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive Capitalism an economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without government intervention Charismatic authority power legitimized on the basis of the leader s exceptional personal qualities or the demonstration of extraordinary insight and accomplishment that inspire loyalty and obedience from followers Conglomerate a combination of businesses in different commercial areas all of which are owned by one holding company Corporation largescale organizations that have legal powers such as the ability to enter into contracts and buy and sell property separate from their individual owners Democracy a political system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives Economy the social institution that ensures the maintenance of society through the production distribution and consumption of goods and services Go0ds Government the formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders Nation state unit of political organization that ahs recognizable national boundaries and whose citizens possess specific legal rights and obligations Occupation categories of jobs that involve similar activities at different work sites Oligopoly a condition existing when several companies overwhelmingly control an entire industry Pluralist model an analysis of political systems that views power as widely dispersed throughout many competing interest groups Politics the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups Power according to Max Weber the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others to N MN bu W O Power elite leaders at top of businesses executive branches of fed government and military Primary labor market the sector of the labor market that consists of high paying jobs with good benefits that have some degree of security and the possibility of future advancement Primary sector production the sector of the economy that extracts raw materials and natural resources from the environment Profession high status knowledge based occupations Rationallegal authority power legitimized by law or written rules and regulations Secondary labor market The sector of the labor market that consists of lowpaying jobs with few benefits and very little job security or possibility for future advancement Secondary sector production the sector of the economy that processes raw materials from the primary sector into finished goods Services Special interest groups political coalitions made up of individuals or groups that share a specifc State the political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals Tertiary sector production the sector of the economy that is involved in the provision of services rather than goods TIaIISIIaLiuHai LUI puIaLiuH large LUI puIaLiuHS that are headquartered in one country butsell and produce goods and services in many countries Underground economy people who do activities to make money that they do not report to the government In some cases involving criminal behavior Unemployment no work Cyclical lower rates of production during recessions Seasonal agriculture based on conditions such as weather Welfare state a state in which there is extensive government action to provide support and services to the citizens Chapter 13 notes 1 Politics power and authority a Political science focuses on power and it s distribution 2 3 4 5 b Political sociology is the area of sociology that examines politics and the government C Politicsis the struggles that shape social relations within societies and between nations Power and authority a b C Power is a dimension in the structure of social stratification Persons in positions of power control valuable resources of society Domhoff believes that the media amplifies the message of the powerful and marginalizes the concerns of others Ideal Types of Authority a People are more likely to accept authority if they are economically or politically dependent on those who hold power or if it reflects their own beliefs or values b Weber s Three types of authority i Traditional 1 Kings pharaohs emperors religious dignitaries authority from God 2 As societies industrialized traditional authority is challenged by more complex division of labor and immigration ii Charismatic 1 Politicians soldiers or entertainers Power based on personal qualities 2 Temporary and relatively unstable iii Rationallegal 1 Organized structure that includes division of labor hierarchy of authority formal rules and impersonality 2 Rationallegal authority held by appointed government officials 3 Authority is invested in the office not the person Political Systems in Global Perspective a Political systems evolved when agrarian societies began to acquire surplus which created social inequality b City state city whose power extended into adjacent areas c Nation states developed as people began to acquire abilities to defend their borders d Improvements in communication and transportation common language and culture e Legal authority takes over from traditional and charismatic Democracy a llrule by the people Ideal people act and rule directly direct participatory democracy Representative democracy citizens elect representatives US Constitution each state have 2 senators and one house of rep minimum In Europe instead of the winner takes all election like in US if you win 40 of the vote you get 40100 seats 6 Perspectives on Power and Political Systems 7 Functionalist Perspectives The pluralist Model a DURKHEIM Functionalist b Pluralist model rooted in FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE c Assumes that people share a consensus on central concerns such as freedom and protection from harm and that the government serves important functions no other institution can fulfill d Purpose of government to socialize people to be good citizens regulate economy so it operates effectively and provide necessary services for citizens e CONTEMPERO RARY FU NCTIO NALIST i Maintaining law and order ii Planning and directing society iii Meeting social needs iv Handling international relations including welfare f Divergent viewpoints lead to a system of political pluralism in which the government functions as an arbiter between competing interests g Pluralist model i Diverse needs of all are met by political leaders who engage in a process of bargaining accommodation and compromise Competition among leaders in society prevents abuse of power by any one group h Special Interest groups i Political coalitions made up of individuals or groups that share a specific interest they wish to protect or advance with the help of the political system ii AFLCIO representing the majority of labor unions also abortion gun control iii Also called pressure