CLASSICS AND FANTASY
CLASSICS AND FANTASY CLA 3930
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CLA 3930 10 quizzes and 2 tests C1asu eduusers check email H N 9 gt V 0 gt1 00 O H O H H H N H E H gt H U H O H gt1 Lecture 1 Greece thrives because of the naval trade and excellent geographical location Is divided into regions such as North Macedonia Thrace Thessaly Very at with mountainous regions Known for their cavalry because of the at land Is now known for their extensive agriculture NW Aetolia Epirus Fringe Greek Cultures Somewhat isolated Reaping wild fruits are more common Central Boeotia Attica Euboea Gulf of Corinth Isthmus Is the most populous Very mountainous but prone to a lot more farming Olives grow well here Ancient Greece was not as wooded as people might think Southern Peloponnese Eleia Arcadia Argolid Lacedaimonia Messenia Also mountainous and is characterized by its high cliffs going straight into the ocean Corinth is on the crossroads of the trade networks and will consequently become rich Crete Isolated culturally and geographically Largest Greek island Have their own dialect Considered Cretans first and Greek second Cyclades Produce a lot of marble Did not do much in terms of this class Asia Minor lonia 19 Many cities still inhabited by Greeks up until 203911 century Resources Farming composes of 30 of all arable land in Greece which includes livestock Meat is not a major part of the diet39 however there are a lot of goats Most of milk and cheese comes from goats Sheep were also primary for sheering Wine production began at an early time It was much more potent and had to be mixed with water CoastalSettlements Fish became the more common meat for coastal settlements Food would also come from trade When sailing it would often be that traders would travel a short distance and dock as opposed to crossing open water because of unpredictable weather patterns Physical Geography Mountainous temple of Apollo at Delphi Near the Sea temple of Poseidon at Sounion Fertile Valleys foot of Mount Helicon Hilltop Fortresses Mycenae Earliest Hominids Earliest evidence of hominids in Greece was the Petralona cranium dated around 200000 before present which was found near Thessaloniki Were huntergatherers and lived in caves The Franchthi Cave dating back to 200003000 BCE was inhabited by multiple hominids at any time Sesklo was a Neolithic settlement 65004400 BCE It was a hilltop inhabited by many people and its culture spread into Europe Balkans and on into the rest of Europe Dimini 48001200 BCE is in the same area and was a hilltop fortress and might have overrun Sesklo However they had lived together for about 400 years Timeline of Greek History Bronze Age 30001150 Dark Age 1150750 Archaic Period 750480 Classical period 480323 Hellenistic Period 32330 not studying in this class The Minoans PreGreek inhabitants of Greece but are NOT Greek They speak a different language They were named lLinoans by archaeologists after the mythical king Minos king of Knossos Main sites Phaistos Knossos Mallia They had no walls which conveys a lack of fear of invasion Crete Distinctive Culture lLinosMinotaur myth Daedalus and Icarus Theseus Crete was first excavated by a man named Arthur Evans and he is the one who named them the Mnoans By current standards his methods were very primitive He was much more interested in large objects such as pots and jewelry He also excavated the capital city of Knossos Overview of Minoan Crete C7000 earliest human habitation of Crete Neolithic C3500 beginnings of Minoan cities C3000 acquisition of Bronze Age Technology C25002000PrePalatial period C20001600 Old Palace period Beginning of great empire as we know it the palace was used for storage and distribution The center of life Cl 800 Linear A script probably just for administrative uses C1600 destruction and rebuilding of palaces possible causes such as a large volcanic eruption that also triggered a tsunami C1600l400 New Palace Period last 200 years of Minoans living on their own Cl4001100 Final palace Period Linear B script Greek Lecture 2 PrePalatial Minoan Crete Had the wheel Palatial Period Small city states would generally keep to themselves and had palaces with large complexes with public spaces and room for large scale food storage Everything farmed would go through the palace There was a strong central authority with a hierarchical structure with a priestking V 0 gt1 00 O H O H H H N H E H 4 H V H 0 H gt1 H so H O N O N H N N N L The reconstructed palace at Knossos is not very accurate and was created by Arthur Evans Minoans had plumbing running water that would distribute water around the city and flow through channels The Palace of Phaistos is on the south side of the island It had a lot of open courtyards and lacked a throneroom The palace at Mallia also has open courtyards and rooms for storage Minoan Society Pottery Kamares Ware 21001500 BCE Marine Style clSOOl 100 Used for storage Minoan Script The Phaistos Disc Is it a strange writing that no one really knows what it is It shows early writing by the lLinoans Linear A used for administrative purposes Not enough tablets exist to be sure what the script means The labrys double axe symbol stood for power Gender Roles Women had a bit more freedom than other societies Appeared to be viewed as goddesses and bare breasted They were painted white while males were painted a darker color There was large Egyptian in uence on the paintings Minoan Religion Worshipped more than one god with a patron deity Had nature goddesses but that is not indicative of a matriarchal society There was a priest king and the gods are similar to that of the Greeks The Divine Pair was a man and women that showed an attraction to nature Rituals would sacrifice animals to gods formal processions that included all or part of the populace and the Horns of consecration exist heavily in Crete that is believed to be part of the bull cult Bull leaping is depicted in paintings and could be an activity done by Minoans Anemospilia seems to be a place that humans were sacrificed but NOT on a regular basis Only people of value would be sacrificed to try to appease the gods N 4 Would also worship in hilltop shrines idea of worshipping closer to the gods and piety N Lquot Lustral Basins were used for holding water but besides that it is not known for what specifically was done It is not expected to be a bath because it has no drain Possibly a place of worship N O People would be buried in graves but royalty would be buried in sarcophagi Common people could have also been buried in lowlevel sarcophagi Thera Santorin N l Part of the island exploded and destroyed palaces Ash was found on Crete from the explosion N Go Lived like Minoans The city was preserved Lecture 3 Peak of Mycenaean Power 15001300 0 Palaces were similar to lLinoan models 0 Similarities redistributive economy layout centralized 0 Differences smaller fortified spatial organization individual styles Relationship between Mycenaeans and Minoans At some point the Mycenaeans ruled at Knossos but there is no evidence that it was a takeover or invasion Mycenaeans spoke Linear B the earliest evidence of the Greek Language It was deciphered by lLichael Ventris It was purely administrative Major sites Knossos Pylos Tiryns Mycenae Dendra Argos Thebes Athens Gla Mycenaean Culture Social Structures 0 Wanwc priestking at head of palace Lawagelas head of court military commander N E Basileaus middlelevel local official Large amounts of class division and differences between classes was large Artisans and workers Farmers Slavery which may not have existed but there was evidence for it in tablets Not like slavery from Africa but it could have appeared from when a soldier lost a battle but surrendered he would become a slave Mycenaean Economy N 9 gt V 0 Redistributive much like with the lLinoan economy There were both state and private lands Taxes had to be paid for produce and goods