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by: Kellie Johnson Sr.


Marketplace > University of Florida > Religion > REL 2121 > AMERICAN RELIG HIST
Kellie Johnson Sr.
GPA 3.87

David Hackett

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David Hackett
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kellie Johnson Sr. on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL 2121 at University of Florida taught by David Hackett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/206926/rel-2121-university-of-florida in Religion at University of Florida.




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Date Created: 09/18/15
Butler Chapter 15 Innovators in a World of New Ideas Ralph Waldo Emerson an eXUnitarian pastor shifted away from that tradition and began insisting that everyone must make their own decisions about what was true about God humans and the world He concluded that the only valid authority was the authority of each person s private judgment Emerson and an elite band oflikeminded friends called themselves quotTranscendentalistsquot quotHigher Critics of the Bible emerged who asked higher questions such as 39who wrote the different parts of the Bible ect The quotLower Critics busied themselves with the less controversial tasks such as finding accurate translations Evolutionary ideas about human origins had been around for a long time but these ideas became even more startling with the publication in England in 1859 of Charles Darwin s massive book Origin of the Species by means of Natural Selection Darwin s writings upset religious people s beliefs because if the principle of natural selection was true the only measure of good and bad actions was survival A growing awareness of other religions in other parts of the world posed a third major challenge to older ideas This awareness grew rapidly in the 1880s and 1890s with the rapid development of shipping and railroad technology increasing wealth allowed for vacations to distance places but mostly due to the rapid growth of Christian Missions that brought the worrisome fear that HebrewChristian tradition was not unique The World s Parliament of Religions in 1983 marked a turning point Holy men traveled from all parts of the world to describe their homeland s faith From there it was only a short step to the conclusion that those religions offered equally valid paths to God For many people it was their first time being exposed to something other than Iudaism and Christianity Agnostics believed that humans simply could not know whether a personal God eXisted or not Robert G Ingersoll was a very famous agnostic He also scorned efforts to harmonize science and Christianity Use science he urged to create a civilization that was more just more humane and more democratic Of the three forms of quotinnovativequot thinkers mentioned agnostics free religionists and liberals the last proved by far the most effective in spreading their ideas among ordinary believers quotFree Religionists label described thousands of maverick spirits who sought to develop their ideas on their own without the constraint of inherited creeds or communities of faith Elizabeth Cady Stanton exemplified this outlook Liberals took pride in their ability to accommodate the old to the new and thus retain the best of both They believed that the Bible demanded socialjustice Liberals saw themselves as saving the core of their traditional faith while accommodating to recent advances in knowledge Butler 2 2 Religion in an Age of Upheaval Science and technology reached its zenith at the World s Fair in New York 196465 AND Neil Armstrong s step onto the moon 1969 The new generation saw their parent s religion as part of everything that was wrong with American society too big too impersonal too authoritative too unresponsive On may 4th 1970 28 Ohio National Guardsmen fired into a group of antiwar protesters at Kent State University in Ohio leaving 4 students dead This reminded the nation of its dividedness Especially the younger generation turned to the East for religious inspiration in part out of disillusionment with Western religions and in part for the novelty of Hinduism Sikhism Buddhism Zen Buddhism Taoism Hare Krishna ect Alan Watts a philosopher and popularizer of zen Buddhism Every religion absorbed took on an American are different from the original In North American Buddhist practice traditionally associated with the monastic life emphasized meditation more than monasticism making it more accessible to the middle classes who were unlikely to exchange their suburban lives for the rigors of a Tibetan monastery Chuck Smith became pastor at Calvery Chapel The church grew rapidly and the largest increase came from an unlikely source the hippies roaming the beaches of southern California The quotJesus People phenomenon began to attract notice Hundreds of reformed hippies eager to recast their lives participated in baptisms MLK made the observation that 11 o clock Sunday morning was the most segregated hour in America Wounded Knee the site of the massacre of the SiouX What touched off the feminine movement The 1963 publication of