groups because they put pressure on the leader to produce results also Lobbies 8 Political Action Committees a Organization of special interest groups that solicit contributions to help elect candidates b Members of the least privileged sectors of society are not represented by PACS c Criticized because big business wields disproportionate power in US politics and undermines democratic process d Soft money money contributed outside the limits imposed by federal law But only applies to federal elections not state or local 9 CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE a Government exists for the wealthy who use it to impose their will on the masses b Elite Model power in the political system in the hands of small group of elites c C Wright Mills and the Power Elite Leaders at top of business executive branch of federal government and military Ability to achieve vast economic resources at their disposal Middle level of pyramid legislative branch special interest groups local opinion leaders iv Bottom unorganized masses d 3 William Domhoffand the ruling Class Ruling class top 1 percent of US population that wield sufficient power to constrain political processes and serve underlying capitalist interests Effect political system in three ways 1 Affect candidate selection process by helping to finance campaigns and providing favors to political candidates 2 Participation in the special interest process the corporate rich are able to obtain favors tax breaks and favorable regulatory ruling 3 Gain access to policy making process through appointments to governmental advisory committees presidential commissions 10 Political parties Develop and articulate policy positions Educates voters about issues and simplifies choices for them Recruits candidates who agree with those policies helps those candidates win office and holds the candidates responsible for implementing the party s policy positions 11 Political participation and Voter Apathy a Conservatives argue that people do not vote because they are apathetic and uninformed b Liberals argue that people feel alienated from politics due to political corruption and influence by special interest and large corporations 12 Economic Systems in Global Perspective Preindustrial industrial and postindustrial economies a Preindustry i Hunting gathering ii Primary sector production extraction of raw materials from environment iii Societies are small Potential for producing surplus increases as people learn to domesticate animals and grow their own food iv As surplus grows more people participate in non food industries b lndustrial i New forms of energy steam gasoline electricity ii Secondary sector production finished goods Steel workers iii Work becomes specialized and repetitive Work with machines iv Mass production c Post industrial i Tertiary sector provision of services rather than goods ii Fast food services transportation communication education entertainment 13 Capitalism a Private ownership of the means of production i Under early monopoly capitalism ownership shifted from personal to corporations ii Advanced monopoly capitalism 1940present ownership and control of major industrial and business sectors increasingly concentrated and global in scope b Pursuit of Personal Profit i Theories were that the more economic growth that happened the more everyone would benefit from it Both capitalists and workers and general public benefit from public expenditures roads schools parks ii Critics say that only a few that got in early with the major monopolies are good c Competition i Acts as a balance to excessive profits ii In early capitalism was not the case monopolies J D Rockefeller oil iii Oligopoly several companies control entire industry iv Shared monopoly four or fewer companies share 50 of market 14 Work in the Contemporary United States Professions a Abstract specialized knowledge i Knowledge of their field based on education and interaction b Autonomy rely on own judgment in selecting relevant knowledge and technique c Selfregulation have liscensing that requires members to adhere to a code of ethics and form of public accountability d Authority compliance with directions and advice Authority based on mastery of skills e Altruism self sacrifice 15 Occupations a Primary labor markets high paying jobs good security b Secondary low paying jobs no security few options for advancement 16 Underground Economy a Social Class and Stratification Chapter 7 1 What is Social Stratification 1 Social Stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources 2 Life Chances Max Weber extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food clothing shelter education and health care 2 Systems of Stratification 1 Most important characteristics of systems of stratification are their flexibility 2 Open system boundaries between levels in the hierarchies are more flexible and may be influenced by people s achieved statuses some degree of social mobility 3 Social Mobility movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another 4 lntergenerational mobility social movement experienced by family members from one generation to the next 5 lntragenerational mobility social movement of individuals within their own lifetime 6 Closed system boundaries between levels in hierarchies of social stratification are rigid People s positions are set by ascribed status b Slavery l Slavery an extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others a Closed system 2 Primary characteristics of Slavery a For life and inherited children of slaves still slaves b Slaves considered property not humans c Slaves denied rights d Coercion was used to keep slaves quotin their placequot c The Caste System 1 Caste System is a system of social inequality in which people s status is permanently determined at birth based on their parent s ascribed characteristics 2 In India Caste is based in part on occupation In Africa on race 3 In a caste system marriage is endogamous meaning that people are allowed to mary only within their own group 4 Cultural beliefs and values sustain caste systems d Class System 1 2 3 4 Class system is a type of stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work people do More open than a caste system because boundaries between classes are less distinct Status comes at least partly through achievement rather than entirely by ascription Vertical mobility up and down the class ladder Horizontal move up or down but no change in status 3 Classical Perspectives on Social Class a Karl Marx Relationship to the Means of Production 1 2 3 4 S 6 Capitalist class consists of those who own the means of production land mines Working class those who must sell their labor to the owners in