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Chapter 4- KIN 2500: Human Anatomy

by: Meghan Davis

Chapter 4- KIN 2500: Human Anatomy

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > KIN 2500 > Chapter 4 KIN 2500 Human Anatomy
Meghan Davis

Wanda Hargroder

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Chapter 4: Tissues
Wanda Hargroder
One Day of Notes
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This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Meghan Davis on Friday September 5, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at Louisiana State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 108 views.


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Date Created: 09/05/14
Chapter 4 Tuesolay Septemloer 2 2 14 11 6 AM I The body is composed of trillions of cells which are organized into more complex units called tissues 0 Four types of tissues in the body 0 Epithelial lines everybody surface and all body cavities little to no extracellular matrix I Cellularity cells bound together by several types of junctions I Polarity free surface basal surface lateral surface I Attachment I Avascularity I Innervation I High regeneration capacity I Functions El Physical protection I Selective permeability what gets in and out III Secretion sweat and oil I Sensation touch taste smell hearing detect light I The basement membrane found between the epithelium and underlying connective tissue III Basal lamina III Reticular lamina I Strongly bound to each other on their lateral surfaces by sharing membrane specializations called intercellular junctions 1 Tight junctions encircle cells near their apical surface occlude transfer of molecules between membranes III Adhering junction formed completely around the cell deep to the tight junction plaque bearing II Desmosomes like a button or snap between adjacent cells found in locations of mechanical stress El Gap junctions uid filled channels connections passage way of one cell membrane to another need in neurons I Classi cation of epithelial tissue I Number of layers of cells 0 Simple epithelium one layer 0 Strati ed epithelium multiple layers 0 Pseudostratified epithelium not multiple layer III Shape of the cells 0 0 0 Squamous at cell central nucleus Cuboidal cube Columnar column III Where to find 000000000 0 Types of Epithelium Table 42 up quotaII IkIllI 39 l 1l39l I I 39l I H I H l Unc l39ll law think all ll I nghllv lquotI1Il all ll sll ll dunllr In lhr hz ImnI mltmlIm unlplr IIl IllIln Um n391 II llIllI39llI391l x llu Nlzlplc nibu1nl I lnc ln ct AI ll39 JP ul n Il 9 hrs an n uh ulc nlnmun Inax Ilmlnl K Mu Luv I nun lIIrAl ll tlul m Iau Iun llu39 arr h ua ll um nlIILIIII Inn um Illl Muznplv mluxnnur ulmlul Unr lnr Ill ulIlul u2 tlmt arc mllu lhn Ih tr wad I ll I H I H I P I III I I l l hm 01 llkwc ull Lncn llm K cn Ihr dxquxl lJrl clmx ll nllulu s In lhr lxnrmcul numlvvanv nIlIcd qlIl1lIll lumllnlr39d lnm l1Iquot lhnl ullx H1 surlu ll39 an lcJ llIl and llllul Hllllll 1L fYI4IIIllIln lulIInl nlllIIIIIIH uIgtL39rluIIn ll lu39 hm nllu L nu krulm In Ila ul lJ39 Inis xu nlur llI ml mm uII1Iul ulmlnl lvslt1m nlnr hells1nll39urhrllus ulmhl slupcd n Jllllfll nlmu1 mu oz unm Lnu U n ll nu npxn lnrx Jlr 1lIIIIIIIr Chjml UIIII R IN i lIHl III I clJu1unIrIn4ngc1 mnn l cun5ulmlxul ulumnn Unr lI 39l I u39ll ml u sung In ll All xLll Ill39llIvl Ivxlllrlll ll1LlI Il Il 39IllcllollllulIIlhl ulna nd gable u ll Inu lm39cd lrun luL Illl Ill39l 39l lsI u ll lynlnnnI inlhjv Ianus pl uh Ilnlml 39lI M ho lxnznc ux uln 3 I llI739l l ulI w lwn l39u lxhml SI urn wllx nu l39 lWI mu lrIh1 Simple squamous single layer of at cells Simple cuboidal single layer of cells as tall as they are wide Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium single layer of cells that are taller than they are wide no cilia present Ciliated simple columnar epithelium columnar epithelial cells some have cilia on their apical surface Nonkeratinized strati es squamous epithelium multiple layers of cells apical cells are squamous Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium multiple layers of cells apical cells are squamous super cial layers of cells contain keratin Strati ed cuboidal epithelium secretion multiple layers of cells apical cells are cuboidal Strati ed columnar epithelium male urethra multiple layers of cells apical cells are columnar Pseudostratified columnar epithelium single layer of columnar epithelial cells but layered appearance of nuclei suggests multiple layers off cells most of respiratory tract Transitional epithelium urinary bladder apical cell shape changes depending on whether the tissue is stretched or relaxed I Glands individual cells or multicellular organs III Endocrine into blood stream sweat II Exocrine into ducts that goes to the surface Ex Adrenal gland pituitary gland O Connective most diverse abundant widely distributed and structurally varied of all four tissue types I Cells different cells for different types of connective tissue I Protein fibers III Collagen bers 25 of protein fibers in body Most abundant ber in body I Elastic