Surpluses were created from state lands and provided goods to trade with They used the potters wheel to made fine pottery and copied Minoan pottery However they would also put original elements such as soldiers on the pottery that made them different them from the Minoans They also used their own clay which can show where the pottery was made and by whom It is known Mycenaean pottery was exported because it is found all over the place The Uluburun Shipwreck revealed trade from different places There were Mycenaeans swords a stirrup jar Egyptian scarabs Syrian lamps etc Benefits from trade technology irrigation columns etc Minoans Chariots Hittites used as transport Pylos Numerous linear B records 33 scribal hands Name of city in records Puro in linear B Pylos in linear Greek Their religion was similar to the Minoans Pylos was on a coast so would therefore would have contact with other nations Potnia showed connection to Athena The Palace of Nestor was found at Pylos and was named for the Homeric King gt1 00 0 There are signs of industry based on the Linear B inventories Also had the oxhide ingots Frescoes at Pylos show an ideal lifestyle without war Orchomenosmany tombs with a large palace Tirynsheavily fortified walls approximately 20ft wide Glafound a fortified area but it missed key palace elements that suggests that it was just fortification for the local people Mycenaean Religion Gods and rituals appear to be similar if not the same as later Greeks Bronze Age Collapse r 13001100 widespread gradual collapse of states across Greece and near East Egypt end of New Kingdom Records show that Sea Peoples invaded and possibly ended the kingdom Mesopotamia fall if Middle Babylonian Empire Hittites end of empire 16001205 1205 inscriptions cease abruptly sack of capital Hattusas Other places Cyprus Syria Assyria Levant all show breaks in society and destruction Extent of Mycenaean Culture Traded many weapons Culture spread throughout Greece and the coast of Turkey The Fall of Mycenaean Greece 1 Linear B records at Pylos suggest that the Sea Peoples that invaded Egypt also attacked Mycenaeans However the first destruction in Greece is likely not caused by the Sea Peoples because it comes from the mainland Destructions The House of the Oil Merchant and other houses beyond the walls N 9 gt V 0 gt1 00 O H O r r i N i L i 4 H V The fortress of Gla New Palace of Thebes not sure if it was invasion could have been a natural disaster However there was obvious fear of attack because they increased fortifications At Tiryns the fortifications were strengthened and enlarged water supplies were created and storage facilities were increased At Athens they raised Cyclopean walls in an attempt to protect the city and also created a water supply Mycenaeans also attempted the create fortifications across the Isthmus of Corinth Final Destructions Mycenae citadel destroyed by fire 123911 C Tiryns Citadel destroyed slightly later natural disaster possibly Nemea final Bronze Age settlement abandoned 123911 C Pylos destroyed by fire 123911 C a little bit after Mycenae Athens evidence for destruction Greeks later speak of Dorian invasion Refugees and transplanted populations Achaea Cyprus Ionian Islands It is clear that Mycenaeans were here because graves increased dramatically and also pottery and other items were found in these areas Cause of Collapses Neighboring states collapsing reducing trade and an economic collapse Dorian invasion Greeks mention the invasion however there is no evidence of new culture Sea Peoples only the Egyptians mention them and they were not destroyed through the sea and rather from the opposite direction Civil Unrest some claim that it was really the people who rose up against the elite upperclass However it doesn t explain why it happened and there were no signs that the people had discord with their kings and did not explain why Gla would be destroyed since they had no central king 16 Natural Disasters Lecture 4 Trojan war 1 Earliest accounts of the war 2 Homer llliad and Odyssey 3 The Epic Cycle only survives in fragments and quotations 4 Proclus Chreslamalhy useful things to know 5 Later Accounts Historians 6 Herodotus role of war in history 7 Greeks Trojans Agamemnon Priam Menelaos Hector Achilleus Paris Patroclus Laocoon Odysseus Aeneas Ajax Sarpedon Diomedes 0 Judgment of Paris 1 Zeus determines that there are too many people in the world and so he decrees that a war must happen to reduce the population 2 He sends Eris the goddess of discord to Greece who offers the apple of discord to the most beautiful goddess which Paris has to decide He is offered the most beautiful woman in the world by Hermaphrodite Helen of Troy He chooses Helen and that starts the war 3 The war took 10 years because they lacked siege weapons 4 War is not large armies fighting each other it is more of nobles dueling each other 5 Gods are a part of the war and play roles The Fall of Troy 0 gt1 00 O H O H H H N H E H gt H V H O H gt1 H so H O N O N H N N The Trojan horse is placed outside the gate Laocoon says it s a trap and Poseidon sends serpents to kill him and his sons The horse is brought in the city because of this and the Trojans have a large party The Greeks then come out of the horse and sack the city Aeneas escapes and later founds Rome Date of war ca 123911 C Ancient Troy Ilium identified with Hisarlik Turkey Maj or city500010000 LanguageLuwian Associated with the Hittites Reality There were huge walls that sloped instead of being vertical and there is evidence of a large war There were Hittite documents which contain the work Wilusa which is believed to mean Ilium Texts also refer to a force named the Ahhiyawa believed to be the Achaeans as well as Alaksandu believed to be Alexander the birth name of Paris Evidence that suggests that the area excavated is not Troy is that the evidence is not conclusive the site was resettled and the destruction did not have to be by the Greeks Elite families trace lineage to heroes Greek tragedy Alexander and Achilles Alexander the great believed he was a reincarnation of Achilles Lecture 5 The Dark Ages 1100750 After the Bronze Age collapse also known as the Iron Age People begin to live in wooden houses as opposed to stone houses Trade was severely disrupted so resources technology ideas and wealth were all impacted in a negative way i N 9 gt As a result of the beginning of the Dark Ages new societies are created in the form of isolated small towns Pottery styles become highly localized and exclusive in style Some Mycenaean styles are attempted to be remade however they are crude and end up just assimilating into the local styles In addition burial styles also become isolated ie position of body Cremation vs burial Rituals Consequences of isolation Dialects of Greek begin to diverge into dialects such as Attic Athens Ionic IoniaTurkey Doric PeloponneseDorian Aeolic ThessalyNorthern Asia Minor Protogeometric Period Pottery is used for dating Stratigraphy is when you excavate and find artifacts in the earth and the deeper the artifact is the older it will be Beginning of Dark Ages simplest of pottery most isolated In this period of the Dark Ages designs are simple but they are smoothermore refined and a potter s wheel was seen to be used to create the pottery There are also perfect circles which indicate better technology with the potter s wheel yet still simple Iron becomes universal throughout Greece in place of bronze They are also using the local resources instead of importing In addition iron is much cheaper and the common man could afford to buy weapons Trade eventually begins to increase and Attic pottery was found in Crete and Samos shows export of pottery NOT MASSIVE very limited Big Man TheoryIt appears that there was one man who ruled a village who was charismatic This position was not a king and it was not inherited based on merit This eventually leads to the gradual establishment of an elite class