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by: Norma Larson


Norma Larson
GPA 3.9

Amie Kreppel

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Amie Kreppel
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This 42 page Class Notes was uploaded by Norma Larson on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EUS 6005 at University of Florida taught by Amie Kreppel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/206992/eus-6005-university-of-florida in World Arts And Cultures at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 09/18/15
Italian Renaissance Dramatic rebirth of civilization in western Europe Urban ManufacturingTradeBanking Great wealth acquired which was used to support the writers painters scholars etc Florence Important banking center as well as major center of textile industries Medici Family 39 Giovanni di Bicci de Medici 39 Cosimo de Medici Ruled the city 39 Piero Took over after father s death 39 Lorenzo the Magni cent Ruled Florence from 1496 to 1492 Venice Government 39 Oligarchy 39 Political power exclusive to males descendents of wealthy merchants Trade 39 Trade accumulated the majority of Venice s prosperity 39 Near monopoly on spices and luxury goods in all of Europe The Renaissance Popes in Rome Became increasingly involved in secular affairs 39 However this served to reduce their effectiveness and prestige Leo X 39 Medici 39 Used papal money to help Florence 39 He was the pope at the beginning of the Reformation Literature Dante 39 Regarded as first author of the Italian Renaissance Petrarch 39 Sonnets 39 Humanism Boccaccio 39 Decameron 39 Witty and bawdy tales Machiavelli Rejected Christian view of divine law 39 Adopted totally secular view of politics 39 Ruler should be concerned first and foremost with the continuation of his authority Castiglione 39 Humanist Rules of gentlemanly behavior Cellini 39 Wrote about his sexual exploits Valla 39 Proved that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery Art and Architecture Giotto 39 Placed humans in realer settings Masaccio Used light and shade to create a greater sense of perspective Botticelli 39 Vivid colors Leonardo Da Vinci 39 Paintings Oil paints Secular and humanized fashion of painting 39 Scienti c Interests Basically drew up many blueprints for inventions that would not be created for hundreds of years Michelangelo 39 Nude statues 39 Sistine Chapel paintings Secular Nonhem Renaissance Differed from the Italian Renaissance IR was secular NR was infused with a much larger Christian spirit Printing Press Johannes Guttenberg Enabled the rapid spreading of knew knowledge and ideas amongst the educated classes Humanism Found inspiration in classical literature In the NR it is referred to as Christian humanism Christian humanists had a desire to use their knowledge of classical languages to bring them to a deeper understanding of their religion Erasmus quotPrince of the humanistsquot Wrote a satire J 39 greed 39 and r Criticized clergy who represented these bad attributes Translated the Bible into Greek While he criticizes the Roman Catholic church he had faith in internal reforming and denounced Martin Luther and protestants for being too radical O The Renaissance in France Humanism 39 Very popular Humanist Writers 39 Rabelais Wrote lewd fantasy stories that delved into serious questions of philosophy politics and morality 39 Montaigne Wrote of the necessity of religious toleration O The Renaissance in England Colet Emphasized studying of Greek and Latin Thomas More 39 England s greatest humanist Wrote Utopia A story of people on an island wherein they practiced Christianity with no ignorance and stupidity This contrasted what was happening in his society 0 The Renaissance in Spain Central gure of humanist movement was a churchman Cardinal Francisco Ximenes Believed that religious faith could be strengthened with a greater understand of the sources of Christian revelation Cervantes 39 Don Quixote Humanist story depicting Spanish life and a broad perspective on human nature The Escorial 39 Palace built by King Philip II Greatest architectural monument of the Spanish Renaissance 39 Eccentric Very grandiose England s New Monarchy 1485 0 Tudor Rulers I Henry VII 14851509 0 Prohibited nobles from having private armies 0 Set up royal council which was able to prosecute the nobles o Replaced common law with Roman law I Henry VIII 0 Religion 0 Church of England 0 Broke away from the Roman Catholic church I Elizabeth 0 The people loved her 0 Spanish Armada of 1588 0 Sir Francis Drake naval captain 0 Created English nationalism o Mercantilism I Created national market I Example British East India Trading Company The English Civil War 1600 s 0 Causes I Sovereignty ultimate authority 9 developed England s LCM I Religion not as much as political causes 0 Puritan puri cation of the English church 0 Rumors of Catholicism Stuart Rulers Created many problems since they were such horrible rulers Stages of the Revolution 0 Stuarts use of the star chamber 0 Ship money problem 0 Long Parliament 0 Oliver Cromwell s military dictatorship I New Model Army I Rum Parliament I Protectorate 0 Stuart Restoration 1660 I Few more mistakes like refusing the test act o Glorious Revolution 1685 I LCM 0 After