DISCOVER THE UNIVERSE
DISCOVER THE UNIVERSE AST 1002
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Ms. Adrian Buckridge
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Popular in Astronomy
Ms. Adrian Buckridge
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Adrian Buckridge on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AST 1002 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/206979/ast-1002-university-of-florida in Astronomy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Key Concepts Lecture 4 Motion of the Moon Motlon of the Moon I The Moon rises in the east and sew in 39 l the west moving across the sky in an Lunar Phases arc I The Moon moves slowly eastward against the stars half a degree per hour I The Moon returns to the same position amongst the stars every 273 days its orbital period or sidereal perio I The motion of the Moon relative to e stars causes it to rise 50 minutes Solar Eclipses later every day Phase 5 of the Moon I The changes in the Moon s phase are due to changes in the angle Phases of the Moon Why does the Moon shine 7 It emits no light of its own The M00 Shines by between the Sun Moon re ecting light and the E31111 7 The halfofthe Moon that r 0 degrees New Moon faces the Sun is ALWAYS lit The lit portion of the Moon s surface which is visible from Earth is called the phase Phases change in a regular sequence over a 295 day period J synodic period Eclipses JIM y WM Question I If the Sun sets at 6pm when does a rst quarter Moon rise I A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon moves between the Earth and the Sun A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon and the Moon moves through the Earth s shadow In ancient cultures eclipses were bad omens The Diamond Ring Total 5012 Eclipse Angular SIR ofSun and Moon An ulm SIZE Th2 Sun and Maunhwe very rm Am m Mmmandsm mmammxy have mm m mm W phym mes Angmmmrmmapmasmm MW 9 5 M km mug 7mm 1 Mn kn riuhim mmsbggx md zMum Haw cm39heyappeartabe Maya m a 7 7 m mm m af rm alum z mug an eclipse m am m 3914 ohm WWW Quesuon An Annular Solar Echpse Wdaes an annular echpse 1m Mfum E23 39TheMam39sshAdaw Wmm mummy 14 Auummmnwz The Lunar Eclipse I We see a total lunar eclipse when the Moon moves through the Earth s inner shadow umbra I We see a partial lunar eclipse when the Moon moves through the Earth s outer shadow penumbra I Where do you need to be to observer a Lunar eclipse A Lunar Eclipse When amp How Often I Lunar eclipses occur at FULL Moon PHASE Lunar eclipses do not occur every month because the Moon s orbital plane is tilted With respect to the ecliptic e atotal lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon crosses the ecliptic at full Moon 7 since the Earth s shadow is much bigger than the Moon total lunar eclipses occurmore o en than solar eclipses Lunar eclipses occur 25 times per The Lunar Eclipse I We see a total lunar eclipse when the Moon moves through the Earth s inner shadow umbra I We see a partial lunar eclipse when the Moon moves through the Earth s outer shadow penumbra Lunar eclipses are visible anywhere on the nighttime side of the Earth Question Why is the Moon s surface still visible during a total lunar eclipse I When do lunar eclipses occur I Do they happen more or less frequently than solar eclipses Motion of the Planets The planets are the brightest objects in the night sky With the exception of the Moon amp they rise in the east and set in the West Planet means Wanderer 7 The planets move slowly among the stars staying near the ecliptic 7 Different planets move at 39 different speeds relative to the stars of the visible planes Mercury is the fastest Saturn is the slowest 7 They move in complex patterns changing their direction of motion Infenor Planets m mmmrmmmgmmmxdubrns m zmd w mdyeq ammnns a mum mwmm mm w yme Supenor Planets m vmhlz 5nsz 2 Mm Admm 1 Hammrklw wpmranchssmbsm aduy wwmm ldMq