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by: Ms. Dax Senger


Ms. Dax Senger
GPA 3.74

Peter Waylen

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Peter Waylen
Class Notes
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Dax Senger on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 2200 at University of Florida taught by Peter Waylen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/206944/geo-2200-university-of-florida in Geography at University of Florida.




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Date Created: 09/18/15
Physical Geography Midterm 2272011 75100 PM 4 means of energy transfer Which transfers all energy into and out of Earth s climate Possible sketches o Conduction molecules bump into each other and transfer energy Closely packed more likely to bump High energy with several circles surrounding low energy receives circles not as large o Convection energy transfer by internal mixing of a medium As things heat up molecules vibrate more more energy between them need more space become less dense risewarm Pan red water molecules at bottom rises to top blue water molecules at top more densely packed sink o Advection horizontal movement from one environment to another Boiling water in cold freezer to defrost o Radiation energy transfer by electrical and magnetic fields Warm molecules vibrate nucleus vibrates towards electrons electrons move away generates electrical magnetic radiation Nucleus in middle electrons on outside move side to side What controls the quantity and type of energy the Earth System receives StefanBolzman o D constant x T surface temperature A4 4 because hot objects emit a disproportionately larger quantity of energy 0 Hotter objects more vibration more electromagnetic radiation Wein What type according to electromagnetic radiation spectrum longest to shortest Radio Radar Microwaves Infrared Visible light UV Xrays Gamma Rays Planck s Law there is a range of wavelengths emitted by an object o Different amounts of energy released o Earth emits much less energy than sun o Earth RECEIVES most energy at SHORT wavelengths and LOSES it at LONGER wavelengths What is the solar constant Quantity of energy falling on outside of Earth s atmosphere 1360 345 A 11 year cycle Increased UV light is produced 12 more or less each year increased solar constant Heat leaves sun and comes back cooler creating sunspots arcs Zenith angle Proportion of solar constant that you re getting 90 at sunrise and sunset Sun is directly overhead falls perfectly on 1 square meter of ground Bigger zenith angle covers more ground less direct heat distributed more Relationship between latitude and zenith angle at noon on March 21 AND September 21 everywhere on Earth gets 12 hours of daylight zenith angle latitude NOON ZENITH ANGLE CLOSE TO ZERO The proportion of solar constant intercepted is determined by Q quantity of insolation Cos Z zenith angle S solar constant Perihelion and Aphelion Perihelion closer to the sun on January 4 915 Aphelion farther away from the sun on July 3 955 Formula averageactual distance solar constant 6 change in solar radiation More latitude and zenith angle Summer June in N December in S latitude 235 Winter December in N June in S latitude 235 At equator all places receive 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness no matter what day it is On 321 and 921 all places get 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness no matter what latitude On 1221 north of Arctic Circle N 1 day of total darkness and 1 day of total daylight south of Antarctic Circle S REVERSE on 621 Farther from equator and closer to poles 0 hours of daylight on 1221 and more sunlight in June Explain the significance of the Equator Tropics and ArcticAntarctic circles in terms of patterns of insolation Greater variation in seasons as you move further from the Equator Atmosphere 78 Nitrogen 20 Oxygen 9 Argon 03 others o Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide Ozone and Water Vapor Atmospheric pressure height of column x density of gases Closer to Earth s surface less space for molecules densely packet at bottom strong gravitational attraction Charles Law vs Boyle s Law Charles Law PRESSURE is held constant Temperature and volume is DIRECTLY proportional Freeze water molecules vibrating DECREASES take up less space volumes also DECREASES Boyle s Law TEMPERATURE is held constant Pressure and volume are INVERSELY proportional Brick on balloon INCREASE in pressure causes molecules to use less space so volume DECREASES More molecules can fit if under pressure How the two are related CONNECTED BECAUSE OF VOLUME Location determines temperature temperature and volume change together focus on volume and ignore temperature amount of space molecules take up volume DETERMINED BY the pressure Hot large volume low pressure Cold smaller volume high pressure Ideal gas law what we would like every gas to act like NOT REAL P pressure R gas constant x p density of gas x T temperature of gas Density massvolume Charles to keep pressure constant get the same If temperature increases must increase