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by: Kellie Johnson Sr.


Marketplace > University of Florida > Religion > REL 2930 > INTRO JEWISH STUDIES
Kellie Johnson Sr.
GPA 3.87

Caleb Simmons

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Caleb Simmons
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kellie Johnson Sr. on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL 2930 at University of Florida taught by Caleb Simmons in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/206924/rel-2930-university-of-florida in Religion at University of Florida.




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Date Created: 09/18/15
World Religions Final Study Guide Mallory Meads Judaism Torah Religious law Consists of the Hebrew Bible itself and all the commentaries on it The term also refers speci cally to the rst 5 books of the Bible Contains the history of Israel Became the foundation document of the nation in the 2quotd commonwealth period in somewhat the same way that the collected body of British law serves as Britain s constitution At the the time of the rst temple referred only to laws governing priestly behavior Starting with the book of Deuteronomy it was used to refer rst to a written book of law and then to all 5 books of the Pentateuch Written on scrolls Entire Hebrew bible or T anakh an acronym for Torah Nebi im prophets and Ketuvim sacred writings and even the books of oral lawiMidrash Mishnah and Talmudican be called the Torah Can refer to any revelatory or canonical literature From Powerpoint 0 Dual Torah I Broad sense I All the vastness and variety of the Jewish Tradition I traditionally orally transmitted I D var Torahhomily I Textual sense I The Torah I lsL 5 books of the Hebrew Bible 0 The Torah I Aka The Books of M oses or the Pentateuch I Narrative I Genesis 0 Creation myth adam and eve 0 Flood myth noah and family 4 sources of Torah J O 0000 000 o Patriarchs Abraham Isaac Israel etc D Exodus o Enslavement of Hebrews in Egypt 0 Plagues 0 Exodus from Egypt into PalestineCanaan I Legislative D Leviticus D Numbers D Deuteronomy o Recapitulates the legislation and major narratives 0 Death of Moses 0 Authorship dated to the reign of Josiah D Four Sources 0 Two from 1000800 BCE J and E o One from 7 h BCE D 0 One from postexilic period P Always refers to God by the name YHWH even back to the creation account in Genesis It is the oldest material in the Torah 93911 or 10Lh century BCE Originated in Jerusalem Frequently depicts God in antrhopomoorphic terms Only the grace of God secures for humanity its future continued existence Using the same matieral in different various calld doublets Gives Same material that appears in J a stronger theological and ethical meaning Emphasis on Prophecy Priestly source Created during the exile Stresses Irsaelite ritual and religious observance 70 CE Abraham Adam Describe in detail the Passover ritual the ordination ceremorines vestments of high priest the tabernacle and it s furnishing O Stands for the author of Deuteronomy Means second law in greek Mandates the centralization of the cult of YHWH and the suppression of all Cannanitecultes 000 God promises him that his descendants will inhabit the land of Canaan Son Isaac grandson Jacob and nally Moses The important bene ts of offspring and homeland will accrue to the descendants of Abraham as long as they keep faith with God Lived to an old age and was buried with his ancestors Hebrew word for man Adam connotes Everyman Ashkenazim Jews of northern and eastern Europe as distinguished from the Mediterranean Sephardim Baal Shem Tov See Haidism Conservative Takes an immediate positions between Reform and Orthodoxy Justi cation for change is usually historical precedentinot as in Reform Judaism rational procedure If a particular custom can be show to be farily recent then there is a precendent for further change Powerpoint 0 Rejected some ideas of the Reformists I Seeing irrational ritual have D Legal justi cations D Aesthetic value I Historialprecendent over rationale D Craftans D Prayer books 0 Leopold Zunz and Zecharias Frankel Dreyfus Affair Dvar Torah Exile Exodus A talkon topics relating to a section of the Torah 7 typically the weekly Torah portion Rabbis will often give their D var torah after the Torah service Likely that it will carry a life lesson backed up my passages from certain Jewish texts like the Talmud or Mishnah Derived from the word living In 586 BCE the Judean kingdom fell Solomon s temple was razed and the society s leaders were exiled to Babylonia Marks the transition from the national cult of an ancient kingdom to the religious heritage of a widely dispersed people From the 63911 century BCE on we speak of Jews and Judaism rather than of Hebrews or Israelites and Hebrew or Israelite religion Life became more urban than