Vtxhngnsu MJ w m n cwussnuauyzw rug scum mm mm mumquot 555 mm m wk Key Concepts Lecture 15 Venus Overview Venus structure sur ce magnetic eld 0 Second planet from Sun 0 Earth s sister planet atmosphere runaway greenhouse 7 Similar Sizes masses dens1t1es cratering amp chemical Use of radar transparency of atmospheres in radio Doppler effect compositions Comparison ofTerrestrial Planets Exploration of Venus 7 Rotation amp Revolution Telescopic observation of Venus Orbit of Venus around sun 7 Only see cloud layers 7 most circular orbit of all planes 7 225 Earth days for 1 complete orbit Rotation of Venus 7 retrograde in opposite direction of all other planes except Uranus amp Pluto and most satellites in solar system 7 243 Earth days for 1 complete rotation 7 re ect 76 of incoming sunlight Visited by N 20 spacecraft 7 Mariner 2 rst to Visit in 1962 Earth Venus e Venera7 Soviet Space Craft rst to land on another planet 7 Venera9 rst photographs of surface e Magellan detailedmaps ofsurface from radar Structure of Venus Magnetic Field 0 Interior structure similar to o NO magnetic eld Why Ban 7 Venus rotates much more slowly 243 times than Earth I internal dynamo Weaker I Weaker magnetic eld 10000 times Weaker than Earth 7 magnetic field might be in process of reversal between poles in reversal magnetic field is zero 7 similar mass size amp density 0 Metallic core 7 somewhat lower density than Earth 7 Ezg wmt smaller core than Interaction with solar wind differs from Earth Large rocky mantle 7 solar wind runs right into upper atmosphere of Venus Rocky crust 7 carries off some of the atmosphere 37899 7 Vaned Terran 7mmquot 7mm 7mm mag 7 craters Overall relatively at cumpared m Earth lWa warm sleace shave m m md Measure fotauoh rate Uses Dapplex germ cmnpxessed r mxmng abject 15 mavmg mm m and v1 Plateaus Isht ar39Te na 4mm smme mm m PM mm crown ms Muuntzm ranges burder Ishtar 7 Mawe Menus Wmmmmumw mm m Volcanoes occur ln complec goups Shleld volcanoes Cloudsm sulfurlc ac Surface bfVenus Volcmoes 431611613 ade mostly of ld Clouds make up 2 decks wth a layer ofhaz between rASV Skm Alr clear to lower them abuve surface from surface up deck quotanus Craters Surfa e Rei a me39ly fe w cr ters young surface overall No small cralers 7 small meteumlds burn up In Venus e s e dens atmu ph re Craters come ln bunches e zrgemeteumldsthatreach bre up m surfa ak aann sphere r S a hydmchlun and Wind s Unneraannmlrerererywlnu39y 7 5D Ianhaul 7 7 Greenhouse Effect on Venus 0 76 of sunlight re ected by clouds amp never reaches surface of Temperature amp Pre39sSure 0 Temperature increases as you get closer to the surface 7 surface temperature NSOOK Venus 0 Surface Pressure increases 0 Yet surface temperature extremely high as you get closer to the surface Surface temperature high due to greenhouse effect 7 90 atm 90 times greater NO plate tectonics than Earth s Surface oceans or life to remove pressure CO2 Mysteries about Venus The Terrestrial Planets Wannng limnklml 0 What causes the spreading amp folding of WW m 7 mm m 5mm lit3 M Venus surface and recent volcanic ows if mm mm Mmquot there is no plate tectonics 0 Why is there no magnetic field Mercury Mars 0 Why is its rotation retrograde anus Earth 39 0 All terrestrial planets are differentiated 0 Why did Venus atmosphere evolve so 0 Larger planets take longer to cool and still differently than the Earth s have active mantles and liquid cores The Terrestrial Planets rant Mays The Terrestrial Planets EwluvinnurySrwgeaHenemianluaxi m an Mm Norm knn39mmrli Mmm Vumn was 954 4353 up iaud 73lt May as oea E vs 77 n mm Kiowa Lot A easiestrim C Volcanic artivity creates secondary atmosphere Gravity holdsatmosphere Light atomsesoape most easily Highertemperatures allow heavier atoms to escape Water and life remove co2 and life creates o2 0 Small planets cool fastest and evolve faster
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