O Le ltandi Xeropolis Euboea Old Eretria Le ltandi does not appear to have collapsed in the Bronze Age and they appear to may have even benefited from it It was a large continual settlement from the Bronze Age but less important during the Mycenaean Palatial Period They had a wealthy agrarian economy and were situated near the Lelantine Plain They had molds for casting bronze and their pottery depicted images and pictures Cemeteries were about 2 km from the settlement Shows advancement that they had a designated spot while the rest of Greece were bury the dead wherever they could They also cremated and buried their dead The Toumba cemetery monument was for the ruling class It has three large rooms with an interior room with goods found inside and a paved walkinporch The Cemetery was known as a Heroon meaning for a hero The cemetery shows that they were not ruled by royalty because there were only 23 people in it They did however create a cemetery directly outside the monument The man is cremated and put into a vase but the woman was given a ritual and buried next to him They also sacrificed horses for them in the afterlife Grave Goods Pottery gold and scarabs were found which signifies imports Centaur idols were found which shows good technology because they make geometric shapes instead of just circle patterns Geometric Period Three phases Early Period 900850 Larger vessels Upper part decorated Meander introduced lLiddle Period 850760 N L Decorative Zones panels with laced mesh Meander on neck Figures animals people Late Period 760700 Funerary Vases More complex geometric patterns Panels with figures narrative scenes Dipylon cemetery Athens Grave makers from one workshop either they were mostly done by one person or one workshop Gradual emergence from the Dark Ages Stabilization of society Population increase Increase of arable land Increased prosperity shown from grave goods Increase of trade imported goods and materials Exchange of ideastechnology Public monuments and works are created The Heraion of Samos A temple to Hera Smyrna Highly advances site for the period Houses were single room and multistory and made out of stone Also houses were arranged in a sort of civic order Smyrna has walls Renewal of Trade Trading outposts Emporia First post at Al Mina Syria established by Euboeans Eretria and Chalcis 33 Pothouse Ischia 34 Established by the Euboeans slightly after Al Mina 35 Eretria and Chalcis Lecture 6 I Geometric Society 0 Age of optimism I Increased prosperityquality of life in geometric period I Population increase I Increased prosperity is shown through grave goods I Greek Renaissance 0 Increase of arable land 0 Establishment of land based aristocracy 0 Increased trade shown through imported goods and materials I Exchange of ideas and technologies 0 Anatolia Hattusa destroyed and will never be rebuilt I Troy was destroyed and is rebuilt however it never regains its former glory and later abandoned I The Hittite Empire dissolves 0 Syria Destruction of Ugarit king sends letter to last Hittite king for help but never gets its because Hattusa is destroyed Brings up question of who destroyed these places I Resettled by Phoenicians NeoHittites Aramaeans Assyrians I Importance of location9cultural crossroads between empires 0 NeoAssyrian Empire I Begins ca 930 Greek Revival I The extent of the empire is throughout Syria Lebanon Egypt 0 Egypt I Third Intermediate period 1060664 I Country is past its prime and it is divided from fighting within the country I It is conquered by the Assyrians in 664 I However they are still a good trading partner and produce a lot of wealth o Phoenicians I Consists of independent citystates I They establish colonies such as Carthage I Greek Colonization 0 Trading reestablished to grow their economy to build relations and establishes connections to colonies o Protocolonization 0 Types of colonies I Emporiaeventually become permanent citystates I Apoikiaautonom ous citystates I Oikistesthe man who organizes the colony and is runs the whole place I Colonies relationship to the mother city is not the same as in colonial times they are autonomous and are not obligated to take orders but they do maintain a special relationship CleruchyAthenian institution What is different with this colony is that the people still consider themselves members of the mother city zeugetainot elite class but above peasantry the idea was that if you became a cleruch you could become a zeugetai 0 Motivation to colonize I Increased population I TradeCleruchies Emporia Apoikia 0 Negative Motivation I Internal Discord I le Partheniaemeaning sons of maidensvirginssecond class citizen and sent to TarasTarentum I However Sparta kept ties with Tarentum I Colonization of Sicily and Southern Italy Magna Graecia o Taras o Naples 0 Syracuse I Adopted some greek culture and therefore the romans adopt a lot of other greek culture 0 Locations I NortheastThrace Black Seatimber grain I AfricaCyrene I WestItaly Sicily Spain 0 Greeks and Phoenicians I Dominant sea powers and colonists I For now they are good trading partners and have similar alphabets I The Historical Period 0 Development of Greek literature I Wrote poetry and oral traditions like Homer and Hesiod I Prose later development I Historiography philosophy etc o Papyrus I The paper of the ancient world I Made scrolls and it needs a very dry climate to survive I This is why most of the scrolls found were in Egypt I Oxyrhynchus was the dump of Egypt and therefore many papers were O O O O O Vellum thrown away Wax tablets were also used to practice writing Reusable because you could heat it and then wipe the wax at to have a clean slate Made from animal hide used for paper Replaced Papyrus ca 43911 C CE Codexbook I Replaced by paper in ca 133911 C CE Ancient Libraries Athens Alexandria Egypt World s largest library Manuscript traditions the scripts we have obtained Byzantine Monasteries Mt Athos has one of the largest storage of manuscripts from the ancient world Epigraphy All caps no spaces letters painted or later inlaid Direction of writing boustrophedon9left to right then next line right to left etc most of the time left to right could go right to left Types of inscriptions I Law Codes I Decrees I Dedications etc Development of Polis citystate Autonomous and independent In uence of Phoenicians Tyre Sidon etc Developed an elite class Private land ownership was also developed Had an acropolis Religious Citadel O O O O I Had traces of Mycenaean palaces I Synoecismliving together I Unificationincorporation of villages Governing the polis I First run by kingsBasileaus I Abolished for oligarchies I Council eliteBoule I Assembly populaceEkklesia I Agoraopen market place I Center of civic and economic life and a religious place I Impact of increased trade Interaction of the poleis I Formation of leagues I Amphictyonic League Delphi I Peloponnesian League I Boeotian League I Hegemon Army of the polis I Hoplites I Had helmets breastplates cuirass a round shield hoplon a spear and leg guards greaves short sword xiphos I Used the revolutionary phalanx I Most of the time armies fought neighbors The First Messenian War ca 743730 I Sparta vs Messenians I Two stories I Spartans claim Messenians took women and had their way with them I Messenians claim they were Spartans dressed as women waited to lay a surprise attack I The most likely real cause is that the Spartans were attempting to expand I Sparta wins and takes over Messenia and claims them slaves called Helots I The Helots farm for them and the Spartans become yearlong soldiers o The Lelantine War early 73911 century I Eretria vs Chalchis I Start fighting over the Lelantine Plain I Le ltandi is abandoned and the people are believed to have moved to Eretria I Theory of war was that there was a war and food became scarce so the cities fought over full control over the Lelantine Plain I War is extensive and includes Greek alliances I Not