thinner than collagen In elastic arteries El Reticular bers stroma framework of organs EX lungs spleen I Ground substances III Extracellular matrix ground substance protein fibers El A combination of proteins and carbohydrates Anatomy 2500 Page 1 I Functions El El El El El El Physical protection Vascular with blood vessels Support and form structural framework Transport lymph Building of structures Gives us immune response through antibodies I Development III Arises from mesoderm El Two types of embryonic CT 9 Mesenchyme comes from amnion uid 0 Mucous comes fromumbilicalcord 39 I o J K 1 Q I 39 V H D G 39 4 L I I Classification 1 Types present after birth can be classified into three broad categories 0 Connective tissue proper loose connective tissue 0 Resident cells maintain and retaining matrix Ex bro blasts adipose sites fat cell that stores lipids Fixed macrophage foreign materials mesenchymal cells repair how healthy we really are produce new connective tissue D Blast cells form cyte cells 0 Wandering cells mast cell releases histamine and heparin blood thinner Free macrophage ability to phagosize foreign material Plasma cell forms antibodies Leucocytes Neutrophil attack foreign material by direct attack 0 Classified into two categories P Loose connective tissue serves the body in packing of materials in spaces around organs Areolar contains fibroblasts collagen and elastic fibers Reticular contains reticular fibers broblasts leukocytes Adipose known as fat contains adipocytes P Dense connective tissue made most of college tightly packed Regular collagen fibers aligned parallel to applied force Tendons and ligaments Irregular bundles of collagen fibers extending in many directions Dermis Tensile strength tendency to spread Elastic elastic fibers provide ability to stretch and recoil 0 Supporting connective tissue 0 Cartilage firm Composed of protein and ground substance D Chondrocytes P Lacunae P Three types Hyaline most common type but also the weakest glassy matrix Fibrocartilage densely interwoven collagen fibers contribute to the durability Elastic abundant elastic bers Ear nose 0 Bone calci ed matrix arranged in osteons P Osteocytes P NAV nerve atter artery rounder vein 0 Fluid connective tissue 0 Blood P Plasma watery liquid substance that contains ground substance Contains soluble proteins D Erythrocytes red blood cells P Leukocytes white blood cells P Platelets help in blood clotting Ccomqr 21 Ire PG aw Mn Campnnes Inc Perrmssocn umro1fo39 rucvozsucucn or dnsalav Connective Tissue Classi cation Common ongm mesench39me I I I ClllHI3Il39 EnLu pn ltr I w 7 SmII NJ Iii391I1I l3l 2 112 lt i rlmzi m ltr39m I m Dmvmnmnlt lnm 39239hIlt J i Elmw I Bgt39r O L DI5L lLlHl Ill 1l39 v5uc 1ererlybers rr am qrcu1r1 rurlurn 39 I 1 Arr1v 55u mon hber3 tsmltoh3 m3M l 15Idlmalinxl Ar t LId 2 Ad92 I1 Flrehtrunr Anatomy 2500 Page 2 0 Muscle I Fibers contract which results in movement Internal or external I Three histological types El Skeletal cylindrical and long some as long as whole muscle 9 Long cylindrical bers 0 Striated parallel and unbranched II Cardiac found only in the wall of the heart myocardium 0 Cells are short strained and branching 0 Intercalated discs at cell junctions ability to beat at rhythm on its own 1 Smooth found in walls of most intemal organs 0 Cells are fusiform short and nonstriated O Nervous I Neurons II Neurons containing cell processes called axons and dendrites III Glial lack these processes I Glial cells I Tissues Vary in structure function and the content of their extracellular matrix 0 Metaplasia epithelial lining of respiratory air ways OOOO Table 41 Tissue Types Type plh1uluu39 IIlllA39lI hunt M II n Ir lIl ltrms hum Ecrunl Chanclerhtks I dluluplH1lluIIuJ uuuu ulmvulcd high lrurnu xlnn n 11 Il Ihuvu H5rx all ugtulun 39quot muan ll and numI xlihxlnmr unllulIr lru nvx tnIuIJlu1 Inm mImus u rm and or uulnulnc u xI39T EHllh I l Il4N39 high nxuhI1 talc rxlrunc Eu1gr39I IaImnlIn Inu quot 39m1 nuIr rumu icncral Functions tuu1l39 lll39 l1llk39 at urganx am HA1 IIlIl39 ngtr It luruin lo hrv Jul ll ulIII1Ill I nIlxllr mumam ur ul lA l hr1II mu1 nullx 39uI 1ImuJnlms prurn mlI nuhuu IhI u 39 Nuppwrl Jul ptIn nnumlx Hypertrophy increase in size of existing cells Hyperplasia increase in number of cells in a tissue Neoplasia out of control growth Atrophy shrinking of muscle tissue Primary Germ layrr Dcrival Ive I stJain nix wdrlnl rmpdrl III l39ugtl tllI hunlcuxu ItJII1 Anatomy 2500 Page 3 Example Sublypra And Their Locations SunIr mlumrmr rpilhrliumz lnncr Inning at nhgcsl In Uhi luh39Iia39a Aquumamn rpulhrliumz I 5uh rum I Luu lmrnnliumll rpillvrlrutnv huh I nnIn39 l unxun lnlJrr 4hIiIunr c mum livr lium39 Lu Dnuc Ivgnlur ulnmxwvr Inuit I uguu nls and l ndltvn Drrur irrrgufur nmnn Iinr lumr lhnmx 1 km Hhllillr nurfilngaquot A h ul r xnllIgn39I1IdInIn39lHIIIl 39AmImnm1nrhour luv u lu39ltluf mun Ir u la IHu In I In l 391lr famlmr nnmlr lusr layu III hurl Mmnvlh mmclr luula law in dsgunrc tnnl Nturmu ll39nn Jud mAl uud GliahrllyllrnnmJInugtn1


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