agricultural Institution known as the synagogue was born and even after the ruined temple was rebuilt three generations later congregational life gained in emphasis over temple worship Aramaic replaced Hebrew as the vernacular language Tells the story of Moses Chapter 3 of exodus relates an encounter that Moses has with God during a visit to the wilderness before his people s escape from Egypt God declares his identity to Moses as the God of the patriarchal lineage Abraham IsaacJacob and gives his personal name represented in Hebrew by the four letters YHWH Gemara Genesis Gilgamesh Hasidism This name of God the most holy of all is sometimes referred to by the Greek term Tetragammaton I am who I am ito be The Hebrews in the Exodus story are working as laborers on Egyptian construction All jewish people come to identify with the Exodus as a metaphor of the transition from slavery to the status of a people with a destiny and purpose The Passover festival commemorates their participation inthis historical event 10 commandments The body of Aramaic commentary attached to the Hebrew text of the Mishnah which together with it makes up the Talmud both the Jerusalem Talmud and the Bbaylonian Talmud First 11 chapters describe the primeval history of the universe Jews celebrate the Sabbath starting at sundown Friday night and ending at sundown on Saturday First 11 chapters provide the background that explains why God had to choose a speci c people to convey his ideas to the human race Founder was Israel Ben Eliezer known as the Baal Shem Tov master of the Good name Humility Wandered from community to community meeting ordinary people and attracting disciples Appears to have obtained the title as a result of his success at healing Proclaimed a simple and accessible message the best way of communicating with God is through humility good deeds prayer and joy Preached the important of virtues such as forbearance and mutual help o Sought the presence of God in everyday life Holocaust o 19397Second World War began o by the time in ended in 1945 approx 6 millions Jews had been put to death by the Nazis o Entlosungi the nal solution to the Jewish problem Isaac Jewish State Kabbalah 0 received tradition o heavenly journey of the Merkabah mystics became a journey into the self 0 inthe place of heavenly palaces Kabbalah developed a notion often spherot countings or spheres which are emanations of God an objects of meditation 0 by correctly allighning these spherot through rituals pious deeds and mystical meditation the Kabbalist gains access to the divine and can affect the future course of events and so participate in the divine plan for the universe Leopold Zunz o 1819 founded the JudischeJVissencha science of judaism movement 0 tended to look for historical justification before making an innovation 0 part of the Conservative Judaism Mishnah 0 Basic literature of rabbinic Judaism consisted of this 1st Rabbinic biblical commentary follows the sequence and structure of books already extant in the Hebrew canon at the end of the 1st century By contrast the Mishnah was a new production with its own topical arrangement It is organized in 6 orders or divisions Seeds Festivals Women Damages Holy Things OOOOO o Purifications o Summarizes the application of the traditional law as the Pharisaicrabbinic movement interpreted it o Oldest datable rabbinic document 0 Claims for the authoritative nature of the book were based on the notion of the oral law ithe idea that alongside the 5 books traditionally ascribed to Moses there was another body of precedent and interpretation that had been passed down from Moses in a direct line of oral tradition o This doctrine allowed the rabbis to claim that their own interpretations were just as authoritative as the doctrines written explicitly in the Torah o 2 schools Hillel and Shammai o Sabbath law purity tithing marriage divorce rules for personal status Moses Maimonides o Preeminent medieval Jewish philosopher and one of the great Torah scholars and physicians of the Middle Ages 0 Wrote The Guide for the Perplexed in Arabic Moses Mendelssohn 0 Part of the Jewish reform movement 0 May be seen as the father ofmodem Orthodoxy as well because his formula for the relationship between Jewish identity and European nationality became the basis for modern Jewish life everywhere 0 In his treatise Jerusalem published in 1783 argued that the Jews of Germany instead of resisting German culture should absorb as much of it as they could o Argued Judaism is a religion of reason combined with revealed law a 17 39I r o from r 39 J in effect suggesting that Jews could be Germans in the same way that Protestants and Catholics were Germans o Reformed Jewish worship to resemble church services by introducing Western musical instruments more vernacular prayer and sermons in vernacular o