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by: Miss Claudine Cruickshank


Miss Claudine Cruickshank
GPA 3.56

Clive Wynne

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About this Document

Clive Wynne
Class Notes
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Popular in Animal Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Claudine Cruickshank on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CBH 3003 at University of Florida taught by Clive Wynne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/206988/cbh-3003-university-of-florida in Animal Biology at University of Florida.




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Date Created: 09/18/15
COMMUNICATION LECTURE Commu nication the sharing of info bt individuals Ritualization the use of certain behaviors in a way differing from the norm such that there is an adaptive advantage thereby changing the norm in a certain direction gt gt VV V Ex Dog urinating to flush out bodily waste dog urinating to mark territory Urine smells leads to specialized use to mark territory or develop into chemical sex attractants resulting in the development of urination behaviors that have nothing to do with the need to void wastes Ex Dog necessarily bears its teeth before biting over time dog bears teeth for an exaggerated or long time before actual attack as a warning Ex Stotting or Pronking Intention movement displays that develop as a result of ritualization I Ex Eyebrows lower in preparation for blow to face leads to eyebrow lowering in general whenever someone feels threatened emotionallyphysically Frowning is an extension of that eyebrowlowering intending to show displeasure Redirecteddisplaced movements movements that are changed from their normal context perhaps repeated unnecessarily as a part of ritualization I Ex Dog pees 12 times on a walk unnecessary to empty bladder or mark territory so frequently Honesty in Communication gt gt Dishone gt V gt gt Variatio gt Ex Larger frogs have deeper croaks demonstrates attractiveness as a mate bc of its likelihood of survival Deep croak conveys honest selective advantage Ex Male peacock tail feathers grow largely only if the male is healthy thus demonstrating survival likelihood Impossible to fake beautiful full feathers so the plumage is an honest form of communicating to females of this male s viability sty in Communication Ex All ptarmigans turn white in winter but only the females turn brown in spring Males stay white which hurts their camouflage from predators After mating a sufficient amount the males will soil themselves in order to make their feathers blend in more Ex Certain small bronze frogs can imitate the deeper croaks of larger toads in order to appear larger and thus attract more females Ex Some songbirds have quiet songs so as to not attract predators Ex Some monkeys use llconspiratorial whispers with conspecifics in order to communicate near farms but not alert the farmers to their impending fruit theft n Within a Specie s Communication Methods Modulated in intensity or clarity of presentation with similarly gradient implications for their quotmeaningquot May be specific and complex in its behavioral structure and also in its apparent function but does not count as grammar because variants are not rules they are emotional displays Cannot indicate negation past tense displaced reference etc gt Ex Eastern kingbird uses a zeerquotlike call to indicate aggressive intent The sharpness of the call indicates the likelihood of the bird actually attacking gt Ex Blacktailed Prairie dog does a quotJumpYipquot action that indicates its indecision over whether or not to flee or take some other action Because it only flees less than half the time it indicates a behavior with a specific form but not an immediately apparent function gt Ex System of dog body language has specific behaviors that can easily be identified as communicative displays of particular moods or emotions However this is not language 0 ChemicalCommunication gt food Ants leave scent trails to lead themselves and other ants to a food source gt identity An ant s body odor determines its membership to a particular nest I An experiment was done in which an ant was rubbed with an enemy ant s scent then returned to its hive its nestmates attacked it I Another experiment in which an ant was rubbed with the scent of a dead nest mate resulted in the ant continually being carried out of the nest by its fellow ants until its normal living scent returned gt exBull gators release pheromones above the water during the daytime gt Ierritory Rabbits chinquot by rubbing scent glands against objects gt Qanger A sting from a wasp or bee contains a pheromone that commands waspsbees anywhere nearby to attack the target Also the scent of an injured minnow scares off other minnows 0 Bee Communication one of the most complex forms of communication gt Bees use dances to communicate to hivemates the location of a food source I Round Dance Used to demonstrate location of food lt100m away I Waggle Dance A figure8 dance in which the bee wiggles to demonstrate location of food gt100m away Hivemates always troop behind the bee that s dancing while it s dancing Level of excitement within dancequality of nectar source Speed with which bee completes waggle dancedistance to food source VVVV The angle of the bee s dance to the vertical line of the honeycombdirectionbearing of the sun that leads in the direction of the food source gt When experimenters built a robobeequot that danced the real bees around it followed its directions to the food source in terms of direction but not the distance gt When experimenters glued little location devices to the backs of bees had them watch a bee dance and then moved them miles and miles away the bees got the direction and the distance correct if they had been in the original spot 0 Bird Communication gt Whitecrowned sparrow begins life with a primitive unrefined subsongquot I Must be exposed to the sounds of other male birds a purely sensory period at certain critical points in order for its song to develop normally I Has a quotplasticquot song thereafter which is during a sensorimotor phase in which the bird practices and refines its song by hearing its own voice If the bird is deaf during or before this period song will never develop normally I Has a quotcrystallizedquot song by its 2quotd summer gt Male chicken will alter its call depending on the type of predator present I Screamsky predator In response the females duck for cover I quotCutquot noiseground predator like raccoon or fox In response females stand tall 0 Monkey Communication gt Vervet Monkey calls are 1referential or referring to specific things not immediately visible indicative of the nature of the threat not the evasive action to be taken and 2 semantic in the sense that if the call changes but the information stays the same the vervets do not change their response Diana Monkeys indicate same thing Also demonstrate that if they realize a monkey s quotleopardquotcall is false an actual leopard s call is assumed to be false as well Interestingly Diana Monkeys recognize their neighbors Vervets warning leopard calls and make leopard calls of their own When Vervets are nearby however Diana Monkeys stay very quiet and do not make calls V 0 Dolphin Whistles Are Important Means of Ensuring Group Cohesion gt A dolphin whistled his signature call frequently when he was separated from his pod After a while he began using the oldest pod member s signature whistle perhaps as a way of calling for aid gt Dolphins increase their whistle frequency when they anticipate the possibility of noise or separation LANGUAGE LECTURE 0 Human Language Has gt Vocabulary 10s and 1005 of thousands of tokens gt Grammar Rules for combing words NOT just an ordering system ey difference bt our language and every other animal s attempts at communication gt Displaced Reference Referring to things that are not present Past tense possessive terms etc I Ex Sarah discovered the word quotbrownquot by referring to chocolate that was not physically present at that moment in time gt Creativity The ability to describe things never seen before or to describe things in a way never described before I Ex Washoe came up with the phrase quotWaterbirdquot for lack of better word for a swan o Gua the Chimp gt Raised with the Kellogg s toddler hoping that toddler would rub off on chimp gt Instead toddler developed words and also began making chimp noises


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