the revolution Britain experienced a time of economic prosperity and colonial power Before Church is Bloated Corrupt Hedonisitic Common People are Devout but Frustrated Some outraged Nobles are Satisfied Pandered to Royals are Same During Church realizes serious threat Tries to appear as if it39s changing Protestants are Violently zealous Extreme Luther One of the most extreme most unapologetic Protestants Posted his manifesto on church doors Claimed he through his inkbottle at the deVil Was put on trial for defaming the pope forced to recant some of his statements Calvin Well educated Sermons were apocalyptic and well worded CalVinism became based in Geneva because that was the only place where their all black dress was accpeted Henry VIII Basically created Catholicism Lite in order to get him out of his marriages Once wrote a paper to the pope extoling the Virtues of Catholicism Common People Mostly like Protestantism in a lot of countries After Nobles Hate Protestantism due to the bene ts they got under the pope Royals Same try to either stamp out or water down the Reformation Church Forced to clean up its act to some degree still violently opposed to Protestantism refuse to change anything in the name of peace Protestants Now a majority throughout Europe Most are extremely moral and devout Some in ghting between less devout sects and more devout sects Common People Mostly Protestant now except in France but France has Gallican Liberties and HRE Nobles Some are forced to accept Protestantism or are ousted Some still cling to Catholic traditions for a while however most give them up eventually to save their own skins Royals Cling harder to Catholicism however after the violent fall of the Stuart Kings in GB most give it up to save themselves as well Prussia 186 194 195 203 204205 204211 207 209 288 295296 318 320 419 Prussia and Austria A half century after the Peace of Westphalia highly crtical period in central Europe No one could tell which of the half dozen chief German states would emerge in the lead After year 1700 two states came forward 0 Austria 0 Prussia Neither of them had a name House of Austria or Hapsburg and House of Brandenburg or Hohenzollem Austria The Austrian monarchy remained a collection of territories held together by a personal union 0 Despite the concerted political religious and military policies of the Hapsburg rulers Inhabitants of Austrian proper considered their ruler as archduke Bohemians saw him as the King of Bohemia Each country retained its own law diet and political life 0 Making it hard for the Hapsburgs to establish laws and institutions that would be accepted in all territories o No feeling in the people held these regions together 0 For the empire to exist all crowns had to be inherited by the same person Charles V devised a form of insurance to guarantee such an undivided succession o Pragmatic Sanction 1713 Every diet in the empire and the various archdukes of the Hapsburg family were to agree to regard the Hapsburg territories as indivisible and to recognize only the Hapsburg line of heirs Charles did not have an heir His daughter Maria Theresa won acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction o It recognized her right to the Hapsburg throne and to the inheritance of all Hapsburg territories He then had foreign powers guarantee it Bavaria and Prussia might take land over He died in 1740 after having all the powers sign the Pragmatic Sanction He was scarcely dead when an armed group of Heirs presented themselves 0 A great war broke out to partition the Austrian Empire Prussia German state of Prussia built on idea that o Armies of 40000 people were well within the reach of smaller powers If well trained disciplined and equipped and if ably commanded the armies of small powers could defeat those of much larger neighbors Famous for militarism military needs and military values permeate all other spheres of life Prussia arouse on the south coast of the Baltic Uninviting country thinly populated with poor soil no mineral resources and it was more backwards than Saxony or Bohemia Modern Prussia began to appear in the seventeenth century when a number of territories came into the hands of the Hohenzollems of Brandenburg In the midst of the 30 years war Frederick William got Prussia He later was known as Fredrick the Great 0 First to shape modern Prussia 0 Put his main reliance on a competent army 0 With an effective army he could oblige the stronger states and could enter the politics of balance of power To have an army but not use it to conserve it They did so by siding with France against the Hapsburgs or with Sweden against Poland Hapsburg emperor was preparing to enter the War of the Spanish Succession 0 He requested the elector of Brandenburg Fredrick III to support him with 8000 troops The elector asked for recognition of himself in exchange for support He wanted to be called the king of Prussia He became King Fredrick I of Prussia 0 He was now the German king above all the other German princes Maintained the army with taxes and the income of the king The army had a profound effect on the social development and class structure of Prussia Civilian class remained submissive The wars of Religion 30 years war The thirty years war was when the