temperature of gas Boyle s to keep pressure constant pressure increases volume decreases From Online Book Insolation and the atmosphere 69 energy earth 20 absorbed in atmosphere and 49 reaches Earth s surface RETURNED TO SPACE AS LONGWAVE RADIATION Molecules in atmosphere are very large in order to interfere with very long wavelengths blue visible light energy is not absorbed and is scattered strips out large proportion of blue leaves them bouncing in atmosphere SCATTERING Proportion of reflectivity ALBEDO 31 for planet 20 for clouds Albedo Greatest at the poles colder snow least in tropical and equatorial regions Greater in Southern Polar regions than Northern polar regions N pole mostly oceans S pole more continents and loses heat faster higher albedo Slightly higher albedo in equatorial regions 010 than at 1020 010 equator global deserts high reflectivity because nothing is blocking the sun from hitting the sand 1020 rain forests canopy of trees that prevents sunlight from passing through not as strong Oceans moderately high but a lot of variability because it covers a different amount of surface when sun is overhead vs setting Where is energy stored Ground heat flux changes temperature of SURFACE oceans and continents of PLANET Sensible heat flux changes temperature of ATMOSPHERE Latent heat flux energy changes state of WATER with NO CHANGE to the TEMPERATURE Moderates climate by changing the state of physical spacing of molecules Adding energy increases temperature of molecules Low energy state ice and snow To change from low to high ADD latent heat Solid liquid melting FUSION 80 calories per gram liquid gas evaporation VAPORIZATION 540 calories High energy state water vapor To change from high to low latent heat RELEASED to environment Gas liquid condensation liquid solid freezing FUSION Increased temperatures more vibration short elastic must be replaced by a longer one represent a change of state How does energy escape the Earth system Global longwave radiation budget from total of 69 Remaining 19 of surface energy stored as ground heat flux surface loses this amount to space longwave 12 escape directly to space 7 intercepted by greenhouse gases 7 joins other 50 and combine to warm atmosphere stored as sensible heat SENSBILE HEAT CANNOT BE TRANSMI39I39I39ED DIRECTLY so 13 of 57 actually returned to space remaining 23 continues to warm surface surface temperatures much warmer than expected longwave radiation leaves much larger Repeated until 69 returns to space as longwave radiation ATMOSPHERE WARMS from BO39I39I39OM WATER VAPOR INCREASE COOLS to create CONDENSATION How does insolation vary spatially Highest and most uniform values tropics and equatorial regions Declining gradient in midlatitudes Low values in Arctic and Antarctic large zenith angle total day of darkness Irregularity of continents and slowly changing patterns of oceans NORTH OF EQUATIOR low insolation high albedo How does outgoing longwave radiation OLR vary spatially Temperatures and longwave radiation related to latitude Range of values for OLR lt insolation CONTINENTAL Antarctic COOLER than OCEANIC Arctic Water vapor around greenhouse gases prevents energy from escaping which alters rule for high OLR around equator in areas Africa South America maritime Asia Highest OLR 20 and 30 desertsabsence of water OLR escapes How does balance between incoming and outgoing radiation change spatially Tropics insolation gt outgoing radiation Polar regionsmidlatitudes insolation declines more rapidly than outgoing radiaton Energy balance becomes increasingly negative toward Poles 35 insolation OLR 0 0 Greenhouse gaseseffect Greenhouse gases and their reaction with the electromagnetic spectrum Methane decaying material Increase in world population increase in animal usage increase in the gas Nitrous Oxide N20 production of fertilizers More agriculture more chemical fertilizers increase in the gas Carbon dioxide Increased through burning of fossil fuels and deforestation Water vapor and ozone Ozone intercepts UV light Water vapor prevents thermal infrared energy from escaping to space and decreases risk of damaging cold temperatures Benefit of Greenhouse gases Keeps Earth about 59 warmer habitable temperatures and water in liquid state Surplus and deficit 35 N latitude Half the world is in energy surplus and half is in energy deficit Incoming radiation equal to outgoing Max amount of energy Surplus more energy coming in Ideally move energy to Poles wants to maintain balance How is energy moved Cells At the equator 1 hotter air is less dense area north of the equator 2 is cooler In order to ensure that products are equal pressure increase temperature of 1 and decrease of 2 Warm less dense air rises until it hits the tropopause BUT it cannot exceed that area proceeds into the stratosphere because the temperature of the air is not hot enough for the stratosphere SO it is pushed sideways towards the poles and continues to cool repeats Hadley cell between 30 N and 30 S Air rises and either keeps going on turns and comes to surface repeats Similar to process for tropopause but in a more confined