hoplite warfare I Outcome uncertain I The Euboeans will never be a major political power after this I Neither side becomes a big power because of this Lecture 7 I The Second Messenian War 685668 0 Helots Revolt I Battle of Deres I First major battle of the war Unsure who won but Messenians at the least fared well and probably were victorious because Aristomenes a man who lead them in the fight was crowned king Spartan Victory Tyrtaeus From Athens but fought for Sparta PoetElegy Anapests 0 Themes of Poems I march songs I Of valor and war The First Sacred War early 63911 C 0 War over Delphi PanHellenic sanctuary of Apollo o Amphictyonic League 0 Oracle 0 Amphictyony vs Kirrha o Cleisthenes of Sicyon o Tactics The Orientalizing Period 0 Artistic revolution Near Eastern motifs o Revived trade network 0 Renewed contacts 0 Egyptian in uence on Greek sculptures I Have the hands towards the ground I Have the same beaded hair Ancient Tyranny 0 Definition is different Nonhereditary king It is designated by a coup not by blood 0 Arises from class strife Aristotle o Rivalries among elite o Circumstances I Personal Bodyguard 0 Got idea from Egyptian in uence in seeing Pharos 0 They admired the foreign system of rule 0 Policies I Building projects to appease people I Support crafts I Perceptions would change by class 0 Extent of Tyranny I From Asia lLinor to Sicily I Only lasts for about 2 centuries I Sicily holds on to Tyrants longer than everyone else 0 Cleisthenes of Sicyon late 7mearly 63911 C I Elite family I Led the First Sacred War I AntiArgive policy 0 Cypselos of Corinth mid73911 C I Lineage Bacchiadae royal family I Position palemarch military commander I Reign Dominance of pottery production I Succeeded by son Periander o Periander of Corinth Late 7 I International relations I Son Psammetichus I Constructs the Diolkos made so you didn t have to sail around the Peloponnese Would drag boats across the earth I Reign becomes harsh Lecture 8 I Athens 0 Early History I Mythical originsAthena vs Poseidon both wanted to be patron deities I Poseidon struck his spear into the ground and sea water spurted forth I Athena offered the olive tree I According to the Athenians they are the people that have always lived there I Bronze Age I Was a second rate power during the Bronze Age I Development of the Acropolis 0 Created after the collapse of the Bronze Age I Kings of Athens Theseus is credited with the Synoecism coming together of Athens even though it is not chronologically correct 0 The Dark Ages and Renaissance I Synoecismlegendreality I Land based aristocracyEupatrids family based aristocracy I Eupatrids hold offices such as the Archon head of state Polemarch military commander and Basileus religious leader I The Areopagus I The hill of Ares I Where the main council met 0 All exarchons o Technically all three offices are archons I At this time all the power is being held by the Eupatrids o The Cylonian Conspiracy I Cylon Olympic Victor attempts a coup I Seizes Acropolis supported by Megara I Megacles archon leads opposition Defeat of Cylon massacre of followers Curse of Megacles familyThe Alcmaeonidae Megacles promised Cylon and followers if they left the temple they were claiming sanctuary in they wouldn t be hurt but he violates his promise I Later generations feel the ripple effects of this Opposition uses the curse as a reason for family not being fit to rule 0 The Law Code of Draco Citizenship people who can hold officehoplites Creation of Boule I Newer wealthy people can now serve here council legislatesamp pass laws Areopagus I Only the highest class can be a part I Governs over the Boule Lawsexcessively harsh Displayaxones I Could be spun to read all the laws Draco s laws I Excessively harsh draconian I Many death penalties I Debt Bondage serf class Reforms of Solon I Draco s laws revised except homicide I Debts were abolished I Debt slaves freed I 4 new classes 0 Pentacosiomedimnoi I Five hundred bushel per man I Classes are divided based on property value 0 Hippeis knights I Next wealth class 0 Zeugetai I Produce around fifty bushels I Somewhat of a land owner 0 Thetes I Not a land owner or a selfsufficient farm 0 Admission to council Boule 0 Creation of Assembly Ekklesia 0 Effect on Areopagus I After the reforms o Solon leaves for 10 years believed to be because he didn t want anyone to try and have him change them 0 Election problems problems with who can run for office and there are food shortages when Solon leaves I Athenian Age of Tyranny I Peisistratos o Unites the people of the hills under his power 0 When first seizes power thought he would be accepted but he was not and only lasted about a year 0 After he was driven out and went to exile he returns and lands at Marathon He dresses a very tall woman and dressed her as Athena and he succeeds o Convinced the city to appoint him a bodyguard by staging an assassination attempt 0 He only keeps power for a few years however and takes a third coup to keep power permanently 0 Birth of Democracy I Military leaders elected by the tribe I Boule increased to 500 50 from each tribe I Introduces legislation daily affairs of city I Prytanyov ersees Boule I Ekklesia is open to all citizens I Reforms of Cleisthenes I Court system5000 jurors 500 from each tribe I Juror selection was chosen by lot wouldn t know who would be on each case until the day of 0 Later would develop elaborate machines to try and reduce jury rigging even more 0 Jurors could be from any class I Voting 0 Had stones that they d place into a vessel anonymously I Ostracism 0 Temporary expulsion 10 years 0 Done to prevent people from gaining too much power Lecture 9 I Panhellenic Sanctuaries 0 Open to all Greeks Development Early Archaic Period rise of polis I Renewed interaction I Originally regional Patrons I Coloniesreceived patronage from colonies at this time I Tyrantsinto beautifies the cities and do this at the sanctuaries Relationships of poleis I Believed it was impious to harm heralds or harm those on their way to a sanctuary I Pilgrims were protected under treaty Deities I ApolloDelos Delphi I Zeus Olympia Nemea I Poseidonlsthmia I Asclepius Epidaurus o Sanctuaries all had games I Held in honor of the god gods I Held at funerals Patroclus Hephaestion I Combat became ritualized through it 0 Major Games I Every four years Olympian Pythian CDelphi the separate games were two years away from each other ie first Olympian two years later Pythian two years later Olympian I Every two years Nemean lsthmean o Contestants I Athletic Training part of education I Myth of the amateurhistorian believed all the people were amateurs however evidence shows otherwise I Professionals victor lists The same names were put on lists year after year and held great fame I Fame Cylon attempted to stage a coup through his fame 0 Olympia I SanctuaryTemple of Zeus I Held the statue of Zeus made out of ivory and gold and had a wooded frame I The Olympics 0 Olympics I First held in 776 Traditionall Greeks agree on this I Greek dating system OlympiadOlympiad created the dating system would say the date in comparison to what year of the Olympiad it was In honor of Hera amp Zeus games for men and women All cities were expected to honor the sacred truce if in a war fighting must stop for the Olympics Opening Ceremony Awards Lighting the torch did not exist Had lamp relays where people would run with the torch and pass it on around the track like a baton relay Olympians had to swear an oath that they had trained for a certain amount of time Done in a Stadion where we get the word stadium from DiaulosDouble lap The HoplitodromosThe Diaulos in Hoplite armor Javelin and Discus throw The Long Jumpused Halteres that are hand weights Would run and thrust them out in front of them so they would move farther 4horse chariot o Prestigious event Tyrants would finance them to raise their own prestige o Wealthy entrants would finance the chariots and drivers and