Protestants ght the Catholics The Northern states of the HRE which were Protestant fought the Catholic the southern states The French joined in the ght on the Protestant side even though they were Catholic because they wanted to expand into the Holy Roman Empire The Duth and the Spanish fought over Dutch independence and the Bohemians fought for their freedom against Austria Causes of the 30 years war The Protestant reformation created a great upheaval in Europe Much of the glue that uni ed Europe was based upon them all being Catholic especially in the Holy Roman Empire where the only thing that was keeping it together was Catholicism Once Martin Luther showed up and created upheaval things started to change The Protestant Princes of the North took him under his wing and they used his Protestantism to gain Freedom from the HRE Some of the Dutch became protestant which created friction between the Dutch and the Spanish which eventually ignited into a war over Dutch independence But the tiny spark that started the entire war was the defenestration of Prague In the Bohemian city of Prague the Protestants threw the Catholic Austrian of cials out of the window Austria declared war on Bohemia and soon the entirety of the HRE was in mortal combat with one another What happened in the HRE Much of the ghting that occurred in the HRE was between the little states of the HRE One state would hire mercenaries to ght another state and in the battles the mercenaries would pillage and loot killing many Loyalties could easily change based on the amount of gold that is offered Great bands of Mercenaries roamed through the HRE creating chaos destroying people s homes and torturing them to nd their valuables In Bohemia the Austrians Massacred the Protestants The ercenary captain Wallenstein was responsible for this Even though he was Protestant he killed all the Protestants in Prauge and looted the city for days He also sacked some town eight times Eventually he was assassinated Another Mercenary captain was Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden He revived the power of the Protestants Dutch independence The Dutch were under the rule of the Spanish at the time and they did not like the taxation that the Spanish imposed They thought of it as a symbol of Catholic power and in revolt they smashed many symbols of Catholicism Spain sent the Duke of Alba to take control where he murdered many of the protestant nobility which only made the situation worse A new leader arose William the silent of the house of orange He sent pirates to attack the Spanish ships at sea But when Spanish soldier pillaged Antwerp the Dutch uni ed and decided to oust the Spanish out of their lands This created con ict which pulled England in Spain decided to invade England with the Spanish armada but it was defeated by Frances Drake The treaty of Westphalia It ended the war German Princes managed to wrest themselves free from nearly all control of the emperor of the HRE The north of Belgium becomes independent the French get the territory of Alsace the swiss gets its independence Sweeden gets a voice in the HRE and Brandenburg gets more territory The French Civil War The French although mainly Catholic had a group of protestant nobles called the Huguenots They were Calvinist and they eventually caused war They fought a lot of wars because the Catholics in France that were in Charge wanted to oust the Huguenots The St Bartholomews day massacre created war killed most of the protestants but henry bourbon managed to escape When the French catholics had in ghting anc killed each other the war ended as the next in line was Henry of Bourbon who allowed the Huguenots to stay alive though they lost enough rights to scare their socks off RUSSIA OUTLINE when its bad its going to get worse always behind and trying to catch up State 0 Prussia and Austria 0 Stuff that happens Location geography 39 Asia Eastern Europe Cold 39 Access none to the sea Russia had no ports just the north sea which was frozen most of the year Had three great rivers did not ow to Europe Land is always at a lot of coal and iron Rich in everything because it is so big 39 ASIA wise Mongols in 12501450 Arrive Missed out on industrial revolution renaissance reformation secularization shift from the middle ages mercantilism WESTERN CHRISTIENDOM Christendom Byzantine Slavs arrive settle towards north around a few major cities Moscow Ivan the Terrible 0 Killed his own son 0 Serfs under nobles Gave them free reign o Etc Time of Troubles where 0 Michael Romanov becomes Zsar 16131617 Chosen by being elected Becomes hereditary here and family rules for 200yrs ROMANOV RULE Expands east and reach Paci c Ocean Peter the Great westemizes Russia 0 Get ride of St Petersburg and destroy the Russian navy his son 0 Doesn t get two ports they have lack of trade with the world Nothing industrial in any way no gold no capital of any kind to build up no roads outdated economygovemmentarmysocial structure technology NO EDUCATION Absolutist dictator psychotic murder helped form the country In terms of religion in Russian Orthodox head of church is the Zar peter the great Also put together nationalities O Ukrainians white Russians DUMA council 1918 disappeared and came back in 1990 Westemization