CORE CLASS MANAG STRA
CORE CLASS MANAG STRA EEX 3616
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Decreasing Student Behavior EEX 3616 DECREASING PROBLEM BEHAVIOR 0 Differential Reinforcement Strategies 0 Type II Punishment Strategies 0 Type I Punishment Strategies DlFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT Contingent presentation ot reintorcing stimulus tollowing desired behavior amp extinction tollowing undesirable behavior steps 1 Reinforce appropriate behavior 2 withhold reinforcement extinctionwhen desired behavior does not occur Purpose of Differential Reinforcement To highlight discrimination between desired and undesired behavior 0 To cue learner of the behavior that Will access reinforcement 0 Systematic manner of applying both reinforcement and extinction for speci c behavior Te1rance M Scott 2001 1 EEX 3616 Decreasing Student Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior DRL 0 Presentation of reinforcement contingent upon emission of behavior at desired low rate I Uses 1 when goal 15 to reduce but not eliminate behavior 2 reinforcement provided for equencies that are lower thatbaseline Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior DRO 0 Contingent presentation of reinforcer for m acceptable behavior except the target behavior for a predetermined interval of time Differential Reinforcement of AlternativeIncompatible Behaviors DRAI 0 strengthening a speci c behavior that offers an alternative to the unwanted behavior Te1rance M Scott 2001 2 EEX 3616 Decreasing Student Behavior TYPE II PUNISHMENT TAKING WITHHOLDING WITHDRAWING OR REMOVING ACCESS TO STIMULI IN AN EFFORT TO MAKE CONTINGENT BEHAVIOR DECREASE Extinction swithholding reinforcement for target behavior ha results in 39 39ng teacher must have control over maintaining reinforcers Characterized bx l gradual reduction in target behavior 2 increase before decrease extinction bursts 3 side effects 4 spontaneous recovery Affected by number of reinforced trials schedule of reinforcement side effects effort needed to respond ef ciency PW Extinction Guidelines lClear de nitions of target behavior and maintaining reinforcers 2 Identify and withhold all major maintaining sources of reinforcement 3 Clearly specify conditions for extinction 4 Maintain intervention for suf cient time to control for temporary increases 5 Reinforce appropriate behavior Te1rance M Scott 2001 3 EEX 3616 Decreasing Student Behavior Advantages and Disadvantages Disadvantages l Delayed effects 2 Temporary increase 3 Imitation of inappropriate behavior by peers 4 Dif cult to control all maintaining reinforcers Advantages 1 Effective with a variety of behaviors 2 can have enduring effects if done properly Response Cost Contingent withdrawal of speci ed amounts of reinforcers that the student already has that result in a decrease in responding When to Use 1 When can39t identify maintaining reinforcers 2 Dimensions of behavior are so severe that behavior must be changed immediately EXAMPLES Token economy Response Cost Uses and Guidelines Uses 1 limited to conditions where conditioned reinforceis are Lsed 2 student mist have positive reinforcement available Gu id elin es 1 allow buildup of reinforcement no negative balance allow opportunity to experience cashrin before levying nes 2 3 clearly communicae rules 4 match response cost to individuals and conditions 7 be S reinforce replacement behaviors Te1rance M Scott 2001 4 EEX 3616 Decreasing Student Behavior Advantages and Disadvantages of Response Cost Advantages 1 strong and rapid decrease 2 possible long lasting effects 3 convenient easy to use Disadvantages 1 not a universal reductive effect 2 requires use of conditioned reinforcers 3 penalties can be easily abused 4 may generate side effects Time Out 0 Removal of access to sources of reinforcement contingent upon the emission of a response resulting in a decrease in responding Noanxclusionary Exclusionary a contingent observation H tot w m b nonrcontingent observation Time Out Guidelines adequate safeguards atherapuedic name quia placequot vs close of shamequot alights rug remove dangerous objects N remove reinforces tha may be supporting undesirable be avior avoid time out from an aversive situation avoid opportunities for selfrstimulaion avoid with students who are physically resistant use consistently