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Biol 2160 9-2-2014

by: Emily Notetaker

Biol 2160 9-2-2014

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > Biol 2160 9 2 2014
Emily Notetaker
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Lecture notes for BIOL 2160 from 9-2-2014
One Day of Notes
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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Friday September 5, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at Louisiana State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 109 views.


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Date Created: 09/05/14
Bio 2160 922014 Chapter 3 Slide 12 function groups show what that part of the molecule is capable of Functional groups molecules can be categorized according to presence of functional group Functional groups are small characteristic groups of atoms that are attached to the carbon backbone of an organic molecule These groups add to the versatility and function of organic molecules Biomolecules four basic types carbohydrates lipids proteins and nucleotides Carbohydrates simplest are monosaccharides one sugar made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen in a 121 ratio Has a ring structure 2 major purposes energy human body or for structural support plants and some animals Energy storage molecule in humans is glycogen Used for quick energy and is metabolized when blood sugar levels drop Stores glycogen excess glucose from over eating in the skeletal muscle and liver of humans Short term energy storage Carb loading the process of increasing the amount of glycogen stored in the body prior to a race or competition Two stage process depletion phase week or two before competition intense exercise and a no carb high protein diet Loading process a couple of says before competition no intense exercise eating as many carbs as you can take in Water Weight blood glucose is metabolized first in the human body Afterwards glycogen reserves are metabolized Finally fat is burned Glycogen is polar which means it dissolves in water Each ounce of glycogen has as many as four ounces of water attached to it When glycogen is used for energy water is loss which can lead to weight loss which is really water loss Fat is extremely nonpolar and has no water attached to it LipidS lipids consist of nonpolar hydrocarbon chains and rings Usually hydrophobic insoluble in water Triglycerides includes fats and oils one glycerol molecule three fatty acid molecules Saturated vs unsaturated saturated fats are solid at body temp the have no CC bonds carbon carbon double bonds they are saturated with hydrogens lard grease fat Unsaturated fats have at least one CC which means there aren39t as many hydrogens as there could be This causes them to act more like a liquid olive oil vegetable oil Cookies cookies that are chewy usually have lots of saturated fats while cookies that are crunchier usually have unsaturated fat Butter vs vegetable oil Phospholipids two fatty acid phosphate group attached to glycerol backbone Dominant component of cell membranes Contains hydrophilic polar and hydrophobic nonpolar regions Make up cell membranes Allow some water in and out but no constant rush of water in and out Steroids three 6 carbon rings one 5 carbon ring Mostly nonpolar Many function as hormones Four rings fused together almost always a steroid Pl 0teiIlS composed of multiple amino acids amino acid polymers Sequence of amino acids is determined by DNA through processes of transcription and translation Any action in the cell requires proteins Amino acids composed of an amino group a carboxyl group and a functional group or R group There are 20 R groups therefore 20 different amino acids The R groups give amino acids different properties polar or nonpolar essential amino acids are things your body needs to be healthy but doesn39t make it on its own Primary structure links of amino acids Secondary structure and kinks or coils in the chain Tertiary structure the 3D shape that is seen when the chain is observed Quaternary structure more than one chain involved Protein structure secondary tertiary and quaternary structure contribute to 3D shape of protein Protein 3D structure is diverse 3D structure of protein determines function Because bonds between amino acids and peptides can be weak proteins can be denatured broken apart by heat changes in pH etc This is why a high fever can be dangerous Nucleotides composed of a five carbon sugar one or more phosphate groups and a nitrogenous base Nitrogenous bases fall into two categories Pyrimidine one carbon ring cytosine C and Thymine T in DNA Purine two carbon rings guanine G and adenine A in DNA Three functional types 1 cellular energy exchange adenosine triphosphate or ATP 2 intracellular signaling cyclic AMP 3 Storage and expression of genetic information These polymers of nucleotides called nucleic acids DNA and RNA TA BL E 2 2 Summary of Cell Structures and Functions Cell part Plasma membrane Nucleus Nucleolus Cytosol Membranous organelles Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Mitochondria Lysosomes Peroxisomes Nonmembranous organelles Vaults Ribosomes Centrioles