of Russia Ivan IV killed his heir to the throne in a fit of rage causing Russia to enter a difficult period of internal instability and foreign invasion known as the Time of Troubles 1604 1613 The situation was not resolved until the feudal estates known as the Zemsky Sobor elected Michael Romanov 1613 1645 as the tsar of Russia Romanvs in rule till 1917 Serfdom was put into legal form 0 Only in Russia could serfs be bought and sold like chattel 0 Led to many rebellions one major revolt led by Stephen Razin 1630 1671 I Gathered together discontented serfs and Cossacks a warrior tribe proclaiming the overthrow of landlords and those in authority I Movement crushed in 1671 then government imposed a more rigorous serfdom to prevent uprisings Russia s religion Orthodox Church o Oppose social and religious changes 0 Old Believers led by Nikon head of church opposed the reforms and threatened to break away from the church ALL of this above shows how divided Russia was between it s government and people Also the con ict between tradition and modernization Peter this is where Peter I the Great 1682 1725 comes into the picture became tsar at age ten after Ivan V fascinated with Western Europe 0 first tsar to travel west where he studied military organization shipbuilding commerce and finance I During his absence the streltsi rebelled in 1698 I They were suppressed immediately by Peter vist to West increased his determination to westernize and modernize Russia He then began his campaign of westernization Peter the Great and the Boyars ordered boyars to be clean shaven and adopt Western dress ended traditional seclusion of upperclass Russian women 0 demanded to participate in social functions with men insisted nobility serve the state in either the civil service or military 1722 issued the Table of Ranks 0 Provided that social position and privileges be based on an individual s rank in the bureaucracy or the military rather than on his noble status Peter the Great and Economic Development ordered the boyars to send their sons to Western Europe to learn technical skills and he encouraged Western European craftsmen and technicians to settle in Russia established schools hospitals Russian Academy of Science provided subsides to assist the expansion of industry by 0 private operators 0 established state mines o establish factories to insure adequate supplies for his military endeavors established a head taX on every male soul tax 0 Made these taxes for his program and wars were expensive collected the income from monopolies on a wide variety of products 0 caviar and salt All this divided the Russian people 0 Small semiwesternized upper class 0 Mass ofthe people peasants Peter the Great and the Administration followed the model of Sweden 0 government departments were headed by colleges consisting of several individuals rather than a single minister created nine colleges of eleven members each to administer 0 foreign affairs 0 the army 0 the navy o commerce 0 mines and manufactures 0 income 0 expenditures 0 justice 0 control established a Senate of nine members 0 authority to supervise the administration and direct its operations when the tsar was absent Peter the Great and the Russian Orthodox Church Russian Orthodox Church extremely conservative in both its theology and its attitudes toward westemization Peter abolished the office of patriarch bring church under secular control In replace of this he established an agency the Holy Synod o Consisted of a committee of bishops headed by a layman the procurator general The Wars of Peter the Great fought wars against both the Ottoman Empire and Sweden to gain territory on the Black Sea and the Baltic battled Turks in 1695 0 after going to war the Russians captured Azov on the Black Sea in 1696 0 port was regained in 1711 by Turks more successful against Sweden in the Great Northern War 1700 King Charles XII Sweden defeated Russia at the Battle of Narva o Swedes failed to follow up this victory 1709 Peter won a major victory over the Swedes at the Battle of Poltava The peace of Nystad of 1721 con rmed Swedish provinces Karelia Ingria Estonia and Livonia which are located on the Baltic War was still in progress 1703 Peter established his new capital of St Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland 0 window on the West The Succession to Peter the Great killed his only heir Alexis and failed to designate a successor series of rulers proved ineffective then came Catherine the Great Catherine the Great The German princess from Pomerania and wife of Peter III gave the approval to have her husband overthrown and murdered Admired the reform ideas of the Enlightenment o Corresponded with Voltaire and other prominent thinks she did little to modernize or reform Russia 1767 established a Legislative Commission of over five hundred members to propose reforms in the legal system 0 Commission represented all classes except serfs 0 Each faction wanted to only promote its own interests economic affairs she continued the program of development by Peter the Great 0 she reduced internal barriers to trade 0 Russia s exports of ax furs grain and naval stores increased Catherine the Great and the Nobility During the rule of Peter the Great the nobility had escaped many of