would not drive themselves Boxing and Wrestling Pankration free for all fight 0 No gouging eyes and maybe no hitting in the groin The Hellanodikai judgesreferees Wreaths and Branches olive celery palm I Garlands I Honoraryhymns Pindar I Meals Lecture 10 I Ancient Sparta o The Eurotas Valley I Limited resources arable land I No coastal access I Small river not navigable I Sparta was a land based power 0 Early Sparta I Mycenaean Period I Moderate Size palatial Center 0 Menelaus is from Sparta I Bronze Age Collapse site abandoned until ca 950 I Sparta at this point is only a midlevel power I Post Bronze Age I Speculated that the Dorians invaded and as a result the Spartans have a Doric dialect I Early Iron Age I Synoecism I There were five villages originally and they built up Sparta I After the villages unified they took over Laconia Conquest of Laconia o The Spartan State I lLilitary State I lLilitarybest in Greece I Education martial training would still learn poetry and writing however it was still far more focused on the military I Economy dependent on Helots o Lycurgos I Created the Spartan Constitution the Great Rhetra is the constitution I Traveled to many places meaning he was open to ideas I Endorsed at Delphi I Reforms and Institutions I Ephors Board of legislators and governors some say Lycurgos invented this some say it came later I Gerousia Senate or a council of elders I Assembly the citizens participated in this I Syssitia mess hall m andatory communal eating I Agogeeducation o Spartan Government I Mixed Constitution monarchy oligarchy democracy I Two royal families Agiads Eurypontids 0 There are two kings and both families provide checks in balances of each other 0 Only one king could be at battle at a time I Ephors 5 officials elected annually I Mediate between the kings I Check on royal authority I Serve for one year and they have immense political power 0 Spartan Social Classes I Citizens nativeborn male citizens of the polis I Comprise Spartan hoplite forces limited did not have large forces I Perioikoi free men nonSpartansi in Laconia O O O Merchants farmers craftsmen Could serve in military but as lightarmed forces archers slingers etc Helots Messenian serfs Slaves comm on throughout the Ancient World Spartan Life Communal Life Helots Communal life Once your son was about 7 the state would take him and out him in the state boarding school EducationAgoge Ages 729 Training military focus Living barracks Dining mess hall groups utmost loyalty for your mess hall group When the wife gave birth members of the board would see if the child was lame in any way and if he had any defects he would be put in the woods to fend for themselves Girls had schooling also but it was mainly dancing gymnastics etc However their main job was to raise fit Spartan men DiningSyssitia Daily meals required by all to provide Meals supplied by members Land ownershipkleros State would give a citizen land and the citizen would have slaves work on it The land still belonged to the state they just allotted it After a man died the son would not get the land automatically I Messenians that the Spartans conquered and forced to be serfs I Agrarian serfs limited property ownership I Spartans would therefore would not have to waste time farming and could train yearround I Spartans only want the Peloponnesus I Main reason for training is to keep the Helots in check I Every year the Crypteia would happen a declaration of war on the Helots I The young Spartans were told to not only fend for themselves but also kill any Helots they saw I The young boys don t have to deal with the first kill during battle I Foreign powers would try to support a Helot revolt to hurt the Spartans 0 Sparta vs Argos I Argos effectively would always help anyone who fought Sparta I Battle of Hysiai 669 I Before hoplites and Sparta got whooped I Battle over Sparta wanting to annex the area I Argos had a protohoplite I Battle of the 300 Champions I Both sides sent their strongest warriors I Story two Argos soldiers survive and go back to Argos to declare victory but one Spartan was left of the field badly wounded and killed himself to say that Argos did not kill him and therefore they should declare victory I Sparta vs Tegea I Battle of the Fetters o Humiliating loss for Sparta 0 Expansion I Sparta s effort to expand and create allies I Peloponnesian League I Formed in the 63911 C I Alliances and Aggression 0 Assistance Corinth Elis I Argos rivalry 0 Turning point Tegea 560 o Tegea had a choice to side with Argos or Sparta and eventually chose Sparta I Consolidation of power 0 Cleomenes I King of Sparta ca 520490 I Expansion policy outside of Peloponnese I Role in Athens Hippias Cleomenes plays a key role in expelling Hippias the tyrant I Role in Boeotia I Aggression against Argos I Policy was basically to undermine Argos at all costs I Battle of Sepeia 494 0 Wins a resounding victory and remaining Argos soldiers ee to a sanctuary o Cleomenes then burns the grove and the soldiers either burn or run out to die by Spartan hands 0 It is the last major battle for Argos and they will never fully ICCOVCI Because of this people start to see Cleomenes as dangerous and the other king starts to oppose him Eventually the Ephors drive him out Later they call him back in and arrest him because they were afraid he was raising an army I He is found dead in his cell later and it is officially ruled a suicide I The Persian Empire 0 The Achaemenid Dynasty World s greatest until the Rom ans Multinational empire Polyglot empire Babylonian Aramaic Elamite OP Policies of tolerance I Did not force Persian policies on its empire I Would often send exiles back home 0 The nomadism of the Great King 4 Palaces I Summer in Ecbatana high in plateau cool mountainous Winter in Susa or Babylon in plain mild Winters Spring in Susa or Babylon Fall in Persepolis I The Rise of the Medes o Assyrianslargest empire in Near East until 73911 C o Medes Iranians entered plateau after Bronze Age Collapse Allied with Babylon against Assyrians 630612 Destruction of Nineveh 612 the Medes banded together to defeat the Assyrians 0 Empire divided Mesopotamia falls to Babylon East to Medes Cyrus H 559530 King of Anshan I Founder of Persian Empire I Achaem enid Dynasty 0 Son of Cambyses ancestor of Teispes I War with Astyages King of the Medes o Folktales say Cyrus II was the grandson to Astyages I Defeats him and treats him well puts him in the court 0 The Rise of Cyrus I The Lydians I Kingdom expanded under Gyges invades Greek cities Croesusfinal king symbolic of luxuriant ruler conquers Greeks Falls to Cyrus in 540 s CDelphic Oracle says a mighty empire will fall and he mistakes this for the Persian empire and not his own I Conquest of Ionian Greeks o BabyloniaMesopotamia to Mediterranean I Conquest 539 I Actions as ruler of Babylon restores temples exiles etc I Installs son Cambyses as king of Babylon 0 Death of Cyrus I Continues conquests in North I Dies in battle in Northeast reaches of Empire I Succeeded by son Cambyses smooth succession I Buried at Pasargadae palace complex 0 Rise of the Persians I Cambyses conquers Egypt and adopts the title of Pharaoh I Cambyses dies in 522 and the story is that he accidently stabs himself in the leg and infection set in I There is a succession crisis I And imposter of Cambyses brother claims he is the last remaining brother and Darius I the Great opposes him and takes over I In reality it is probably propaganda made up by Darius I to legitimize his leadership and even says he was a cousin of Cyrus I Expands in the east as far as the Indus Valley as well as in the West to Thrace and Macedonia Lecture 11 I Review 0 Refer to regions of Greece in beginning of class 0 Resources agriculture fishing Had livestock for special occasions Earliest Hominids in Greece 0 o The Minoans PreGreek inhabitants o Mycenaeans earliest greek inhabitants of Greece I Main sites Mycenae Tiryns Pylos Knossos Sparta