Abbreviated services by cutting out numerous repetitions and even adopted the Christian custom of holding Sabbath services on Sunday rather than Saturday Mt Sinai 0 Noah Orthodox Reform groups in the US today continue to adapt to the times in recent years for instant they have begun referring to the matriarchs as well as the patriarchs in prayer and addressing God in feminine as well as masculine terms Emphasis on the present over the past is evident in the following extracts from the platform of American Reform rabbis meeting at Pittsburgh in 1885 o The Bible re ects primitive ideas of its own age clothing conceptions of divine Providence in miraculous narratives The laws regulating diet priestly purity and dress do not conduce to holiness and obstruct modern spiritual elevation 0 We are no longer a nation but a spiritual community and therefore expect no return to Palestine 0 Reform Jews often refer to their congregations as temples suggesting that the central place of worship is where they now live and that restoration of the first century temple is no longer expected or even desired Mountain where Moses received the Ten Commandments Emphasizes the preservation of Jewish Tradition Adopted modern dress Still conduct services in Hebrew and observe Sabbath obligations based on the ancient rules found in Bible they insist on kosher meals and they maintain the traditional distinctions in gender roles restricting the leadership in worship and ritual to males Rejecting even moderate reform programs such as JudischeWissenschaft as a betrayal of authentic Judaism Orthodox Jews nevertheless have to live in the modern world The Hasidim outwardly resemble strict Orthodox Jews but they are not Orthodox in their beliefs and practices Powerpoint 0 Emphasizes preservation of tradition I Hebrew I Sabbath rules I Dress I Kosher 0 Negotiation of Torah and way of the land 0 Moses Mendelssohn and Samson Hirsch Pentateuch o Refers to the 5 books of Moses or the rst ve books of the bible Reform Product of 18 11 century Europe and re ected the progressive ideas of the Enlightenment Movement reached its most signi cant form in Germany in the late 18Lh and early 19 11 centuries In 1807 Napoleon called for an assembly of rabbis and Jewish laymen modeled on the ancient Sanhedrin to determine whether the Jews of France were truly committed to French citizenship As Jews freedom to participate in secular society increased so did the number of Jews converting to Christianity One response to the weakening of the Jewish community was religious reform Centered in Germany Sought to counter the temptations of Christianity by offering Jews a religious life that suited the time Powerpoint Present over past Began during the European Enlightenment Reforming of Judaism into mainstream life Early movement in Germany Moses Mendelssohn I Assimilation I Emphasized reason I Sought equality OOOOO Samson Hirsch o Rabbi Part of the Orthodox movement Outlined a postitive program for modern Orthodoxy Essentially he gave credence to both the modern world and the traditional soucres of Jewish identity calling for both Torah law used here in the sense of Jewish religious truth and DerekhEretz literally the way of the land here referring speci cally to European life Sefer Torah Sephardim Talmud Torah for Ritual usage Scribal tradition Ornamentations and ark Read in synagogues throughout the year 0 Sections I Sedra or parashah I Named after first signi cant word 0 Followed by d var Torah Diasporic religion Descendants of jews who left Spain or Portugal after the 1492 expulsion Moses Maimonides 1492 Asian and African Jews Palestinian tradition Maintains more medieval European characteritstics Large body of commentary Two different Talmud s that comment on the Mishnah One of the commentaries is form the Jewish community living in the land of Israel the other is from the Jewish community living in Babylonia Palestinian Talmud Jerusalem Talmud 0 Historical records at a time when the situation of its producers was deteriorating I The roman empire was in the process of Christinatization Babylonian Talmud o More incisive and it became the authoritative version These commentaries are in Aramic Typically the text of the Talmud starts with a short passage from the Mishnah and then continues with the text of the related Gemarah completion Core is a document of law 0 Halakha and aggada Tanakh o Torah Teachings 0 Ca 4 h BCE o Gensis 0 Exodus o Leviticus 0 Numbers 0 Deuteronomy o Nevi im 7 The prophets 0 Ca 15 2 d CE 0 Historial books I Joshua Judges I amp 11 Samuel Kings 0 Named Prophets I Isaiah Micah o Ketuvim 7 the writings 0 Ca 2 d CE 0 Psalms Proverbs Job 0 Daniel Ezra Nehemiah Chronicles Theodor Herzl o Principle found of Zionist movement 0 Committed to the goal of Jewish statehood o Came to believe that the only chance for Jews