the restrictions that Peter had imposed on them 0 Obligation to provide service to the state had reduced 0 Their control over the serfs had increased Catherine desired to increase the crown s power 0 She owed her position to the nobility 0 She rewarded her supporters with grants of state lands inhabited by serfs I Serfs became property Emelian Pugachew Cossack led a revolt in the Volga region against Catherine 0 He failed 0 After this Catherine reorganized local government I 50 provinces now instead of 20 I The local nobility controlled the governments of the new provinces The Charter of the Nobility 1785 7 formally recognized the rights and privileges of the nobility including exemption from taxes and military service and giving them total control over their estates and serfs The Wars of Catherine the Great 17691774 fought a successful war against the Ottoman Empire 0 Treaty of KutchukKainardji 1774 Russia acquired most of the Ottoman lands on the northern coast of the Black Sea and full access to the Turkish Straits joining the Black an Aegean seas o Recognized the independence of the Crumea which Russia proceeded to annex in 1783 o Treaty also contained a vague clause recognizing Russia as the protector of the Orthodox Christian subjects of the Ottoman sultan Provided Russia with a pretext for alter interventions in the Ottoman Empire Second war against the Turks 17871792 0 Russia pushed its southwestern frontier to the Dniester River acquiring the Turk s remaining lands along the northern Black Sea coast She participated with the Prussians and Austrians in the partitions of Poland 18th Century Monday October 29 2007 900 AM Expansion of knowledge progress and wealth of Western Europe Elite and Popular Cultures o Gap 0 Elite Upper class Written culture bigger homes better diet etc Popular Lower class Oral culture worse off Global Economy 0 000 0 Europe is the center of trade Atlantic Trade Britain and France are especially involved in trade Banking Agriculture is growing mercantilism Beginnings of capitalism Western Europe After Treaty of Utrecht O O O O Dynastic Wars Dutch Out of politics too small Spain Absolutist not a great power going to rebuild France Under Louis XV Regents 39 Fading absolutism Great Britain Hanovers 39 Geoge I II II Power shifts to Parliament quotBubblesquot O O O 0 Debt from wars Government organized companies and gave them charters companies sold stock Bigger and bigger until they crashed Britain and France in even more debt than they originally were Britain recovered France didn t Britain under Walpole rst prime minister France under Fleury French minister 18th Century War 0 0 Not too violent No nationalism mostly mercenaries War of Austrian Succession O O O Pragmatic Sanction all domains of Austrian Hapsburgs were to go to Maria Theresa Europe ignored it Frederick 11 of Prussia takes Silisia 0 Spain and France get involved as well France wanted to maintain division of Holy Roman Empire Spain on France s side as well 0 Maria Theresa rallies Hungarian magnates promising to uphold their quotlibertiesquot 0 Combination of Prussia France and Spain prove overwhelming 0 Peace France and Spain return to status quo Prussia gets Silesia Prussia and Austria are now both German powers Seven Years War 0 Between Britain and France over land 0 Peace of Paris 1763 Britain wins a lot of land major power France loses everything Prussia survives as German power Everybody in debt The Spanish and French states before revolution Spain Became rich off wealth and gold discovered in the Americas Could afford Spanish armada Worlds strongest military and naval power King Philip 11 comes to power 0 Son of Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor Charles V o Arguably the first Absolute monarchy Spanish Empire France 0 Spain 0 Netherlands 0 Free county of Burgundy 0 Kingdom of two sicilies o Sardinia 0 Portugal and Portuguese empire Dutch revolt 0 Because Spanish Inquisition 0 Send Duke of Alva I Rules for siX years and fails Spanish Armada 0 O O Hoped to conquer England and reestablish Catholicism July 21 1588 Armada ghts Enlish navy and endures storm Protestant wind Armada fails Cardinal Richelieu O 0 Louis XIII s chief minister Strong supporter of the King Richelieu reduces in uence of nobility Centralizes French government Deprived Huguenots of the right to hold forti ed cities The Fronde o 1648 to 1653 o Rebellions by nobility and townspeople against royal power 0 But ghting between the nobility and strength of royal power stopped rebellion Louis XIV o L etat c est moi I am the state 0 Letter de cachet gave Louis the power to imprison or exile without trial 0 Nobility I Did not trust 0 Bishop Bossuet I The theory of divine right of the king Politics Drawn From Holy Scripture o Versailles I Spent enormous amounts of money I The center of government 0 JeanBaptiste Colbert I Mercantilist I Promote economic prosperity by maximizing exports limiting imports and building up France s supply of gold and silver I Encouraged industry reduced domestic custom barriers attempted to eliminate ability of nobility to interfere with trade 0 Revocation of the Edict of Nantes I Thought religious unity was important I Initiated a campaign of active persecution I Many Huguenots ed 0 Many were welleducated