Cytoskeleton Structure Lipid bilayer with scattered proteins and cholesterol molecules Surrounded by doublelayered nuclear envelope Dark oval structure inside the nucleus Ge ike uid Continuous with the nuclear envelope attened sacs dotted with ribosomes Continuous with rough endoplasmic reticulum tubular structure without ribosomes Series of attened sacs near the endoplasmic reticulum Ovalshaped with an outer membrane and an inner membrane with folds called cristae that project into the matrix Granular saclike scattered throughout the cytoplasm Similar in appearance to lysosomes but smaller Small barrel shaped Granular organelles composed of proteins and rRNA located in cytosol or on surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum Two cylindrical bundles of protein laments that are perpendicular to each other Composed of protein laments including micro laments intermediate laments and microtubules Function Maintains boundary of cell and integrity of cell structure embedded proteins serve multiple functions Houses the DNA which dictates cellular function and protein synthesis Synthesis of ribosomal RNA Cell metabolism storage Protein synthesis and post translationa processing Lipid synthesis and post transational processing of proteins transport of molecules from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus calcium storage Posttranslational processing packaging and sorting of proteins ATP synthesis Breakdown of cellular and extracellular debris Breakdown of toxic substances including hydrogen peroxide Unknown possibly transport of molecules between nucleus and cytoplasm Translation of mRNA to synthesize proteins Direction of mitotic spindle development during cell division Structural support of cell cell movement and contraction For test know organelle and function Very simple and straightforward questions on test What is a gene A gene is a length of DNA that codes for a specific protein Stored on chromosomes Gene expression convertion DNA into proteins Two steps Transcription DNA 9 RNA occurs in nucleus Translation RNA 9 protein occurs in cytoplasm on ribosome Transcription 1 2 3 4 5 RNA polymerase binds to promoter sequence RNA polymerase then unzips DNA separates double helix Free ribonucleotides bind complementary bases on DNA sense strand RNA polymerase moves down DNA New RNA molecule is synthesized Product is a pre mRNA transcipt RNA polymerase l Elongation gt RNA polymerase Promoter RNA sequence binds to promoter nucleotides Antisense strand 5 0 e lt3 Recoiling Q DNA uncoils DNA e and separates 39 I W 5 3 A l 39 quot1V 1a i 9 3 d I V I Free RNA nucleotide aligns and 539 tb A g quotquotquotquot39 3 3 739 is added to new RNA strand A R Rb T 39 p b 39 RNA polymerase l Elongating Uncoiled DNA 4 RNA sense strand RNA polymerase moves down DNA 2011 Pearson Education Inc The Human Genome Project revealed that most of the DNA in humans does not encode mRNAs or any other RNAs Appear to serve no purpose whatsoever in our life cycle Accounts for an astonishing 985 of human chromosomal DNA These non coding regions are similar in humans but not identical Accounts for your DNA fingerprint Called mini satellite sequences Post Transcriptional Processing Pre mRNA 9 mRNA 1 Introns are removed 2 CAP is added to 5 end of pre mRNA 3 Poly A tail is added to 3 end of pre mRNA Translation 1 2 3 mRNA messenger RNA carries genetic code out of nucleus rRNA ribosomal RNA forms RNA component of ribosome allows protein assembly tRNA transfer RNA allows protein assembly Codons three nucleotide sequences found in mRNA Every codon codes for 1 amino acid Translation process 1 2 3 4 5 Initiation tRNA ribosome and mRNA come together Codon on mRNA pairs with Anti codon on tRNA Always starts with AUG methionine Psite peptil or protein previously made protein is held there Asite amino acil next transfer RNA is in asite Peptide bond forms between amino acids Transfer RNA bond and bring in amino acid from codon tRNA at P site is released tRNA at A site moves into P site Another tRNA moves into now empty A site Peptide bonds forms between amino acids tRNa is realesed from Psite Ribosome moves one codon New tRNA binds to A site Human genetic code 64 possible codons 4 to memorize AUG start codon codes for methionine UGA UAG UAA stop codons don39t code for an amino acid Every codon stands for one amino acid but most amino acids are coded by more than one codon Protein targeting Posttranslational processing cleavage of amino acids addition of other chemical groups addition of carbohydrates through glycosylation Many post translational modifications occur in the ER and Golgi apparatus Genome and Proteome the genome is all the genes in a particular individual or all the genes of a particular speciesresearchers believe humans have 25000 genes the proteome is all the proteins that are produced from the genome more than 150000 proteins are produced in the human body How can a gene code for more than one protein mRNa is altered after transcription Proteins are made of many polypeptide chains Proteins modification occurs by 0 Adding a lipid or carbohydrate 0 Adding a phosphate group o Cutting into small units


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