area 3030 If air keeps on rising it enters the Ferrell cell 30 45 Planetary front 45 665 Polar cells are from 665 90 BASICALLY warm air rises from equator cold air sinking from Poles meet in planetary front and repeat continued pressure and winds 30 high pressure because it is intercepting cold air from planetary front meaning molecules are tightly packed 45 warmer because the warm air rises over the cold air meaning molecules spread out more and there is lower pressure Coriolis effect Angular velocity rotates 360 24 hours no matter what latitude BUT Linear velocity changes depending on location Latitude increases smaller circumference linear velocity decreases CE ACCELERATION Higher the linear velocity greater the acceleration has to go around faster because it covers a greater area ie equator GREATER THE LATITUDE LOWER THE VELOCITY smaller circumference CE WIND DEFLECTION AND LINEAR VELOCITY Ferrell s law All objects are deflected by the CE N Hemisphere right S Hemisphere left Pressures move from high to low HIGHER LATITUDES Poles SMALLER LINEAR VELOCITY less distance to travel around imagine looking from above Equator minimal CE Poles maximum CE Quantitative expression Zomegaangular velocity x Vlinear velocity of moving object x sin of philatitude o doesn t change 360 24 Example latitude is 0 equator plug into A sin0 0 meaning NO CE AT THE EQUATOR Global surface winds 030 S winds want to move upward BUT deflected to left South Easterlies 030 N winds want to move downward BUT deflected to right Northeast Trade winds 3045 S winds wants to move downward BUT because there is more ocean than land in this area there is nothing to absorb the CE SO they are deflected all the way to the left Westerlies 3045 N winds wants to move upward BUT deflected to right South Westerlies Poles N or S winds want to deflect only halfway BUT end up having full deflection Easterlies both Cyclones N Hemisphere low pressure rotates counterclockwise deflected to right S Hemisphere low pressure rotates clockwise deflected to left Anticyclones N Hemisphere high pressure rotates clockwise deflected to right S Hemisphere high pressure rotates counterclockwise deflected to left 0 0 Differences in thermal properties of oceans and continents CONTINENTS HEAT UP MORE QUICKLY THAN OCEANS Specific heat 1 and 2 specific s you have to remember Same amount of solar radiation comes down Water cools downheats up by about 1 degree Land cools downheats up by about 2 degrees larger increment of increase or decrease either way Latent heat Changing the state of WATER without changing the temperature Oceans more water to change the state of so the proportion of latent heat flux is HIGHERno change in temperature Continents a lot less water to change state so more of solar radiation is going to go to sensible heat atmosphere and ground heat surface MEANING THERE WILL BE A CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE BECAUSE THERE S NO WATER Penetration and radiation how far something will go and how it will be dispersed Ocean greater depth of light to penetrate goes farther down deep but not as far across the surface cooler Land cannot go through solid surface as easily does not penetrate much but does spread out across the surface more warmer Mixing Ability of a substance to take the energy that has been delivered and redistribute it Water as you go farther down into the water it follows the pattern warm cooler coolest because the sunlight can only reach so far Calm stable profile not much mixing cool cooler coolest least dense to most dense Rough wave energy promotes surface mixing waters are going to be a little cooler after mixing because of turbulence Salty still follows cool cooler coolest pattern but adding salt makes each more dense vertical mixing convection because of the differences in density Cold icecaps and glaciers melting colder water more dense also promotes vertical mixing Putting it all together In a zone of surplus energy 30 degrees oceans warm up slower than continents oceans cooler really high pressure In a zone of deficit energy oceans cool down slower than continents continents cooler ocean is warmer 035 N and S is SURPLUS Reminder about pressure Equator low pressure 30 N and S air from Poles is cold molecules tightly packed high pressure 4560 warm subtropical air moves up and rises over cool polar air low pressure planetary front Air from the Poles is cold comes down but stops before equator at 30 and then goes back around to Poles high repeat Highs and lows over continents Equator surplus low pressure warm Low pressures warm air are bigger over continents than oceans because the oceans are cooler high pressure High pressure all around but higher over the oceans Strength of energy is lower over continents because they lose energy faster cooler low pressure Poles Cold air deficit high pressure continents in zone of deficit are cooler than the oceans so the pressure is really high over continents N and S subtropical anticyclones very high pressure In ocean extend pressure more on land deflected winds also blow more onland Winds and currents Equator warm