skilled and industrious Louis Wars The War of Devolution I France invades Spanish Netherlands and the FrancheComte I Triple alliance England Holland and Sweden intervene The Dutch War I Invades Holland I Triple alliance broken by the Treaty of Dover I France gains some land The War of the League of Augsburg War of Spanish Succession Spanish kings die out no heir Crown left to the grandson of Louis XIV All of Western Europe unites to prevent the combining of the two thrones I Ends with the Treaty of Utrecht SCIENTIFIC VIEW OF THE WORLD OLD SCIENCE motion cosmos and human body Scholasticism AristoleanPtolemaic View earth lays at the center of the universe with everything revolving around it in perfect circles ADVANCES IN ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS Copernicus o On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres everything revolved around sun Brahe Observations of comet paths aided future scientists Kepler o Elliptical paths 0 Three Laws of Planetary motion Galileo 0 Law of Falling Bodies 0 Empirical observable by the senses o Starry Messenger new outlook on astronomy went against Papacy teachings Newton 0 3 laws of motion 0 Universal Law of Gravitation o Calculus ADVANCES IN ANATOMY AND MEDICINE Vesalius o The Structure of the Human Body based on dissections and precise drawings Harvey o Developed the modern theory ofblood ow Leeuwenhoek microbiology 0 Improved Microscope Boyle Chemist disagreed with concept of alchemy THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD BACON AND DESCARTES Bacon 0 Inductive Thinking Speci c to general Descartes o I think therefore I am 0 Discourse on Method Deductive Approach General to speci c WOMEN IN SCIENCE Winkelmann Discovered comet and helped prepare academic calendar Merian Study insects and provided text and illustrations RELIGION AND SKEPTISCISM Bayle 0 Historical and Critical Dictionary most owed more to human credulity than to rigorous and rational thought Gregorian Calendar new calendar introduced by the papacy in 1582 serves as our current calendar Spinoza o monism Pascal child prodigy mathematician o Pascal s Wager A SCIENTIF VIEW OF HUMAN AFFAIRS LAW AND POLITICAL THEORY Natural law Natural rights Hobbes 0 State of Nature man against man 0 Sovereign 0 Commonwealth 0 Social Contract Locke o Inalienable rights come before development of human society 0 Right of Rebellion society can rebel to secure rights SCIENCE APPLIED SOCIETIES AND TECHNOLOGY Royal Society of London French Academy of Sciences The Enlightenment Leading idea 7 optimistic beliefs in the historical advance of reason science education social reform tolerance and enlightened government Philosophes 0 French philosophers 0 Critics of OR who developed new ideas about government economics and religion and advanced proposals for the improvement of the human condition and reform of society 0 Reason could be used to reveal natural laws7true everywhere 0 Their opinion humans basically good but corrupted by society Concordet o Doctrine of progress 0 Progress ofHumari Mind Salons 0 Wellorganized meeting places at which authors introduced new works 0 Paris 7 heart of the Enlightenment Encyclopedia 0 Edited by Denis Diderot o Compendium of scientific technical and historical knowledge 0 Criticized current society instilled skeptical rational and scientific spirit of the age 0 Prominent philosophes Voltaire Montesquieu Rousseai d Alembert contributed Montesguieu o Admired British political system and advocated the establishment of constitutional monarchy in France 0 Spirit of Laws 7 set forth concept of separation of powers between executive legislative and judicial branches of government 0 Checks and balances 7 place effective limits on the power of the executive branch protecting the right of the citizens o Inspired French constitution and French Constitution of 1791 Voltaire o born into comfortable bourgeois family 0 interested in freedom of thought 0 admired England for ideas like religious liberty tolerance freedom of the press 0 didn t care that much about political liberty o preached religious toleration assaulted Catholic Church and Christian view of the world 0 belief that supernatural revelation made people intolerant stupid and cruel o deism 7 belief in a God who created the universe and set it in motion to operate in accordance with natural laws 0 proponent of Enlightened despotism 7 absolute ruler would use his authority to promote reform o if government was enlightened he didn t care how powerful it was 0 Candide satire Rousseau 0 Swiss lower class origin 0 Most profound writer of the age 0 A good person cannot be happy in society as it existed 0 Society is arti cial and corrupt o Said reason was a false guide when followed alone 0 No church no clergy no revelation 0 Social Contract 7 good people could only be produced by improved society 0 Human evil is due to evils of society 0 People surrender that natural liberty to each other fused their individual wills into a combined General Will 0 General Will was the sovereign Physiocrats 0 French similar to philosophes except they were economists and often ere close to the government as administrators or advisers 0 Leading physiocrat Quesnay 0 Land was only source of wealth 0 Trade should be free