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Introductory Chemistry Lecture

by: Maggie Kristian

Introductory Chemistry Lecture

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Chemistry > Introductory Chemistry Lecture
Maggie Kristian
U of M

Emily J. Pelton

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About this Document

Notes for the required reading on Chapters 1-3, with summaries of the main points you'll need to know for the homework.
Emily J. Pelton
Class Notes
Chemistry, Intro Chem, Chem 1015
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie Kristian on Friday September 5, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Minnesota taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 107 views.


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Date Created: 09/05/14
Chemistry 1015 Reading Due September 5 2014 1 2 3 4 Chapter 1 The Chemical World 11 Soda Pop Fizz a Matter is composed of atoms which bind together to form structures known as moecues b The shape in which atoms bond together and the types of atoms included determine the properties of the molecule and the substance it makes up c The characteristics of these molecules can be modified by external forces such as temperature and pressure i EX Water H20 turns into a gas under high heat ii EX A soda doesn39t become fizzy until you open the can or release the pressure forcing the CO2 molecules to remain in the liquid When the pressure is released the CO2 escapes 12 Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things a Chemicals make up essentially everything we come into contact with and chemistry explains the properties and behavior of chemicals by helping us understand the molecules that compose them i EX In a sunset molecules in the air interact with light from the sun and scatter various colors of light Molecules in your eyes absorb the light and molecules in your brain interpret these signals to produce images and emotions 13 All Things Are Made of Atoms and Molecules a quotAll things are made of atoms Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman i Atoms and molecules determine how the world behaves if the atoms or molecules were different matter itself would be different b Chemistry the science that tries to understand how matter behaves by studying how atoms and molecules behave 14 The Scientific Method How Chemists Think a The Scientific Method learning based on observation and experimentation i Observation measurement of some aspect of nature 1 Can be executed with the human eye or can require sensitive technology a EX French chemist Lavoisier burned mass inside closed containers and measured the weight of the mass within before and after and observed no change ii Hypothesis formulated based off observations a tentative explanation 1 A good hypothesis is falsifiable it can be proved wrong a EX Lavoisier hypothesized that combustion involved the combination of a substance with a component of air iii Experiments used to test a hypothesis 1 Experiments can either confirm a hypothesis or show it to be incorrect Either way new or revised hypothesis must be tested further b Scientific Law A statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones They do not explain observations Laws are still subject to experimentation i EX Law of conservation of mass quotIn a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed c Theories provide deeper and broader explanation of observations and laws i EX Atomic Theory the idea that all matter was composed of small indestructible particles called atoms 5 15 A Beginning Chemist How To Succeed a Curiosity and Imagination i Learn to ask questions desire to understand why b Calculation and Quantification i Measurements as part of observations Be precise c Commitment i Devoted consistent work For Chapter 1 Homework be sure to know 0 The difference between a law observation and theory 0 How to formulate and state a tentative scientific law 0 The characteristics of scientific law 0 The definition of chemistry 0 The order of steps in the Scientific Method Chemistry 1015 Reading Due September 5 2014 Chapter 2 Measurement and Problem Solving 1 21 Measuring Global Temperatures 2 3 a b c A Unit is a standard agreed on quantity by which other quantities are measured The number of digits in a measurement of units reflects the precision in the measurement The more digits the more precise and vice versa Numbers are usually written so that the uncertainty in the measurement is reflected by the last digit reported i EX According to scientists average global temperatures have risen by 06 degrees Celsius plus or minus 01 degree Celsius 06 r 01 This means that the temperature rise could be as much as 07 or as little as 05 This degree of certainty can influence how people make decisions in politics or their everyday lives 22 Scientific Notation Writing Large and Small Numbers a b A number written in scientific notation consists of a decimal part a number usually between 1 and 