short duraion max 10 minutes when working W PV PP administer in neutral businessrlike manner Te1rance M Scott 2001 5 EEX 3616 Decreasing Student Behavior 9 debrief 10 teach prooedure 11 act immediatley 12 reoord data 13 do not allow avoidance ofwork makeup what39s missed Criteria for Release urauion 2 appropriae behavior 3 furthertime if inappropriate during time out Repeuted time nuts uflang dunm39un slumld be h signal that time nut is nut meme Type I Punishment The contingent presentation of a stimuli to decrease behavior 0 includes emotional and physical stimuli 0 includes taking of nonseamed reinforcers Overcorrection Positive Practice 7 repeated practice of correct form ofrelevant replacement behavior that results in a decrease in future responding I Restitutional e correcting the environmental effects of an inappropriate act to a condition better than itwas before the act that results in a decrease in future responding Te1rance M Scott 2001 6 EEX 3616 Decreasing Student Behavior When to Use Overcorrection 1 2 Used when all Type 11 Fail Onetoone attention required Advantages and Disadvantages Disadvantages 7 Limited research on effectiven 1 ess 7 2 Dif cult to select zeplacementbehavioz 3 i ion r 5 onertoone attent I Advantages e 1 Minimizes disadvantage of piesentation of avelsives e 2 does not plovide a negative model 3 Rapid and longrlasting Ieduction can be instinctionai 4 Can be instxuctiona Type I Punishment I When to Use Used with behavior iequiiihg immediate Eduction Aversives Unconditioned e hy stimulus that is avelsive in the absence ofany p110 leaxning history Cond39l ione e neutzal stimuli that have developed avelsive plopelties Te1rance M Scott 2001 7 EEX 3616 Decreasing Student Behavior Advantages and Disadvantages 0 Disadvantages 1 Legal a moral safety 3 Ovexgeneralizatmn 4 Situatmnally spea c effeds punishez absent punishment 0 Advanta es 1 Ra id zedudmn eliminatmn beehavmz Z Facilitates disczimmatmnbetween acceptable and unacceptable behavmz 3 instructive to peers Vicalmus Using Punishment Effectively Prevent escape Consistent and immediate application Use weakest yet ettective aversive Reinforce tair air CCBD position paper 1990 LEM 245260 mueme Te1rance M Scott 2001 8 What Teachers Tell Us About Challenging Behaviors in School I Disrespect noncompliance and simple disruptions are the most time consuming and frequent behavior problems we face I Problems seem to come to school with student I Behavior is the most 39 39 quot difficult issue we deal with on a daily basis I In our university preparation dealing with problem behaviors is the thing for which we were least prepared EEX 3616 Approach to Behavior Management Prevention before reaction Team and systemsbased 0 Logical and realistic plans 0 Individualized to schools adults and students 0 Consistency across time adults settings and students Founded on Teaching and Effective Instruction Goal setting monitoring and databased decision making Prediction and Prevention If we can predict when where why and how disabilities will negatively effect students we can set up environments that prevent negative outcomes We may also prevent some disabilities by using appropriate positive supports in the school Prevention is the most effective and efficient form of service provision or intervention Discipline is The actions parents and teachers take to increase student success Charles 1980 m m Rul es Positive and Routines Negahve Consequences r Arrangements Discipline Works When Prevention creates more Positive than negative consequences Reinforcement 39 1 success What we Know about PREDICTING Children with Seriously Challenging Behaviors History of poverty and illiteracy Below gradelevel academic skills History of problem behavior dating to preschool Kauffman 2000 Walker Calvin ampRamsey 1995 The stability of aggressio E about the same as IQ Walker Calvin ampRamsey 1995 The Prog nosrs Students with academic failure and problem behaviors likely will drop out of school and be involved with the corrections system be single parents be involved with the social services system be unemployed be involved in automobile accidents use illicit drugs Centers for Disease Control 1993 Duncan Forness ampHartsough 1995 Carson Sittlington amp Frank 1995 agner D Amico Marder Newman 92 W 0m onitor Teach expectations planned and