of control no tariffs 0 Adam Smith 0 Scottish economist o Advocate of laissez faire o The Wealth of Nations 7 attacked mercantilism I Mercantilist regulations interfered with productions and thereby restricted the expansion of the nation s wealth I People should be free to pursue own economic interests Enlightened despotism 0 Like absolutism very important to society secular and toleration rational and reformist 0 Wanted to get rid of OR o Feudalism mercantilism social classes absolutism tithes amp fiefs 0 Wanted centralized governments which gave rulers more power Problems in France 0 They needed money 0 Upper class and clergy didn t pay taxes 0 Levies were continually shot down by Parliament 0 Louis XVI was a pushover Problems in Austria 0 motive uni cation 0 Maria Theresa 7 help herself by uni cation o Consolidate government 0 Break parliaments to preserve power 0 Tariffs prevented a unified economic system Joseph 11 0 Great motives for all the people 0 Equality for taxes equality of punishment for all classes religious tolerance even for Jews abolished serfdom 0 But caused revolution in Hungary by forcing unification 0 Secret police to spy on government employees Frederick the Great 0 He was evil 0 He centralized Prussia 0 Huge focus on military which helped when the Napoleonic Wars happened 0 Education improvements toleration new industries immigration 0 Motive to make a better army Catherine the Great 0 Did little to reform or modernize Russia 0 Depended on the support of reactionary nobility 0 Not a very good enlightened despot French Revolution Radical and Reactionary Radical 1792 1794 The first acts of violence were the mobs of people attacking Tuilleries looking to kill the queen The king and queen are held hostage and the guards are killed Then leads to the September Massacres Sans Culottes The Jacobins and the Sans Culottes take control of the National Assembly and name it the National Convention Tried Louis for treason and have him killed The Girondins Danton Marat and Robespierre all in Power Marat is killed ushers in the reign of terror The Reign of Terror The committee of Public Safety The Vendee region launches a counter revolution Established a republic of virtue DeChristianization Robespierre begins to go too far and creates different beliefs between him and Danton Robespierre has Danton killed The national convention then has Robespierre killed Economic Problems 7 Rapid in ation continued and the laissez faire policies of the revolution angered workers stung by high prices and policies directed against union activity English conservative Edmund Burke condemns the radical destruction of France s traditions and predicts in Re ections of the Revolution in France in that the revolution will end in military dictatorship Thomas Paine responds with the Rights of M an in defense of the Revolution Key terms Levee en masse All French citizens are required to contribute to the war effort Never before in European history has a nation marshaled so many citizens in arms raising an army of over 1 million men who fought with passion for Liberty Equality Fraternity Cult of Supreme Being DeChristianization leads to the elimination of saints names on streets and Notre Dame becoming a Temple of Reason Robespierre opposes these excesses and wishes to create a new deistic civic religion which culminates with a Festival of the Supreme Being Law of General Maximum Abandoning freemarket policies the Convention establish maximum prices for key commodities and punishes severely those who break the law However this battle against in ation is difficult to enforce o Standardization of weights and measurements 0 Abolition of slavery o Revolutionary Calendar Foreign and Domestic Threats Prussia and Austria continued the war against France and by early 1973 Great Britain Holland Spain Portugal Naples and Sardinia had entered the con ict Resuming the offensive the Prussians drove the French out of the Austrian Netherlands AS the crisis mounted in the spring of 1793 the National Convention ordered the conscription of 300000 men Reactionary Emigres started to return to France Radical leaders are pushed out A new constitution is introduced The Constitution of 1795 o Establishes a directory and a bicameral legislature The Directory Made up of 5 men oligarchy power struggle The old Regime and feudalism are dead The period following Robespierre fall is known as the Thermidorian reaction Created a two house parliament consisting of the Council of Elders After completing the drafting of this new constitution the National Convention was dissolved on October 26 1795 The Bourgeois and the Middle Class dominate French affairs France has a new ag and national anthem Nationalism is instilled in all of Europe Napoleon The Rise of Napoleon quotf1rst modern manquot self made man of immense talent and ambition these are qualities that account for both his successes and defeats Bom into a minor Italian noble family on the island of Corsica set out to prove he was the equal of every Frenchman he encountered in his military academy and the army eamed his first fame with the Italian Campaign Treaty of Campo established several new Italian republics and spread revolutionary ideas throughout the longdivided peninsula Napoleon followed