Betty Friedan s The Feminine Mystique an attack on male dominance in American society The sexual revolution can be traced back to a club called the Condor where Carol Doda became a topless dancer Birth Control had a big in uence too more available more dependable quotfree love Some women agitated to be allowed to join clergy Pentecostals ordained women as clergy early on Presbyterians were neXt Sandy Eisenberg became the first female rabbi in Reconstructionist Iudaism Carter ran for president boldly declaring that he was a quotbornagain Christian The significance was that for the first time evangelists were participating in politics Previously the Scopes trial of 1925 convinced American evangelicals to disregard politics because of their corruption A little known incident turn evangelicals against Carter His justice department sought to enforce antidiscrimination Laws at Bob Jones University They saw it as a government incursion They became bitterly antagonistic toward the president In the 1980s and 1990s religious leaders often claimed the supreme court s decision to legalize abortion was the catalyst for their getting involved in politics Roe vs Wade decision removed most legal barriers to abortion The southern Baptists convention actually endorsed the court s decision because it saw abortion as a moral rather than a legal or political matter Pope John Paul 1 died only 33 days into his papacy Pope John Paul II was seen as quotthe people s pope Butler 16 Conservers of Tradition quotConservativesquot were socalled because they felt that timehonored truths tested and refined in the long experience of the human race offered the most effective way to deal with the intellectual social and technological changes of the modern world What all conservatives held in common was that the past held the key to the future When the literal truth of the bible came under scrutiny Charles Hodge a theology professor at Princeton seminary led the charge He believed that the Bible contained truth After World War 1 bible critics came to be known as quotmodernistsquot because they wanted to apply modern standards of scientific credibility to the bible Bible defenders came to be known as quotfundamentalistsquot Dwight L Moody by the end of his life this 300 pound evangelist had become the the most famous preacher of the age One reason he was so successful was the simplicity of his sermons They were not theologically deep talks He rarely spoke ofHell and stressed God s love for all Another reason he was successful was his method ofinstitutionalizing his messages before he traveled on He gathered support from local pastors who contributed to making Moody s visits have a lasting impact quotNo one did more to stir a desire for sanctification than Phoebe Palmer Under her ministry hundreds of thousands perhaps millions professed sanctification Contrary to popular stereotypes about women preachers Palmer was tough minded and clear eyed She insisted that the initial commitment to Christ was a rational process of first believing the Bible s promises then acting upon them quotSanctification s advocates distinguished themselves in several ways they championed missions at home and abroad They spent considerable time establishing and working in urban rescue missions They called for strict standards ofpersonal conduct sharply condemning smoking drinking dancing gambling and seX outside of marriage Premillennialists After the Civil War many earnest Americans came to believe that the Bible taught that Christ would soon return to the Earth in literal physical form They were called Premillenialists meaning Christ would return before the millennium Jehovah s Witnesses another premillennialist group They originally called themselves Russelites after their founder Charles Taze Russel Hell does not eXist neither does the Trinity father son holy spirit God reigned alone Christ eXisted as a divine yet lesser being Russell maintained that Christ had returned to earth in spirit in 1874 Jehovah s Witnesses must keep themselves pure by not smoking drinking or associating with the government in any form Russel s controversial ideas Because the witnesses shouldn t associate with the government this meant that they shouldn t fight in the country s wars and they should refuse to salute the American ag quotThe Blessed Hope the prospect that Christ would soon return to earth quotThe Native Americans too looked back in history but with a difference If European Americans used religious traditions to make life better and more meaningful Native Americans used them to make life possible Sioux Indians performed the Ghost Dance because they believed it would reunite them with their dead ancestors in peace 200 Sioux Indians were slain at Wounded Knee in 1890 by scared federal soldiers The last decades of the 19th century saw one of the most legally controversial forms of Native American religion Quanah Parker was the founder and he called for the adoption of a ritual that centered on eating a bitter button from the peyote cactus that bore hallucinogenic properties contentment and euphoria


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