Athens Eleusis Argos Thebes Built walls I Heinrich Schliemann o Mycenaean palaces I Minoan model 0 Peak of Mycenaean Power I Linear B I Officials I Wanax priestking I Lawagetas Head of court military commander I Basileus mid level official 0 Bronze Age Collapse I Systematic collapse of nations I Possible causes famine pestilence natural disasters sea peoples civil unrest Dorian invasion 0 The Trojan War I Earliest accounts of the war I Homer lliad and Odyssey I The Epic Cycle only in fragments Epic cycle is the book that the Iliad and the Odyssey were a part of I Proclus Chrestomathy I Excavators of troy I Heinrich Schliemann questionable methods 1539 also excavated Mycenae I Wilhelm Dorpfeld I Carl William Blegen o The Dark Ages 0 Protogeometric Period I Pottery simple designs I Le ltandi Old Eretria I Continual Settlement from BA Large Settlement I Less important during Mycenaean Palatial Period 0 Geometric Period I Pottery becomes more complicated I Dipylon Cemetery pottery functioned as grave markers 0 Greek Colonization I Protocolonization I EmporiaAl Mina Pithecusae I Types of Colonies I Emporia Apoikia Cleruchy 0 Development of Greek Literature I Poetry I Homer Hesiod I Lyric Poetry lyre o The Archaic Period O O 0 Development of Polis citystate Autonomous and independent Development of the elite class Boule Ekklesia agora Synoecism Army of the polis I Hoplite o Hoplon aspis cuirass xiphos o Phalanx Maj or Wars I Messenian Wars 0 Sparta vs Messenia Helots o The Lelantine War I First war between alliances 0 First Sacred War I Fight over Delphi The Orientalizing Period Begin seeing eastern images again Ancient Tyranny Athens A guy who seizes power not inherited Attempted to unify cities had building projects many people gained wealth under them Cleisthenes of Sicyon Cypselos of Corinth Periander of Corinth Eupatrids nobles Offices Archon chief governors Polemarch military commander Basileus religious leader I The Areopagus council of elders o Athenian Law Cylon The Law Code of Draco Solon I Seisachtheia Peisistratos 0 Birth of Democracy Cleisthenes I Reforms isonomia democracy I New tribal system 0 Panhellenic sanctuaries Open to all Greeks Development Major Games Events I Stadion Diaulos Hoplitodromos I Javelin and Discus long jump o Lycurgos Spartan Constitution Ephors Gerousia Senate Assembly of the people Syssitia mess hall Agoge Lecture 12 I The Rise of the Persians o Darius I the Great 521485 Had a succession crisis Fakes a lineage to try to make people believe he belonged as king Eventually puts down the revolt around the empire Expanded eastward as far as the Indus Valley which to them was the end of the known world In the West went as far as Thrace and Macedonia I No indication from this campaign that he was intended to invade Greece more likely was that he was doing an expeditionary campaign 0 Reorganization of the Empire Satrapy I Satrap provincial governor Instituted fixed tribute wealthier areas would pay more poorer areas would contribute manlabor Had local armies so that the king did not have to move his forces all over the empire King s Eye I Controlled the tribute to the King and reported things to the King I Speculated to be a sort of spy I Ionian Revolt 499494 0 Ionia Cities founded in Dark Ages by mainland colonists tyrannies I Established tyrannies early on Dialect Ionian Other Greeks Aeolians Cyrus conquest of Lydia I Persian satrapy ruled the lonians from here ProPersian tyrants were installed so that they would be loyal to Persia o Aristagoras Was a tyrant of Miletus Sought to annex Naxos o Siege ofNaxos Appeals to Artaphernes the satrap of Sardis and Artaphernes gives him a large force Aristagoras and Artaphernes get into a fight over who is over comm and and Aristagoras sends warning to Naxos and they become heavily fortified Therefore the siege fails and both Aristagoras and Artaphernes are in trouble with the Persians Aristagoras knows he will fall out of favor and foments a revolt amongst lonians o Aristagoras Relinquishes tyranny takes post in democracy Revolt spreads throughout lonia Tyrants banished or executed Climate ripe for revolt I These were the last tyrants and had largely become outdated In the Mainland I Goes to Sparta to plead for help because they are the premier fighting force 0 However the Spartans are too conservative and can t afford to go all the way to Asia in case the Helots revolt I Athens and Eretria do send help to lonia 0 Reasons I Appealed to background spoke similar dialect from a similar lineage etc If lonia was freed trade would open up For Eretria this is their chance to regain the power they used to have before the Lelantine War Also back in the Lelantine War Miletus helped Eretria and it was a sense of repaying an old debt 0 Sack of Sardis 498 BCE I Coalition of Greek troops march on Sardis seat of satrap of Lydia I City caught off guard because Lydian army is somewhere else I Artaphernes holds citadel but city burned I Greeks don t capture the city but it is burned I Becomes the political pretext that allows Darius to invade Greece 0 Battle of Ephesus 498 I Greeks return to Ephesus ambusheddefeated by Persians 498 I Athens Eretria retreat remaining cities besieged 0 Spread of the Rebellion I Propontis Hellespont Byzantium join the war I Region is recaptured in 497 I Cyprus joins I Also under the Persian empire I Revolt of Caria I Heavy losses ends in stalemate 497496 I Persiancounteroffensive I Ionian cities subdued I Aristagoras ees to Thrace and is killed I Battle ofLade 494 I The last gasp by the lonians I Naval battle at port of Miletus I 363 Greek ships vs 600 Persian ships Greeks led by Dionysius of Phocaea harsh leader and created poor chemistry and part of the Greeks make a deal with the Persians to leave once the battle began Miletus surrenders Dionysius ees and becomes a pirate I Siege of Miletus I The GrecoPersian Wars City is destroyed and abandoned Inhabitants enslaved and transferred to Tigris Caria surrenders 0 Had favorable terms and obtained the land Miletus had Chios Lesbos captured lonia Hellespont subdued Lecture 13 0 Sources Who tell us about the wars I HerodotusChief Source the Father of History Also the Father of Lies I Cornelius Nepos Wrote a biography on a character in the war I Diodorus I CtesiasGreek doctor Who lived in Persia only provided fragments 0 Reaction to the Ionian Revolt I Mardonios sent to reorganize Lydia Tyrants removed democracies established 0 Darius plans for invasion I We know this is not a major attempt to annex Greece because Darius does not personally lead the army like other rulers did To Darius this is a border problem I Reinstatement of Hippias I Hippias goes to Darius and proposes he is allowed to take over Athens in return for being a sort of puppet regime I Pretext Sardis I Sardis is used as propaganda to provide motivation for the war I Reality secure borders to the empire 0 Mardonios leads preliminary landnaval expedition I Campaigns in Thrace Thasos I Makes a deal with Alexanderl of Macedonia I Alexander I agrees to be a client kingdom I Speculated that he did this because he didn t have much of a choice I Didn t have many allies to begin with and was in no position to fight a Persian force I The eet was destroyed near Mt Athos because a storm rises and the ships are pushed up against the rocks I Mardonios then returns to Asia 0 Darius sends an embassy to Greece I They demanded earth and water the sign of submission Medizers people who submitted I Datis then replaces Mardonios at this time and is given part of the force I The other part of the force was given to the son of the satrap Artaphernes Jr I They make preparations for a naval expedition to Naxos 0 Athens I Themistocles the archon in 493 I His support comes from the craftsmen potters laborers tradesmen I He gets the Athenians to move the port from Phaleron to Piraeus o Phaleron was good because it was easy to land ships 0 Piraeus is naturally fortified