implemented Rules routines and oFacilitate success by all in home physical arrangements SYSTEMWIDE PREVENTION UNIVERSAL SYSTEMS oEffectiVe instruction 1 o 0 0Functional assessment Increased promptscues Effective Interventions possible involvement oPrecorrection InVolVe child TARGETEDo hE lIENTIONS TARGETED INTERVENTIONS oEffectiVe instruction OWraparound planning Crisis plans OSpecial Services 0 Placement decisions IINTENSIVE SERVICES NTENSIVE PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION Summative Effects of an Integrated Model Signi cance BL R Reading amp Instruction Instruction Behavior Instruction Shep Kellum Johns Hopkins University Individualide Tmm mg s pmai Educatinn UFLI Sinaleri oup lusu uc nn Carbn Recurrle Books Read Naturally Walertord Earl y Reading Program ndividualhed Tu in mg Success fm39 All Harcmu t Trophies PreventionIntervention Strategies Classroom management Instruction of both academic and social behavior through teaching important rules and developing routines and physical arrangements to maximize the probability that students will be successful with those rules in school and in life Classroom Management Components Component 1 Teach important behaviors Component 2 Facilitate student success in the school and in life Component 3 Measure and communicate success of management by the success of individuals Teach Important Behavior Facilitate Success Evaluate Individual Success YES YES YES 1 1 q Via G key academic and social the environment judged by student success behaviors routines Success is acknow e ge individualized and failure leads to re 39 truclion reminders teac 39 g and adlitating assigned seating etc success Classroom Management Alternative Perspectives No Control No rules or structure Students discover What is teacher s role Overcontrol Strict control of all actions Harsh consequences Teacher as authority figure Control refers to our ability to predict behavior under specific circumstances Academic vs Social Behavior Academics Skills Factual Static Immutable Social Skills Age dependent Culturally dependent Contextually dependent Key Question What will make students successful when the leave the classroom Effective Classroom Management 1 rationale example selection and sequencing model supervised 2 routines prompts practice effective feed back etc 3 Observe behavior during Instruc ion and in real world provide feedback amp fade cues seating arrangements questioning scanning etc Social Effective what we teach begins remember to stay in your seatsquot 39 M ave about the mom and frequently walk by student S e at student near the from ofihe room and away from distracting peers 39 S c hedule breaks when You are out ofyour seat again 41m The Cumpananis ax Eiledjve Managemenl Raise hand hefnm speaking Skill Rule Roulims and whai we wam sud2nt u what we teach Anaagamama do what we do to facilith Raise hand baim speaking when in the classroom Assessed Onlcnme Ros use Success raises hand before speaking wiLhouL raising hand NEXT WEEK Positive Classroom Environments Assign Task 1 Quiz on today s content Monitoring and Objectives EEX 3616 Observation Systems Event Based Record ng ecor when behav or occurs T me Based Record ng Record aFter a set passage oF tme VMh all instruments De ne interval size time base NameLD measurement system Convert raw data into standard metric J F P NT Accurate opera ional de nition of behavior Clearly de ned setting and observation period EventBased Systems Record when behav or occurs Behav or te s us when to record Prov des d rect measures oF behav or Requ res constant observat onattent on 5 Types of Event Based Recording 1 Frequency tally recording 2 Duration recording 3 Latency recordin 4 Permanent product recording 5 Controlled presentation recording Sm tmd students allketlre mmptuiuiug that enmyis cryin too much on the playground Principal Meme just how many crying episodes limmyhas in u day Character39lstlcs t me o most direct method ute rate metric or rate requires discrete behaviors behaviors should be equal in duration Advantages 1 accurate and direct D sadvantages 1 requires constant attention 2 behaviors must be equal in dura ion when E 539 3 m 0 nl o o 3 3 wants to know SuipJooea Kouenber Terrance M Scott 2004 EEX 3616 Monitoring and Objectives room but needs to Advan a Droop s tardiness Characferisi