water moved by winds to the Poles current makes water warmer at surface warm surface ocean current positive ground heat flux Poles cooler warm transferred to equator cold surface ocean current negative ground heat flux Latitudes 2040 E warm currents 2040 W cold currents 5070 E cold 5070 W warm Transfers energy from zone of surplus zone of deficit Horizontally mixing advection of winds from currents FINAL June 21 summer N Hemisphere everything moves up Equator usually is the position of maximum heat but because of the EARTH S TILT the belt of low pressure is moved upward to vicinity of Tropic of Cancer BUT moved more upward on land but stays closer to equator over the ocean Occurs because in zones of surplus oceans take longer to respond to changes in temperature Band of high pressure at 30 expands causes winds at 30 to be stronger so winds are pushing upwards South Westerlies High pressure at the poles winds are coming from NE band of high pressure is not as strong so when these winds meet pushes band at 45 upwards Cross equatorial winds since band of low pressure moved up band of high pressure at 30 S has a farther distance to travel and so do the winds deflected to left but once they pass the equator they deflected to the right now in N Hemisphere December 21 winter N Hemisphere everything moves down Equator band of low pressure position of maximum heat moves southward towards the Tropic of Capricorn ToC Zone of surplus energy oceans take longer to respond to a change in temperature so it gets closer to ToC on land than in water Poles bands of high pressure over land are REALLY strong because it freezing band of high pressure at 30 isn t very strong because the oceans are staying a lot warmer SO Poles cold air is strong when cold air meets warmer air band at 45 is pushed down Cross equatorial winds both pressure bands moved down winds from 30 N at high pressure flow downward to right of intended path BUT since belt moved down they have a longer distance to travel winds deflected to right but once they pass the equator they deflected to the left now in S Hemisphere De ne insulation Explain the factors affecting insulation Explain the relationship between temperature and insulation Explain why water and land heat and cool at di erent rates INcomhlg SOLar radiATION The part of the sun s radiation that is received by Ultraviolet Visible 7 light 44 1 c 7 Earth s atmosphere m 2 Insulation absorbed Sun39s radiation at top of f L We 039 5 quotBrad I imh s atmOSphere Insoiaticn quot a by Earth 5 atmwphe39e W rs i s 3 quot N c 3 tquot Earth39s surface radiation 39 390 5 terrestrial radiatxoW I 4 uaamu39 A gt Visible ght Increasing wavelength 939 re 61 Intansz of insulation received by gm 4 a 39 E quotL 39 7 1e sun being much hotter than Earth sun SBOO39C Earth 15 C emils shorter wavelengths of non than Earth does Earth s surface em s vny iung 39 a 39 39 quot quot 39 82m amOuntofu y 39 w quot 39 L 1 39 I 39 39 au percent ofthe insolation 39eaches the outermost part of Earth s atmosphera F J U U m Intensity of radiatian rate at which energy is radiated from a body Depends on Increases temperature shorter wavelength at which maximum intensity of radiatian occurs Ex sun s max intensity of radiation is visible light Look at the 39 rate at which solar energy is raccived by a given area of Earth s surface per unit of time 0 intensity of insiolation occurs in visible light 0 43 of the total energy received at the outermost part of our atmosphere is long wave 1 Absorption of Ultraviulet and Infrared 0 UV short wave absurbed by 11201403 0 Chlorine and Fluorine CFC s have reduced ozone um human activities More UV radiation reaches us to thaw oflife ofskin cancer ozone helm over poles especially South pole Other gasses absorb longwave incoming gaggtion water vapor carbon dioxide CO and methane O O O O Incoming solar radiation 100 Earth s albedo 30 re ected and scattered 20 4 Top of atmosph ere 5 19 absorbed by atmosphere and clouds 0 Clouds re ect much of the incoming solar energy back to space 0 Some visible light re ected to earth 0 Aremsols nely solids and liquids suspended in at 0 Aemsols cause random re ection or scattering of insulation 0 Others include dust vnlcanie and air pollutants 0 As concentration of aerosnls increase scattering of insulation increases the of insloa on that reaches earth V5 of insolation striking Earth s upper aunn39sphcre reaches Earth s land and water Insulation absorbed which we see as light is short wave and is convertedm heat and raises ofthe surface quot Earth s also radiates electromagnetic energy long wave lowering the Most of energy absorbed short wave fmm insola on equals Earth s surface radiation lung ways and Heat are balanced 1 Angle 2 characteristics 3 Change of ranspiration 0 Angle of incidence the angle at the insolation strikes earth s surface 0 Altitude of sun determines the angle of incidenee 0 The higher the sun is in the the higher the angle of incidence and more insolation is absorbed A lower angleof incidence more insulation is re ected and less is absorbed


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