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by: Cade Harvey


Cade Harvey
GPA 3.74


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About this Document

Class Notes
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Popular in Agriculture and Forestry

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cade Harvey on Friday September 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ALS 3133 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/206998/als-3133-university-of-florida in Agriculture and Forestry at University of Florida.




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Date Created: 09/18/15
ALS 3133 Agriculture Civilization and the nvironmen 192009 Agriculture Civilization and the 39 onment gt anougn history organrzed forthe creation ofstratified societies Lar e oomons ofits memoers no ionger needed to focus theirenergies soieiy on obtaining food ou couid engage m niher endeavors srren as rne aria science phiiosophy iiterature etc gt Orgamzed agncuiture nas aiiowed societies to grow m srze and ourid iarge citiesr butthe accompanying stresses on naturai resources have aiso been the downfaii of many soore res Qanats 700 BC gt Originated m Persia gt Spread tn Eurupe and Norm ea by Rumans a gt soamsn intruduced tn Mexroo may have been deveiuped independentiy m Soum Amenoa Syrian Qanats gt Many still in operation today 192009 39 mm m Man mm Hm rm MWquot 30 1400 AD gt 1000 miles of canals irrigating 100000 acres gt Why the name Phoenix 192009 HaavevDam and LakeMead anthe camm River Butmd Dam and Lake Lamar an the Chattahoochee River gt East becuming iike the West gt Lettne East EiuumAgain NYT upred by McNiderand Cnrrsty Recurring Themes in this Course gt As in the past agriculture cannot be separated from the society as a whole gt It supports it but can also be its worst enemy O en due to unintended consequences Recurring Themes in this Course gt It can be argued that a human ecological footprint on the Earth is inevitable Sto labelin the wild as the wild There are sim I many varieties ofgardens There is no footprint free world Daniel Janzen Science Essay The Rise and Fall of Civilizationsquot by Saier Take a look at article titles 1491quot by Charles Mann in additional reading on class we site 192009 4122009 Biofuels and the Environment Potential Impacts of La rge scale Biofuel Production State of biofuel production in the US Increased cultivated acreage conversion efforested and wetland areas to cropland lncreased demand forwatel39 lncreased use offertilizers 39 Food vs Fue Restricted acreage devoted to food crops 39 Waste from biorefine ries US Policy In the United States as of 2006 about 85 percent ofthe total energy consumed and about 97 percent ofthe energy for transportation came from fossil fuels such as 9 E E on tu Goal 35 billion gallons ofethanol annually by 2017 which ifachieved would comprise bout 15 percent of us liquid transportation fuels US Biofuel production in 2006 Cellulosic ethanol new technology on the horizon is the n ration scale ause the technologies for breaking down e bersint fue o r ial scale are still being developed and may be ve or more yearsin the future Landuse change lndonesia and Malaysia account for 80 ofworld oil palm production Increased demand hasled to accelerated destruction oflropical forest Oil Palm is considered to be 3 qt Genemlion biodiesel crop 4122009 Unintended Consequences Invasive Species Giant reed invasive in parts of North and CentralAmerica Flammablel is a fastgrowing thirsty species that has drained wetlands and clogged drainage systems in other places where it has been planted 3 Generation crop latropha has been banned by two Australian states as an invasive species African oil palm has become invasive in parts of Brazil Metrics for evaluating how Green is yourbiofuel Energyinvsenergyout can account for energy required for all inputs 39relatively easily Fertilizers Pesticides Transport What metricto use to include environmental effects Water use Habitat reductionland use change Fertilizer and Pesticide requirements Net Energy Balance Energy content of biofueltotal energy used including fertilizer pesticides etc Corn 12513 Soybean1ozu Switchgrass ethanol via fermentation 415 Per unit energy gained biodiesel requires 2 ofN and 8 of P needed for corn ethanol How Green are Biofuels Study by Zah et al 2008 forthe Swiss government concluded 21 of 26 biofuel sources reduce greenhouse gas emissions bygt 30 compared to gasoline 12 of 26 of the biofuels have greateroverall environmental costs than do fossil fuels lincluded corn and sugarcane ethanol soy diesel palm oil diesel The biofuelsthatfaredthe best were residual products such as waste used oil and ethanol from grass or wood Brorefrnery Qannlsla shuE FL WW ist Stan of s l 5 sun I e39 Cooler v mum Ham sumpa l delachnr w l DDGS ina Prawn Biorefineries A typical ethanol refinewthat produces 100 million gallons of ethanol peryear uses the equivalent water supply as a town of 5000 people Or 4 gallons of water used for each gallon of ethanol Petroleum refining 15 gallon watergallon offuel Cellulosic ethanol may be 95 gallons watergallon of anol Biodiesel13 gallon water gallon of biodiesel Compared to the water used to grow the feedstock the water used in refining is quite small corn in midwest 780 gallons of watergallon of ethanol 4122009 Biorefinery waste streams Wastewater typically high in BOD Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs produced when spent grain is dried for sale as feed Formaldehyde Methanol Residents nearthe Gopher State Ethanol Plant near St Paul MN complained of an odor that smelled like rubbing alcohol and burning corn


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