ics Advantages Disadvnnfn Mr Sedoun wants Tamara to stay in her seat He feels that she spends too muih instructional time wandering the U C Chamcf nshcs Jhow long a student engages in a behavior 2 average duration and cumulative duration 0 Jrequires discrete behavior 3 g 30 J good when behaviors are episodic CD O Jgives good Information on duration per episode 0 Jcan be used for variable or high rate behaviors a cumulative niages a J requires constant attention quot 39 39 39 39 39 WU lu i r to deliver dam on Susie once a request has been made She eomplained to the principal who asked her the length oer 39 N H D J Time between presentation ofantecedent and a beginning of behavior lt 30 J good for stimulusresponse type scenarios g 0 J requires constant monitoring a 5 L0 i l L her addition skills Ms Blinder wants to monitor her accuracy but Can t wateh her continuously I Character st cs Measures effects or outcomes of behavior J Enduring effectproduct I D sadvanfages Jmust have outcome Jonly see outcome Jvery narrow don t know everything 10np0Jd1ueu LUJed Terrance M Scott 2004 EEX 3616 Monitoring and Objectives Deli 1 1m 11 n 39 39 I 39 r Query Mr Query hes talked with Felicity uni wents to monitor the number oftimes she ruises her hand to unswer u question Character st cs Type of event recording J Present opportuni ies or trials Advanfages Jallows accounting for opportunity Jmay be able to control opportunities D sadvanfa es J requires constant attention uonelueseid pe0J1u03 TimeBased Recording Record when fme nferva e apses Tme re 5 us when to record Prov des an approx mat on oF behav or Does not requ re constant affenf on Requ res a tmer 2 Types of Time Based Recording J Partial interval recording J Momentary interval recording Ms Blunt wents to monitor Toby s panting Minister so that she sun heoe tietu for en 1gp goal she ohseroes panting episodes of m ourying duration ut times throughout the day but doesn t here time to monitor with u wutehor tiurution recording Character st cs J Record ifbehavior occurred at anytime during the interval I Advantages Jgood with low occurring behaviors I D sadvanfages Jtends to overestimate behavior Suipiooea lemelul Iain Terrance M Scott 2004 EEX 3616 Monitoring and Objectives Ms Blunt wants to monitor Toby s panting hmaoion so that she mu haoe damforim 1gp goal she does nothaoe time to mnsmntly monitor Toby although she sees panting behavior often when she does look at him Character st cs J Record ifthe behavior occurred at the end ofthe interval I Advantages good with long or variable duration behaviors J doesn t require constant attention I D sadvanta es tends to underestimate behavior welsAs EAJ91U MEJUSUJOW Franc ne has her rght nger n her nose For ong per ods oF t me dur ng art c ass and can t hod the pa nt brush proper yi What woud be a good way to measure What woud the metrc be Prioritizing Target Behaviors l Immed ate concerns oF parents guard ans amp careg vers 2 Funct ona ty oF the behav or 3 Tme requ red to teach the sk 4 Prerequs te sk s oF the ndvdua 5 Future env ronments ke V For the ndv dua 6 Sk s needed For adu t v ng Terrance M Scott 2004 EEX 3616 Monitoring and Objectives Writing and Monitoring Behavioral Objectives Why write behavioral objectives In special education they are a legal requirement They provide a focus for instruction and treatment They provide others with performance and evaluation information They provide teachers with a standard for measuring student progress ObjectIves where we want to be by some point in time precise de nition of behavior conditions and criteria eg Given a peer initiates a conversation Rupert will respond with at least one positive statement during 85 of opportunities over 5 consecutive days by the end of he quarterquot N w a 4 Components of all Objectives Learner who 5 behav ng Behavior what 5 t that s to be performed Crlterlcn how much of behav or do we expect to see before we judge t to be OK and by when Conditions prec se y when amp where shoud we expect the behav or to occur Terrance M Scott 2004 EEX 3616 Monitoring and Objectives Helpful Hints be sure that the main verb is observab e and measurab e be sure that the criterion matches the behavior be sure that the conditions must be rep icab e be sure that the conditions are c ear and make sense be sure that ou can measure your