10 and an exponential part 10 raised to an exponent n i A positive exponent n means 1 multiplied by 10 n times 1 EX 10quot0 1 10quot11X1010 10quot21x10x10100 ii A negative exponent n means 1 divided by 10 n times 1 EX 10quot1 110 01 10quot2 110x10 001 You can also use scientific notation by moving the decimal place the number of spaces listed in the exponent i EX 5983x10quot3 5983 ii EX 68354x10quot3 68354 23 Significant Figures Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision a b c Report scientific numbers so that every digit is certain except the last which is estimated i EX If a reported measurement is 45872 the first 4 numbers in bold are certain which the 2 in italics is estimated Any non paceholding digits in a measurement are considered significant figures If the number contains zeros you must distinguish whether or not those zeros are significant i EX In the number 0002 the leading 2 zeros are not significant they do not add precision to the measurement they only hold a place However in the number 000200 the trailing zeros DO add precision To determine the number of significant figures in a number follow these rules i All nonzero digits are significant 105 0011 ii Interior zeros zeros between 2 numbers are significant 40208 501 iii Trailing zeros zeros the right of a nonzero number that fall after a decimal point are significant 510 300 iv Trailing zeros that fall before a decimal point are significant 5000 170024 v Leading zeros zeros to the left of a nonzero number are not significant They only serve to locate the decimal point EX 00005 only has one significant digit Trailing zeros at the end of a number but before an implied decimal point are ambiguous and should be avoided using scientific notation EX it is unclear if the number 350 has 2 or vi three significant figures Avoid confusion by writing 35x10quot2 to indicate 2 significant figures or 350x10quot2 to indicate 3 d Exact numbers have an unlimited number of significant figures i EX 1 cm means 1000000000000000 to infinity 4 24 Significant Figures in Calculations a Multiplication and division the result will carry the same number of significant figures as the factor with the fewest amount of significant figures i EX 502x89665x010 45011845 b Rounding if the last digit is 4 or less round down If the last digit is 5 or more round up 5 25 Basic Units of Measurement a English System used in the US b Metric System used in most of the world c International System SI units used globally They include i Meter m kilogram kg second s kelvin K ii Prefix Multipliers 1 tera 10quot12 2 giga 10quot9 3 mega 10quot6 4 kilo 10quot3 5 hector 10quot2 6 deca 10quot1 7 deci 10quot1 8 centi 10quot2 9 milli 10quot3 10 micro 10quot 6 11Nano 10quot 9 12 Pico 10quot12 13Femto 10quot15 iii Derived units 1 Any unit when cubed becomes a measure of volume mquot3 Lquot3 etc are all derived units 6 26 Problem Solving and Unit Conversion a Converting between units i Always write every number with its associated unit ii Always include units in your calculations dividing and multiplying them as if they were algebraic quantities b General Problem Solving Strategy i Sort information Find the given information and the information that you need to determine find or calculate ii Strategize Determine what equation you will use to solve the problem and convert to the correct units iii Solve Follow the map or equation you have chosen iv Check Ask yourself if the problem makes sense Check to see if your answer is in the correct units 7 27 Solving Multistep Unit Conversion Problems a When solving multistep unit conversion problems follow the preceding procedure but add more steps to your solution map or equation Each step should have a conversion factor with the units of the previous step in the denominator and the units in the following step in the numerator i EX 1in254cm x 1ft12 in 63648ft 636 ft 8 28 Units Raised to a Power a When converting quantities with units raised to a power such as cubic centimeter cmquot3 you must raise the conversion factor to that power i EX if you want to convert cubic centimeters into cubic inches you must cube both sides of the preceding equality to obtain the proper conversion factor 1 254cmquot3 1inquot3 then 254quot3 cmquot3 1quot3 inquot3 then 16387cmquot3 1 inquot3 9 Density a Density massvolume b Density can be used as a conversion factor i EX if you need 684 g of a liquid with a density of 132 gcm and want to measure the correct amount start with the mass of the liquid and use the density as a way to convert mass to volume So 1 684g x 1cmquot3132g x 1mL1cmquot3 518mL Therefore you need to measure 518 mL to obtain 684g of liquid For Homework be sure to know 0 Proper scientific notation 0 What constitutes a significant figure 0 How many significant figures to use in any given situation 0 Properly converting units to cubed units 0 Density equations D mv and density as a conversion factor Chemistry 1015 Reading Due September 5 2014 1 2 3 4 5 5 Chapter 3 