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Week 1 Notes

by: Kat Nguyen

Week 1 Notes Bio 2010

Kat Nguyen
GPA 3.8
General Ecology
Robin Hibbs

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Includes materials from both the slides and the lectures. Includes graphs and pictures.
General Ecology
Robin Hibbs
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kat Nguyen on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Denver taught by Robin Hibbs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Ecology in Biology at University of Denver.


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Date Created: 09/18/15
WEEK 1 WHAT IS LYME DISEASE 0 Spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi 0 Exposure occurs through tick bite o Blacklegged tick 0 Diagnostic tests are relatively poor Lyme was under the radar for a long time since it was usually diagnose as something else 0 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis J RA 0 Painful swelling of joints in children 0 Appears to be an auto immune disease 0 White blood cells attack and damage healthy tissues in and around joints 0 Relatively rare 0 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 0 Vector borne zoonosis 0 Tick vector American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis 0 Bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii 0 Zoonosis infectious disease transmitted between species from non human animals to humans 0 Reservoir nonhuman vertebrate the disease resides in that maintains amplifies pathogen 0 Vector borne disease transmitted to humansanimals by an insect or other arthropod 0 An emerging infectious disease 0 Appear suddenly OR increase dramatically in incidence or geographic extent 0 Ticks were found to be common on deer but culling deer was not effective led to same or greater incidence of Lyme disease because deer is not a good reservoir I MICE 0 Mast year of acorn I boom of mice increase in ticks in the following year I year after that mice die off ticks latch onto humans LYME DISEASE WEEK 1 Acorns M ice Ticlks nu U I V g g a EU x c f a g r l 5 f i Q fl lt3 r S 1 2 3 Year ECOLOGICAL QUESTIONS 0 What happens if 0 HowWhy does something happen ECOLOGICAL ANSWERS 0 Natural history observations 0 Analysis of patterns 0 Experiments Requires 0 Manipulation and controls 0 Replication O Randomization 0 Quantitative models ECOLOGY SCIENCE AS A PROCESS 0 Observations I Question I Develop hypothesis I Evaluate hypothesis experiments quantitative models etc I Modify hypothesisPose new questionsDraw conclusions 0 Process oriented 0 Iterative self correcting EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY I Ecology is the basis for understanding evolution which is driven by ecological interactions among organisms and W their environment 0 EVOLUTION Change in allele frequencies over time 0 Mechanisms WEEK 1 Mutation Source of variation new alleles Natural selection Genetic drift PRIMARY Change frequency of variants Gene ow 0 MUTATION 0 Variation I Sequence of nucleotides make up a gene I Alleles are different versions of genes 2 alleles per locus I What does variation LOOK LIKE at the level of the allele 0 All of the alleles from all of the individuals in a population make up the GENE POOL O Mutation changes in the DNA of a gene I How 0 Copying errors during cell division 0 Mechanical damage 0 EXposure to mutagens 0 High energy radiation I Types 0 Point mutations single nucleotides 0 Chromosomal rearrangements I Consequences for individuals 0 Effect on function Loss vs Gain 0 Effect on Fitness relative genetic contribution of individuals to future generations 0 Lethal O Deleterious 0 Neutral 0 Beneficial I Consequences for populations 0 Ultimate source of all variation 10394 10396 gene generation I But TOO RARE to be the direct cause of evolution 0 Is all variation the result of different genotypes I No Phenotype is a product of genotype AND environment I Phenotypic Plasticity the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when eXposed to different environments 0 Change of duck39s penis morphology due to socially induced plasticity competition bW males for access to mates 0 NATURAL SELECTION O Endler s SeX and the Single Guppy variation in guppy coloration Why WEEK 1 I Fish communities in Trinidad waterfalls are barrier to predators I Experiment 1 Predators present initial population has both large spot and small spot fish After 15 generations 0 Course gravel population consists entirely of large spot fish 0 Fine gravel population consists entirely of small spot fish I CAMOUFLAGE FOR SURVIVAL I Experiment 2 No predator initial population has both large spot and small spot fish After 15 generations 0 Course gravel population consists entirely of small spot fish 0 Fine gravel population consists entirely of large spot fish I STAND OUT FOR MATING SUCCESS 0 What s required for evolution by natural