criterion J criterion and measurement instrument match be sure that the objective is stated in positive terms be sure that base ine rates have been used o se iteria be sure that 6 er words are avoided eg wi be ab e to wi demonstrate just say wi behavior Behavioral Objectives Examples Given a 15 minute tree time activity Polly will keep her hands engaged in appropriate activities drawing playing with toys or to her sides during 90 of that period to 8 of 10 days by the end of t e mon Given a teacher direction to sit down Franklin will take a seat at his desk within 10 seconds of the direction during 35 of opportunities tor 3 consecutive days by the end of the week When the bell rings Sonja will say her narne aloud and dance a 39ng a tez du s jig while weari ring 100 of opportunities over 39 te t emotion in the picture with 80 accuracy war 3 consecutive trials by the end of this learning section NonExam les What s wrong wi h these objectives Jethro wi raise his hand beFore speaking 100 oF the time For 2 consecutive days by the end 0F the week Given a ro ing pin and a recipe Wi ma wi think 0F 3 ways to use the ro ing pin For 3 0F 5 trias within month Each time that Hugh is directed to say he s sorr he wi do so with 80 accuracy over 2 consecutive days by the end oF the schoo year When conFronted by an angry peer aFter Fa ing oFF oF the bars during a rainstorm and tearin a ho e in his pants Benn w39 te the teacher 100 OF the time For 4 consecutive days by the end oF the quarter Terrance M Scott 2004 EEX 3616 Monitoring and Objectives ACTIVITY I Duffy wi distinguish unch ine and bathroom ine 18 out 0F 25 days I When in king to the teacher the student wi think critica y baFore answering 7 out 0F 9 opportunities C iFF wi identiFy peer con icts and Wu k away 100 OF the time I Andrea wi be ab 5 to read 10 minutes without getting up 7 out 0F10 times 80 0F the time Fiskus wi stop running in the ha 100 OF the time Forever Practice Given 2 lines and a teacher question each day Darryl will verbally state if the line is to the bathroom or to lunch with 72 accuracy within 25 days Given a math problem orally roe will work the problem out on paper betore responaing orally in 7 out ot 9 opportunities tor three consecutive days by the end ot 3 weeks Give a peer con ict Glitt will walk away auring 100 ot opportunities tor three consecutive days within 4 months During instructional lesson times Andrea will remain se t least 0 min es in 7 out ot 10 opportunities tor three consecutive days by the end ot the quarter Given that Fiskus is in the hallway he will move about by walking auring 90 percent ot intervals observea tor 5 consecutive days by the end ot the grading perioa What do Use to Measure You shoud wr re your object ves to t the manner n wh Ch you canw mon for the behav or rst gure out what you want to measure second nd the easiest way to do it third determine your measurable outcome eg percent number of times duralion etc fourth use that outcome in your criterion Terrance M Scott 2004 EEX 3616 Monitoring and Objectives Who Has Time to Measure Some measurement tr cks prompt behav or test behav or Count w th tang b e tokens or gadgets use the c assroom c oaks and be s nc dent report Forms ass stants OK Know How to Monitor but Where Do Beg i n Beg n by us ng your mon tor ng strategy to get a base ne on your student Th s s the current eve of Funct on ng Th s s po nt From wh ch you start and mprove Th s represents ground zero How do I know what the right objectives are Each sk must be broken down nto sma er steps wh ch are teachab e th s s known as task annuals A task ana yss s the process of breaking skills into teachable steps the product teaching sequence that is created by the task analysis process Terrance M Scott 2004 EEX 3616 Monitoring and Objectives Task Analysis and Instructional Objectives mm mm a y m mom was Cm mLsId mm n mu 4 Components Learner who will do it I Bahav or what will be done I Condition when where under what conditions it will be done I Criterion How much how long at what rate etc it will occur F gure out what you want to measure Fgure out the best way to measure t Determ ne what your metrc w be Fgure out where the student s now Fgure out where the student shoud be i Wr te an object ve us ng metrc From measurement nstrurnent as cr ter on 05quot ri Terrance M Scott 2004