Matter and Energy 31 In Your Room a Matter composes all things around you 32 What is Matter a Matter anything that occupies space and has mass i Ultimately composed of atoms bonded together to form molecules 33 Classifying Matter According to Its State Solid Liquid and Gas a Solid matter Atoms or molecules pack close to each other in fixed locations Although they may vibrate or oscillate they do not move around each other giving solids a fixed volume and shape i Crystalline solids atoms and molecules arrange in geometric pattern with long range repeating order ice diamonds quartz sat ii Amorphous solids atoms and molecules do not have long range order glass rubber plastic b Liquid Matter Atoms or molecules are close to each other but are free to move around one another Liquid matter will always assume the shape of its container water gasoline mercury c Gaseous Matter Atoms or molecules are separated by large distances and are free to move relative to one another Because the atoms or molecules are not in contact with each other they are compressible ex in a bicycle tire 34 classifying Matter According to Composition Elements Compounds and Mixtures a Pure substance matter composed of only one type of atom or molecule helium water i Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler a simpler substance ii Compound 2 or more elements in a fixed definite ratio b Mixture matter composed of 2 or more types of atoms or molecules air seawater brass i Heterogeneous mixture the composition varies from one area of the mixture to another ii Homogeneous mixture has the same composition throughout c Classifications of matter i Matter may be a pure substance or a mixture ii A pure substance may be an element or a compound iii A mixture may be heterogeneous or homogeneous iv Mixtures may be composed of 2 or more elements 2 or more compounds or a combination of both 35 Differences in Matter Physical and Chemical Properties a Physical Property a property a substance displays without changing its compositions b Chemical property a property that a substance displays only through changing its composition 36 changes in Matter Physical and Chemical Change a Physical Change matter changes its appearance but not composition b Chemical Change matter changes its composition i Matter undergoes chemical change through a chemical reaction 1 Reactants gtgtgt Products c Separating mixtures through physical change i Decanting carefully pouring off one substanceliquid into another container ii Distiation heating the mixture to boil off more volatile more easily vaporizabe liquid iii Fitration pouring substance through a filter to separate a liquid and solid 7 37 Conservation of Mass There is No New Matter a Law of Conservation of Mass Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction 8 38 Energy a Work the result of a force acting on a distance b Law of Conservation of Energy Energy is neither created nor destroyed c Total energy of a sample of matter i Kinetic Energy associated with movement ii Potential Energyenergy associated with position or composition d Electrical energy flow of electrical charge e Thermal Energy random motions of atoms and molecules in matter f Chemical energy a form of potential energy associated with the positions of the particles that compose the chemical system g Units of Energy i Joule J ii calorie cal amount of energy to raise 1g of water 1 degree C iii Calorie Cal equivalent of 100 cal iv Kilowatthour kWh 9 39 Energy and Chemical and Physical Change i Physical and chemical changes are usually accompanied by changes in energy 5 systems with high potential energy have a tendency to change in a way that lowers their potential energy ii Exothermic Reactions release energy iii Endothermic Reactions absorb energy 10 310 Temperature Random Motion of Molecules and Atoms a Temperature measure of thermal energy b Heat the transfer or exchange of thermal energy caused by a temperature difference i Fahrenheit F water boils at 212 degrees freezes at 32 degrees ii Celsius C water boils at 100 degrees and freezes at 0 degrees 1 Conversion C F3218 iii Kelvin K has no negative temperatures 0 degrees kelvin is absolutely zero 1 Conversion K C 27315 11 311 Temperature Changes Heat Capacity a Heat capacity is the quantity of heat needed to change a certain substance by 1 degree C i When expressed in grams it is called the specific heat capacity JC 12 312 Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations a When a substance absorbs heat indicated by symbol q its temperature change is in direct proportion to the amount of heat absorbed b Heat Mass x Specific Heat Capacity x Temperature Change i q m x C x temp change For Homework be sure to know 0 The difference between physical and chemical changes 0 The difference between a pure substance and a mixture 0 The difference between heterogeneous mixtures and homogeneous mixtures 0 The difference between elements and compounds


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