up his success with a bold move invasion of Egypt 17981799 he initially defeated the Ottoman army at the Battle of the Pyramids British eet cut off the French army s supply lines with the naval victory at Aboukir Napoleon39s coup d39etat of Brumaire succeeded in creating a new government The Consulate Consulate had 3 counsels Napoleon was 1st consul and he proclaimed himself First Consul for life At the age of 23 he commanded France and set out to institutionalize the p rinciples of the revolution Napoleon39s Domestic Policies crowned himself emperor soon after being named First Consul 1804 promoted equality and nationalism but he disregarded individual rights such as freedom of the press or privacy whenever it suited his interests Govemance and administration Napoleon created a constitution for the Consulate and then the Empire Legislative Corps enacted the laws He succeeded in centralizing administration though the creation of a professional bureaucracy Prefects ran each of the 83 departments reported directly to Paris Legal and Social Policies quotcareers open to talentquot for those like Napoleon who came from middling or lowly stations but wanted to rise through talent and ambition legion of honor recognize the contributions of those who served in the revolutionary wars Napoleonic Code reforms of revolution bans serfdom ends feudalism taxes are equal freedom of religion no state church no tithe Rights like press and speech code also states State is over individual no right of privacy guilty until proven innocent no juries Based on Rousseau and general will Economic and nancial policies Napoleon modernized infrastructure of France enhanced industry Bank of France helped in 1 nally eliminating the budget de cit 2 modernizing the taX system Educational policies established a nationwide system of secondary schools called the lycee open to all social classes technical universities also established nation wide re ected the emperor39s interest and belief in scienti c progress Religious policies ended the war between the revolution and the Catholic church by signing Concordat of 1801 signed with Pope Pius VII 18001823 pope regained some control of French clergy Catholicism was recognized as the majority religion of France Church acknowledged the loss of its properties French gov retained a veto power over clerical appointments Causes of the French Revolution Social causes 0 The three estates Clergy Nobility and everyone else 0 Tithing taX to the church 0 Privileges of the nobility hunting right common land Old Regime o The growing bourgeoisie Political causes 0 Parliament of Paris 0 The Tennis Court Oath 0 King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette o The existence of an Absolute Monarchy Intellectual causes 0 The Enlightenment o Voltaire Rousseau and Montesquieu o The ideas of civil rights Economic causes 0 The opening of the Atlantic brought in huge amounts of money to the nobility and the Bourgeoisie The Farmers General Une icient taX system Debt for all the previous wars Unstable nancial ministers Turgot attacked privileges Jaques Necker swiss the state budget Charles de Calonne Assembly of Notables used to approve taxes Archbishop Brienne wanted to subdue the parliament O O O 0 Liberal Phase 1789 1791 The estate General is Called 1789 The third estate declares itself as the National Assembly June 1789 The Tennis Court Oathi pledge not to disband until there is a new constitution There was a radical action the storming of the Bastille but it promted liberal changes July 1989 The Great Fear also prompted the Night of August 411 when Noblemen stood up and declared feudalism abolished Declaration of Rights of Man Life Liberty and property The Civil Constitution of the Clergy gets rid of Tithing and creates a State church 1790 Constitution of 1791 creates an LCM Then Louis has his ight to Varrenes When he is captured and brought back to Paris he is executed and the Radical Phase of the Revolution begins Napoleonic Warfare Did not loose a battle until 1814 Accounts for his success movement defying traditional limits offensive propaganda citizens army emerged victorious against the first 2 coalitions Peace of Aimens with Britain Treaty of TilsitAustria Russia Prussia Napoleon established himself as master of the continent Battle of Trafalgar Napoleon39s plans to defeat Britain were thwarted here the FrancoPrussian invasion eet was destroyed by the British navy Continental System in order to subdue Britain Napoleon forced the nations on the continent to embargo British goods difficult to enforce harmful to continental trading interests highly unpopular Battle of Nations Napoleon was defeated here eXiled to Elba came back from Elba Battle of Waterloo General Wellington beat Napoleon Napoleon nally exiled to St Helena Napoleon s Foreig Policies 2 basic goals institutionalize the ideals of the Enlightenment and French Revolution gain territory and in uence for the French nation creates republics in Italy abolished the HRE replaced with the 35state Confederation of the Rhine Duchy of Warsaw Poland No virus found in this outgoing message Checked by AVG Free Edition Version 75503 Virus Database 2691721184 Release Date 12142007 1129 AM


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