order to earn enough money to survive Alienation feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself Superstructure government school church Capitalist class maintains power by controlling the superstructure Class conflict struggle between the capitalist class and the working class b Max Weber Wealth Prestige and Power 1 2 9P5 N57 Class quotIdeal type rather than as a specific social category of quotrealquot people Wealth vaue of all of a person s or family s economic assets including income personal property and incomeproducing property Entrepreneurs wealthy bankers ship owners etc Rentiers live off their investments Working Class Middle class and working class a Middle class white collar workers public officials managers professionals b Working class skilled semiskilled and unskilled workers Prestige respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others Power ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others a Weber social power is held by bureaucracies Socioeconomic Status SES refer to a combined measure that attempts to classify individuals families or households in terms of factors such as income occupation and education to determine class location 4 Contemporary Sociological Models of the US Class Structure a Weberian Model of the US Class Structure 1 Based on a Education b Occupation of family head c Family income The Upper Capitalist Class 1 About 1 of the population Inheritanceinvestments old money and executives media personalities new money 2 Influence on society far beyond their numbers 3 Members of lower upper class new money may have the money but lack the prestige of the old money Upper Middle Class 1 Highly educated professionals physicians attorneys stockbrokers corporate managers 2 About 14 of the population 3 University degree authority and independence on the job and high income iv The Middle Class 1 2 or 4 year degrees 30 2 Four factors have eroded the American Dream for the middle class a Escalating housing prices b Occupational insecurity c Blocked mobility on the job d Cost of living squeeze that has penalized younger workers v Working class 30 l Pinkcollar occupation relatively low paying nonmanual semi skilled positions primarily held by women waitress cashier vi Working Poor 1 20 of the population 2 Unskilled migrantjobs viI Underclass 35 1 Underclass poor seldom employed caught in longterm deprivation that results from low levels of education and income and high rates of unemployment 2 Usually due to age or disability b The Marxian Model of the US Class Structure 1 Identified ownership and nonownership as means of distinguishing features of classes iv V 2 3 4 Societies are organized around classes in conflict over scarce resources and inequality results from the more powerful exploiting the less powerful Contemporary Marxian conflict models examine class in terms of people s relationship to others in the production process plan and make their own work make decisions Erik Wright s definition of classes a b C d Ownership of the means of production Capitaist class Purchase of the labor of others employing others Manageria Class Control the labor of others supervising others on the job Small business class Sale of one s own labor being employed by someone else Working class Capitalist Class 1 Most wealth and power in society through ownership of capital like banks factories mines Managerial Class 1 2 Upper eve managers supervisors and professionals do not participate in decisions on how to invest profits Lower level management some control over employment practices hiring and firing Small Business 1 Small number ofempoyees Some are mom and pop stores others lawyers Working Class 1 2 Blue coar high skilled well paid plumbers electricians Unskilled poorly paid janitors White coar Secretaries saesworkers Take orders supervised S Inequality in the United States a b Distribution of Income and Wealth Income Inequality 1 Income economic gain derived from wages salaries income transfers and ownership of property Wealth Inequality l Wealth includes factors such as land farms cars and assets a u C d Super rich own 35 of nations wealth Net assets averaging 9 million Very rich 7 of nations wealth Net assets from 14 25 million Rich 9 30 of wealth Net assets over 400k Everyone else 90 own about 28 of wealth Consequences of Inequality Physical Health Mental Health and Nutrition 1 2 As people s economic status increases so does their health Lack adequate supply of doctors and medical facilities 3 Inability to pay for medical services 4 People with high income exercise more smoke less maintain healthy body weight 5 Between one third and one half of all children living in poverty consume less than recommended caloric and nutritional intake ii Education 1 Functionalists claim that education is flexible allowing most students to go to college 2 Conflict theorists say schools are agencies for reproducing the capitalist class system 6 Poverty in the United States 1 Official Poverty Line based on what is considered to be the minimum amount of money required for living at subsistence level 2 Absolute poverty when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life 3 Relative poverty people may be able to afford basic necessities but are stil unable to maintain an average standard of living b Who Are the Poor i Age 1 Used to be 65 now with social security not so Women are twice as likely to be poor when older than men 2 Children are poor ii Gender 1 Femi ization of Poverty trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty 7 Sociological explanations of Social Inequality in the United States a FunctionalistPerspective 1 All societies have important tasks that must be accomplished and certain positions that must be filled 2 Some positions are more important for the survival of society than others 3 The most important positions must be filled by the most qualified people 4 The positions that are the most important for society and that require scarce talent extensive training or both must be the most highly rewarded S The most highly rewarded positions should be those that are functionally unique and on which other positions rely for expertise direction or financing 6 Meritocracy hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on people s ability and credentials b Conflict Perspectives C People in power shape and distribute rewards resources and privileges for their own benefit Powerful individuals and groups use ideology to maintain their favored positions at the expense of others wealth is not necessary to motivate people Symbolic ne ractionist Perspective 1 Beliefs and actions of people reflect their class location in society


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