selection I VARIATION in traits I Differential reproduction some survive to reproduce and some do not I Heredity surviving individuals have babies that are similar to them bc of shared genes 0 Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes ADAPTIVE evolution I Increase in average fitness of the population in their environments I Adaptations features of organisms that improve their abilities to survive and reproduce in their environments I Selection occurs at the level of the individual 0 Traits are properties of individuals 0 But individuals do NOT evolve populations do 0 Natural selection can be categorized into three types I Directional selection that acts to push some aspect of a population s phenotype in ONE particular direction 0 Soapberry bugs and the change in their mouthparts length I Disruptive selection favoring extreme phenotypes and against intermediate phenotypes 0 Sardines of intermediate lengths are caught bc they fit better in the cans I Stabilizing selection against extreme phenotypes I REDUCTION in variation 0 HOW ARE GENES ORGANIZED IN POPULATION a group of individuals of the same species inhabiting a particular area I Evolution by natural selection affects a POPULATION of individuals I Population Genetics set of tools used to model changes in the gene pool to formalize the concept of evolution 0 Alleles 0 Genotypes 0 DESCRIBING GENETIC STRUCTURE for a dimorphic gene 2 alleles per locus WEEK 1 Total I Genotype frequencies Z 3 individuals with one particular genotype 3 individuals 3 I Allele frequencies 0 2 alleles R and r per locus 0 p frequency of R 0 q frequency of r 0 p q 1 0 HARDY WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM a mathematical representation of genotype frequencies of a population in which allele and genotype frequencies are NOT changing I To predict genotype from allele frequencies in an quotidealquot population lHerdy Weinberg Equilibrium p 39tb predict genetyne irbrn allele frequenciesl quotl39 Fl EEC Lll Ii I bill Lll in Em ideal pawlam Step 1 rnelte lbebiee by enrnbi nine Starting eendli39tibne p n enizll ni1 l Pate n al EEWESEE lrnegine the nbpuleti bn rmetee et rendbrn A 5P a F39 e ifeleelntre eepeete 39 e ietribn bn bf genetypee in a rst gEnEI r m M M Glenntyne freq In l t e Fquot generatibn ere AA 195 IllEr 3236 ea H15 e M Elmi e be me 392 weireli en ea a a a in e if lee e2 ee ui e ue 39 15 ee LT Helrtiy Weinbere Equilibrium Herd ir Weinberg Eq uilibritini ee re He Sten E reeeienlete allele trenlueInei ee in pa E Fm E11 generenbn 2 f rnrn genetirne frequenciee Eff there are My Si pneeible genetypes ere they the game as genere39rinn 1 DE lee iii1 1D A pebblletibn n HerdemWeinberg equilibrium i e Fletell that itemting ellllele frequEneieS were pil and Fee t Ey nvma 5393 alums arm EEHEEVPE rE qU E rJE S Herr in Step ill merite babies byquot cbrnbinlng pint n al Elm t Change a r EEHETEMDWS ge mete5 in get gen b tene freq uenci e53 WEEK 1 HardyWeihher Eqiiilihriiihi leeumpitiehe HEW lilie hr ism mlu em ullll izrimrn H di elr eliIilii en am hi Ene39tile e F i 39lllii l i i5 in m iiteiyilhrge liren em mating H net immigre en Gene em iryar en hair genetglrpiee Hi1 new mutatiezns Hemmi selenium EEHE E Iririiiil I39Ialllutetiem pi E Ull39iE Hardy Weinberg equilibrium serves as an ideal model NOT realistic M dEiil SEIEEHDH wiiilh e the eeleetien eee l icier t the preper eh that diee eeeh EE39WErEl l initial Frequency he he ea Fitneee Em all Preperhehe eliter eeleetieh l 15 Mledelihg Seieetieh Ari Example imagine p 2 EILE and q 2 111 iiiquot SinEE l il l i5 ageing the tee ih dividuale and 5 2 I219 he 3e Eli iserihg erexdueed eeeumin HWi 35 3913 ELIE Sele ien ired uees the 33 s by is DEL 5e i135 MAE H 15 Di i ep ring su Whiihg tel ire er liJ E39E Hewwer prslexertiehs meet Elle tr 2ir en divide each premth by e eerreetieni feetear the sum M the remaining preeer tiehe Medelihg Selleetir i hh Eiia miele lial 313i Wipiring mwieing in irepmdueez REE Elli i ll Hlewei i em prepem ErrI5 meet add in L 5 divide each pen pertien the a curreiz39lrien iaet r the Sum if the Em Eli l39i il iE FiFEipiiiriti he DEEE L ELIE13 iil IEII EEEE IEE Mi lE i142 ESE l After Seiee en WEEK 1 I Change in allele frequencies I SELECTION HAS OCCURRED 0 GENETIC DRIFT 0 Stochastic process random change in allele frequencies 0 Significant only in SMALL populations I Founder effect newly founded population don39t always represent the genetic diversity in the source I Bottleneck O The role of chance in real life some individuals have more offspring than others PURELY BY CHANCE I The smaller the population size the quicker it is for an allele to become fixed 0 Why is genetic drift important I Most important for small populations I Consequence is loss of alleles I reduced diversity 0 Bad for long term persistence of population bc 0 Less variation on which selection can act 0 Harmful alleles can increase in frequency just