to lead a normal existence free of persecution would be as a people in their own land and that they would have to have a political state or something approximating it o Ambitions were entirely secular and nationalistic Zaddik During the Maggid s life that the theory of leaderships under the zaddikim was rst a1ticiulated According to this doctrine all the leaders of Hasidism after the Ball Shem Tov were to be called Zaddik and could pass on their authority to their children Thus a zaddik was both the holder of a hereditary office and a kind of intermediary between the people and God Zecharias Frankel Zionism Zohar Part of Conservative Judaism Attended many of the meetings called by the reforming rabbis of Germany but stopped short of accepting all the reforms proposed by the modemizers arguing that some apparently irrational rituals had legal and aesthetic justifications Modern movement to return to the ancient land of Israel to found a nation there on the modern European model is called Zionism Among those currents was the desire to revive the Hebrew language as an important aspect of national identity Hebrew which was still widely used in prayer and for literary and intellectual purposes but rarely spoken was the only language that all Jews had in common and so its revival became an important part of the Zionist impulse Asher Ginsberg thought that Jewish national homeland should be a spiritual centre for the development of the world and the Jewish people There has also been a religious Zionist movement which accepts and supports the existence of a Jewish state 0 Quite strong today Principal text of Kabbalah Describes God as un umlimited divine principle En Sof without end who produces the universe indirectly as the series of emanations called the spherot and it has a special mystical agenda Mystic tradition holds that balance is affected by human behavior ritual and otherwise and often envisiosn it in terms of sexual intercourse Christianity 1222010 111900 PM Jesus 0 His life 0 Four Canonical Gospels I Synoptic I Mark Matthew Luke I Quelle source I John I Later I Re ects theological developments I All written decades after Jesus death 0 Life serves as the basis for Nazarene Sect 0 Born in stable 0 Angel s announcment to shepherds o Circumsisionprophesy of Simon and Anna 0 Magi s offerings o Herod s infanticide 0 Flight to Egypt 0 Disputation o Minisitry I Arrives back on the scene at 30 I Miracles I Water and wine I Heals I Social reform I Contestation of the Law I Intentions 0 Trial and Death I Entering Jerusalem I Last supper I Betrayal I PilateHerodPilate I Cruci xtion I Easter I Great CommissionAscension 84 BCE 95 Theses Anglicanism 0 Henry VIII wanted a male heir but his queen Catherine of Aragon had borne only a daughter 0 Hoping Anne Boleyn would produce a son in 1527 Henry requested an annulment of his rst marriage on the groups that it was invalid because Catherine had previously been married to his deceased brother He secretly married Anne and then had the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer annul the lSt marriage and pronounce the second valid English parliament in 1534 passed an Act of Supremacy which for corroboration and con rmation proclaimed the king and his successors by authority of Parliament the only Supreme Head in the earth of the Church of England It was an established state church without links to Rome had a traditional mass but conducted in the vernacular had a hierarchy with bishops but with clergy who could now marry The church of the Church of England is generally called Anglican although it is known in the United States as Episcopalian after its form of government by bishops Tension between the highchurch and lowchurch Anglicanism 0 High church side can approach Roman Catholicism in its emphasis on ritual 0 Whereas the low church side is more spontaneous and evangelical Archbishop of Canterbury Ascension Bethlehem Chi Ro Ranking bishop of the Church of England One of the earliest forms of christogram and is used by Christians Formed by superimposing the rst two letters in Greek spelling of the word Christ in such a way to produce the monogram Invokes the cruci Xition of Jesus as well as symbolizing his status as Christ Used by pagan Greek scribes to mark a particular valuable or relevant passage Constantine Gradually abandoned the persecution policy and in 313 gave them liberty to practice their religion Emperor s conversion was sparked by a vision he experiencedion the eve of a decisive battle in 3127of a cross in the heavens and the words conquer in this sign the following day his troops won the battle and gave him control of the western half of the empire Sunday did not become a public holiday until 321 Was not baptized a Christian until he was on his deathbed


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