because of rocks then walls around the port I Is the architect of the Athenian Naval Strength 0 Sparta I King Cleomenesl I Intervention at Aegina Medizers I Arrested replaced by halfbrother Leonides 491 for fighting with the other king 0 Datis and Artaphernes begin campaign in 490 BCE I Island hopping many Medize and had no siege equipment I At Naxos retribution for Siege of Naxos I Burns cities temples inhabitants ed or imprisoned I Fleet goes to Delos sacrifices to AhuraMazda Persian version of Apollo o Euboea I Land at Karystos and the locals come out and get beaten into submission I Siege of Eretria I Besieged for 6 days I Two prominent Eretrians betrayed the city and opened the gates and let the Euboeans attack at night I Temples and cities burnt I Survivors sent to Mesopotamia I Battle of Marathon 490 BCE I Location by the advice of Hippias because his father successfully took over on his third coup I AtheniansPlataeans I lLiltiades given supreme command 0 Themistokles o Callimachus o Aristides o Pheidippides marathon ran 149 miles 2 days I Spartans have to refuse I While he is running back the story is he runs into Pan and Pan suggests they set up a cult in Athens and that he would help them I So when the Persians charged they are instilled by PANic 0 Battle Numbers ca 10000 Greeks ca 20000 Persians 21 I Greek troopshoplites heavily armed I Persians mostly lightly armed troopsarchers I No mention of sparabara shield bearers 0 Does this show that they did not have intentions to conquer and rather hit and run I Cavalry is absent I Greek formation is changed for this battle I 4 men deep at the center and 8 men deep on the anks I The anks move ahead of the center pincer movement I As the Persians set up the Athenians go into a full sprint and the Persians panic and ee to the ships 0 Battle results Greeks ca 192 Persians ca 6400 Notable deaths Callimachus one of the leaders of the contingents Cynaigeirus brother of Aeschylus possibly Datis according to Ctesias I Artaphernes returns to Asia The only failure of the campaign is at Athens so the campaign in general was not necessarily a failure I Spartans arrive the next day affects the later Spartan psyche I Effects on AtheniansGreek psyche I Great victory for young democracy system secured I Strength of hoplite phalanx demonstrated I Confidence Persian inferiority to Greek soldiers I Admiration of later Athenians greatest generation I Interim years in Athens 490480 0 O O Expedition of lLiltiades against Medizing islands Wounded at Paros returns in failure lmpeached by rivals fined and dies in prison 489 Accountability of leaders in Athens I Laurium Attic silver mines rich vein found 0 Spending the windfall o Aristides dole out to citizens spread the wealth o Themistocles says to build a navy Oracles at Delphi say to take protection behind a wooden wall I Prevails and Aristides is ostracized o Themistocles democrat Aristides Aristocratic rivalry Aristides ostracized in 48239 Athens avoids civil war I Within a year Aristides is called back because Persia returns I Warships o The Trireme is the major ship in Greece 0 Used ramming I Xerxes o Prepares to invade Greece I He is going to personally lead the expedition Constructs bridges over the Hellespont I First bridge is destroyed by a storm Xerxes has Hellespont flogged and fetters thrown in Construction of canal through the isthmus near Athos Fleet of Mardonios Stations along road through Thrace set up by small forces sent forward to be able to supply the army O Persian Heralds arrive in Greece many Medize Thebes Argos Congress of Corinth 481 I 31 poleis from Hellenic League I Sparta is named the leader unanimously 0 Leads League forces I AthensAegina reconcile and their exiles were recalled to help fight the Persians I Second Congress 480 I Various strategies proposed I Vale of Tempe o Faults9 I There are two other passages that could allow Persians to either bypass them or ank them I Thermopylae is there they will make their stand 0 Xerxes arrives in Greece during a festival 0 Spartans see how last time they had a festival and Athens reaped all the glory I A Delphic Oracle said in order for Sparta to have glory a Spartan king must die I Spartans send a small force to guard the pass of 300 men 0 Leonidas and the Three Hundred I 500010000 Greeks block pass I 80000200000 Persians I Previously a stone wall had been built during local conflicts and the Greeks will use it to their advantage Battle of Therm opylae I The fighting I 3 days of attacks I Persians would come in waves and bodies would begin to pile I The immortals were sent to fight the Greeks they were the elite force 0 Came on the second day and were defeated I Ephialtes betrays the Greeks and tells the Persians of another pass for money and freedom of his people I Leonidas hears of the Persians going to attack from the rear and everyone but the Spartans and the Thesbians were sent back I Leonidas was beheadedcrucified Up to 20000 Persians died I Leonidas epitaph reads Stranger go tell the Spartans here we lie obedient to their words 0 Results Buys time for Greeks to prepare full forces Greek Alamo I Morale shows Persians are not invincible glory of defenders I Modern Monuments o Statue to Leonidas o Statue to the Thesbians I The Battle of Artemesium o Naval battle simultaneous with Thermopylae eet protects Greek ank o 600l200 Persians vs 300 Greeks 0 Upon arrival 13 of Persian eet destroyed by a storm 0 Greek tactics I Back into the straits and when the Persians come in Greeks move out in a semicircle formation and rush out to attack Final battle equal losses I After news of Thermopylae the Greeks retreat I The Battle of Salamis o Blockaded by Persian eet in straits of Salamis 0 Athens occupiedburned o Persian eet 700l000 vs 110375 Greek 0 Persian strategy draw Greeks into open 0 Greek strategy draw Persians into straits I Say the Corinthians are leaving and even feign leaving Persians charge and the Greeks have a total victory I Aftermath o Xerxes gives command to Mardonios and returns home because Babylon revolts o Mardonios offers lenient terms to Athenians I Says they will retain democracy and that he will make Athens the most prominent city in Greece in return for recognized Xerxes as king I Athens refuses and the Persians return and destroy Athens again Acropolis 0 Two main fronts exist after the battle I Central Greece allied Greek army vs Mardonios Persians I Aegean allied Greek eet pursues Persian eet I Athens emerges as a major naval power Sparta is the land power Lecture 14 I The Battle of Plataea o Mardonios fortifies camp near Asopus River in Boeotia I Greeks marshal opposite outnumbered 23l I Pausanias of Sparta lines up opposite of Mardonios and both heavy infantry try to lure each other I Have a stalemate for several days I Persian line splits and tries to overtake the Spartans I The Spartans charge down the hill and break the line and kill Mardonios o The Persians then break and run o The Athenians then rout the Thebans and the Persian camp is stormed 0 Results I End of Persian invasion on Greek mainland I Spartans finally reap the greatest glory they had been coveting o Mardonios plan hold on until Greeks turn on each other and lure them into a trap The Greeks Secure the Victory 0 Persians retreat o Greeks constantly worry that the Persians will return and invade The Battle of Mycale traditional stories say they happened on the same day as Plataea however it is more likely that they were just close together 0 Persians beach their ships and dismiss the Ionians from their navy I Feared that they would defect even though it weakens their army 0 Spartans and Athenians land and charge the unprepared camp 0 Athenians capture camp and capture a lot of treasure I So they loot the camp and destroy the ships 0 Spartan contingent then returns home I Believe their goal has been met and return home in fear the Helots will revolt Siege of Sestos 479 o Herodotus ends