by chance 0 Stuff to consider for conservationists looking to preserve rareendangered spp I Low population size led to reduced diversity fitness 0 EX Great Prairie Chicken reduced fitness in smaller less diverse population 0 GENE FLOW movement of alleles bw populations 0 Introduces new alleles to populations 0 Homogenizes populations genetically 0 Gene ow bw populations w con icting selection pressures limits local adaptation I Where there is more gene ow salamanders are poorly adapted to predatory fish TEMPERATURE AND WATER RELATIONS 0 EXp American wood frog at a single touch with ice its inside freezes instantly I The physical world provides the context for life resources and conditions AND constrains its eXistence 0 Environmental conditions typically have broad ranges but organisms are adapted to a narrow range of conditions I Adaptation are heritable features of organisms that improve their ability to survive and reproduce in their environments 0 Could be behavioral morphological physiological O In general should lead to HIGHER fitness O BUT adaptations do NOT make organisms PERFECT 0 Fitness is 0 Relative 0 Hard to measure lots of components and proxies of childrer grandchildren Population growth rates size of eggs Attractiveness 0 Grandchildren is important Because it means the genes are Viable 0 Trade offs rgalninntn funntinn bent in a relatively nanrnw rang nf ll39l lti l tE Haitiartisan Law Environmental tartar H h litmus lumenH15 lm innusing O No organism can maximize fitness in ALL environments 0 The ability to perform one function reduces the ability to perform another 0 Adaptations are NEVER perfect compromises in the abilities of organisms to perform many different sometimes con icting functions Ex Smart vs Sexy Can a guppy be both Big brain indiViduals can only reproduce in one group small brain in another Big brain indiViduals have higher cognition but less offspring than small brain Ex Does adaptation to a low temperature reduce fitness at a high temperature Richard Lenski s E coli ueeiieri Deea adaptatien tie a law temperature reeuee tneea at a high emaerature t 411 El I I II Ill1 lneeaaeai I 4153 Fiirieaa at JADE 4113 Hedueed lllquot gt l I fl l I I I 4 M all Jim EH EIll L EH Fitneaa at QUE 32E 5quot EC ETC Elli 3 l f A Hedmed Iriuzaeaeee i 42 I an E tineas relalive laaeee rueWillie 3224 393 3 2239 I 1earieeatr maneam tannin aenn r l 39 gang HEM eet and Lensa tenant Pelee Bennett and Lenaki ream Peas 0 1st demonstration of Principle of Allocation energy allocated to one of life39s functions will reduce energy available for other functions 0 Strains that were adapted to 20 C for 2000 generations showed increased fitness at 20 C relative to ancestor but decreased fitness at 40 C I How do environmental factors limit growth and survival 0 Temperature Extremes I Migration moving to another region where conditions are more favorable 0 Tracking of Arctic terns reveals longest animal migration in search for food I Storage reliance on resources accumulated under more favorable conditions I Dormancy iibernation becoming inactive 0 Ex Cactus Wren adaption to temperature 0 Feeds on insects and so requires much water 0 Spends most time in the shades I Thermoregulation animals and plants can also regulate temperature internally eniiirnalla can alert regulate temperature internally Plants earl til Ierirrieregulate mm in 912 eiueterimulaemaa l afdalphin lmteeesinai i il mnmmww nt lt n gw gn m l ea39benniiaia ipper 39 P 39 39 W39 dilliwnr ff v a I r lipl il i SIJMJl 1 Seu iullnriit39 lei PC 39 High Il IEIE39l hilliC ram 7 t quot394 efepadiugpwme quot suf ciemmm ii m lanmw Flipper HailingLI vexed a CEEJI relumlng I lllucul Iliaa lililhl39ler 39 Tammi Ira each iziclF many blend 1 armies hem awa irem Em39 ia mr lmle l alarm incerniarg bleed quotLe liramihe Wailatria em returning Ellend due radix 1 In eunduetiml laidiarld pmwe ua HM War limiluiii ig blend ew mll s WEEK 1 0 Water Relations I Osmosis diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane Isosmotic S olate concentration organism S olate concentrationenvimnmem Hypoosmo c S olate concentration organismlt Solute concentrationenvimnmem Solute concentration gt Solute concentration organism environment 0 Hyperosmotic I On land water moves from organism to atmosphere 0 Water potential capacity of water to do work most negative in the air and most positive in the soil 0 Negative pressure is created when water evaporates from surfaces of leaves so water is pulled through the xylem from the soil to the plant to the air I Water relations Wia internal water of animal Wd drinking Wf food Wa air We evaporation WS secretionexcretion I Adaptations to conserve water 0 Physiology 0 Produce concentrated urine 0 Dry feces 0 Minimize evaporative loss 0 Behavioral 0 Above ground only at night 0 Stay in cool humid burrow during day


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