histories with this event Siege of Byzantium 478 0 Final action of Hellenic league 0 Revolt of Ionian Greeks o Sieged to try and capture a stronghold from invasion I Pausanias begins to act more corrupt I Allegations that he let high ranking prisoners leave possibly in return for bribes I Greeks are upset with him because he treats them like Spartans I Begins to dress like a Persian and it is obvious he has contact with them I He is recalled to Sparta and he is almost arrested but he takes refuge in a sanctuary and is starved out I The refortification of Athens 0 The walls were destroyed by Persia and Sparta suggests not to rebuilt them I Reasoning if Persia comes back they will have a fortified city if they recapture it 0 Athens does rebuild the wall I Fates of the Greek leaders 0 Themistocles ostracized in 470 s corruption arrogance said by his opposition I Charged in absenlia with treason exiled I The opposing faction was put in power and voted to have him ostracized o Spartans seek to replace leadership in Medizing cities 0 Campaign of Leotychidas in Thessaly I Tried exiled corruption I The Delian League 0 Motivations for formation of a new league 47847D I Successor to the Hellenic league to include freed poleis I It was formed to defend against any Persian return I The HQ was in Delos and each member had an equal vote 0 Treasury at Delos Panhellenic cult of Apollo 0 Administration of the league I 10 treasurers Hellenotamiai all ten from Athens I Assesses how much must be contributed by each polis according to size I First Assessment 150 members 460 talents raised I l talent amount to outfit I warship o lt s the equivalent to several thousand dollars 0 Cimon of Athens Miltiades son I 476 naval campaign in Aegean taking successively Eion Persian fort in north Skyros Aegean island inhabited by nonGreeks colonized Carystos Forced into league Naxos Attempt at secession forced back into League I Precedent for action against loyal Greeks prelude to empire I The Battle of the Euryrnedon 467 o Cimon s policies antiPersian proSpartan 0 There is a Persian contingent at Eurym edon I The Greeks launch a surprise attack and win a resounding victory I Athenian domination of Aegean secured I From Delian League to Athenian Empire 0 465 Thasos forced back into League after long siege 0 Dispute with Athens over mining interests 0 Establishment of cleruchy Athenian garrisoncolony 0 Athens longterm goal of securing north Aegean trade routes LecturelS I From Delian League to Athenian Empire 0 Progression toward imperialism I Persians amp Medizers 9 loyal Greeks no longer defensive I Economic and strategic considerations Black Sea access I Athens in the 460 s 0 Democratic faction under Ephialtes gains power I 464 Cimon rebuffed by Sparta ostracized in 461 I Went to help Sparta in a Helot revolt however Sparta sends him back because they do not trust him I 462 Reforms of Ephialtes radical democracy I mob rule All citizens can vote 460 Ephialtes assassinated replaced by Pericles 451 Cimon returns killed in Cyprus I The Revolt of lnaros 460454 in Egypt 0 lnaros king of Lybians in Sais and Amyrtaeus revolt Persians Greek forces led by Charitimides of Athens 200 ships I Sent by Pericles Greeks initially meet victory The Persian commander is killed and is replaced by a very capable commander named Megabyzos Athenian navy is entirely destroyed and no ships make it back to Athens Rebels are besieged and Charitimides is killed and lnaros executed o Persians regain foothold in E Aegean Athens then moves the Delian League treasury to Athens I Claim its not safe at Delos I The Peace of Callias ca 449 o Mentioned in 43911 C sources controversial Whether or not it happened Terms Athens Withdraws support from EgyptCyprus and Persia vows not to intervene with cities in Delian League Concerns of PericlesCorinth Thebes Sparta I Considered Persian Wars over cf Cimon Pericles begins his massive building project in 449 Parthenon completing transition of Delian League into Athenian Empire 0 Building Projects Acropolis adorned with templesbuildings Used league funds to build things I Parthenon Propylaea Erectheion I Temple of Athena Nike Statue of Athena O The Greek Architectural Orders Doric Ionic Corinthian Doric Starts fat and gets a little bit skinnier at the top With a at block at the top and do not rest on a column base Ionic Has volutes at the top Are thinner than the Doric Corinthian the ones the Romans love Not really used by the Greeks much in Athens Parthenon I Temple of Athena on the Acropolis at Athens I Ictinus and Callicrates were the architects I No right triangles so everything is a little bit slopped in o Creates an illusion that it is perfectly upright and standing straight up I Converted to a church in the 63911 C39 blown up by Venetians in 1687 0 Some sculpture taken to Britain by Lord Elgin in 1806 I Style mixed order I Frieze Ionic Panathenaic Procession I Would drape the statue in new garments I Metopes Doric I Outside of the temple each had sculptures o Showed the I Lapiths vs Centaurs I Olympians vs Titans I Greeks vs Amazons I Pediments I Part of the roof that showed myths I West Athena vs Poseidon who wanted to be the patron deity of the city I East Zeus and Athens Daughter and father I Cult Statue O O O O I Sculpted by Pheidias I Chryselephantine statue igold and ivory The Propylaea I Monumental entrance to Acropolis I Miesicles is the architect I Built in the 430 s I Made of Pentellic Marble local Eleusinian marble limestone I Combination of Doric Wings and Ionic central orders I Never completed Peloponnesian War I North held paintings The Erectheion I Sacred precinct of Erectheus next to several other sacred precincts I Complex design preserves all precincts one of most unusual in Greece I Made of Pentellic marble mostly ionic except South porch I Built on slope North and Ease Sides 9m lower I Caryatid Porch South porchfaces Parthenon I Porch with six female figures as columns caryatideseach unique I One Caryatide taken by Elgin to Britain other 5 in Acropolis museum The Temple of Athena Nike I Goddess of Victory39 designed by Callicrates I Small Temple in Front of South Wing of Propylaea I Earliest Ionic temple on Acropolis begun in 430 s I Completed after 421 Athena Promachos I Colossal bronze statue created by Pheidias in 456 from spoils of Marathon I Stood ca 9m tall visible from Sounion I Transported to Constantinople I Destroyed in the Crusades I Pericles 495429 0 Most prominent Athenian 460429 I Ally of Ephialtes opponent of Cimon I Policies I Aggression against Greek mainland powers I Neglects Persia I Expansion of power cleruchies league members I Black sea importance to Athens for trade I Aggressive with Sparta specifically I Was a military commander and had been successful I Was also a charismatic speaker I Sparta 0 Problems in leadership Leotychidas Pausanias o Earthquake 464 I Helot revolt that results I Spartans reject Athenian aid from Cimon o Aggressive policies of Athens I Alliance with Argos Spartan enemy I Alliance with Megara I Long Walls down to harbor I The First Peloponnesian War 460445 0 Peloponnesian League W Thebes vs Delian League W Argos I Thucydides of Athens 0 Aegina Megara 459457 I Athens besieges long time enemy of Aegina I Corinth attacks Megara and Corinth is defeated o Boeotia Doris Spartan ally vs Phocis Athenian ally I Sparta Athens send assistance I Battle of Tanagra 45D iSpartan victory I Battle of Oinophyta 457 Athenian Victory 0 Occurs after Sparta leaves from the Battle of Tanagra 0 Control of Boeotia except Thebes o Expedition of Tolmides of Athens 456 I Position of Athens Megara Saronic Gulf Gulf of Corinth I 5year truce 0 Return to war I Peace of Callias 449 I Second Sacred War 448 I Sparta declares Delphi independent of Phocis I Athens responds and retakes Delphi after the Spartans leave 0 Battle of Coronea 446 I Tolmides defeated and killed
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