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Date Created: 09/05/14
Democratic Government 82814 Elections a crucial part of our politics Policy Making rules and regulations 0 Politicians people want sober and reasonable people but that never happens 0 DC politics relies on fundraising campaign ads a way to destroy your opponents scandals run rampant O politicians and the super wealthy have sometimes illegal relationships 0 Structured disagreement people want different things 0 strong disagreements subject said disagreements to electoral politics 0 stable even with disagreements no chaos in the streets 0 results are not always fair Structured Disagreement O the government is a single actor who can tell everyone what to do 0 regulates elections 0 ensures order 0 punishes law breakers 0 makes sure political disagreement don t get out of hand 0 Violencethe last resort of government 0 government ensures perpetrators are punished and peace is kept International politics How do states interact trade relations private entities trade and do business across political boundaries 0 spying O governments spy on other govts and on the population 0 covert actions 0 cyber attacks destroy computers ie US to Iran 0 war between states 0 interests threatened states can declarecommit war on each other 0 nuclear armageddon O destruction of civilization as we know it I never happened but it came close Cuban Missile Crisis 0 disagreement can lead to anything Why is disagreement unstructured No world government thank God 0 no actor universally maintaining order scary thought 0 no actor has the capability 0 more complicated than domestic politics Realism Liberalism Constructivism Realism Internat l politics dominated by power 0 powerful actors are more able to shape the world than less powerful actors 0 weak states are the mercy of powerful states 0 nice peaceloving states will be wiped out military power is the key to winning and losing fear for the survival in a world where there is no global policeman Limits on trade 0 fear for survival therefore difficulty agreeing with one another 0 trust is a mistake that can be taken advantage of O trade may not have mutual bene ts trading with the enemy gives him the assets to be used against you I fear for being backstabbed but open to backstabbing if given opportunity 0 Limits on ideas and norms O norms disappear when survival matters truth justice human rights take second place to survival 0 realists pride themselves on seeing the world as it is O skeptical that liberalism can spread O spreading democracy probably won t help security even if it worked 0 states will behave the same types of way weather autocratic or democratic I they will do whatever it takes to ensure their own survival Liberalism 0 states can construct a kind of limited order for themselves based on common interests 0 build institutions 0 govern trade because self interest and common interest coincide 0 manage some aspects of security shared interest of peace lots of ground for collaboration in the world 0 democracies don t ght other democracies 0 more democraciesmore peace 0 spread economic growth and democratic institutions as a medium for peace 0 discount the importance of power 0 power is important but tend to focus on other things 0 focus on actors common interest 0 institutions can help them nd common interests 0 don t worry about actors abuse of power stupid 0 pay attention to the norm of democracy 0 spreading democracy good for American interests 0 democracies are likely to behave better towards each other than non democracies Constructivism focuses on the role of norms and ideas in shaping intemat l politics norms informal rules about what people ought to do 0 all embedded in a web of meaning 0 rules around us that provide meaning I meaning and ideas ideas and norms can reshape how we think about things 0 disagree with liberals on the role of interests 0 interest exist but they are not xed or obvious 0 look at the underlying politics of where interests come from and how they change 0 disagrees with realists about power 0 power only important in social contexts I US and UK VS US and Iran 0 both powerful in their regions treated differently by US 0 look how ideas and norms shape the way which power is used 0 aspects of power actually depend upon ideas and Views of the world Conclusion 9214 0 No one way of thinking is the end all way 0 try and mix and match all the approaches when thinking about complicated facts of each situation I too much mixture can lead to bad decisions Iraq war 0 realism and liberalism lead to Iraq war 0 Charles Krauthammer post 9 11 world US foreign policy could be mixture turns out to be wrong Security and Conflict 0 What causes war 0 What is behind the war in Ukraine Battles in Gaza Syria 0 Three kinds of explanation Kenneth Waltz 0 Man O The State 0 War Intemational politics and the lack of a single World gov t 0 Three levels of analysis in IR 0 Individual 0 State 0 Intemational system Man 0 war caused by human nature 0 passions over reason 0 individual greed O desire for vainglory 0 war is a magnification of individual human aws O ie Spanish Conquistadors destroyed civilizations to attain ends The State 0 states have their own rationale raison d etat entirely apart from individual motivations 0 increases war through routinizing goals and behavior I individual beliefs tom down and ingrained with state goals and objective 0 states are more warprone than others I authoritarian regimes cause more War weak new democracies rarely make war 0 perhaps some less I well established democracies War O Waltz means tendencies towards insecurity in intemat l politics itself 0 international system pushes states to be fearful of others leading to preemptive attacks 0 it may push states to be more aggressive and seek hegemony dominant power believing that if they don t other states will win domination and endanger them 0 may also have selfbalancing tendencies The Melian Dialogue 0 Classic account of the Peloponnesian War 0 war between citystates 0 Athenian negotiations with Spartan colony city Melos O Athenians and allies more powerful O Melians fear being besieged and desperate to make a deal 0 Athenians are in a strong bargaining position and unwilling to make any real concessions 0 Melian position 0 no quarrel with athens O unethical for Athens to attack them 0 Athens wants to play fair with neutral states 0 wants to set a good example 0 State based argument 0 Melian analysis I states behave different ways in world politicsbadly or well 0 states should have interest in behaving well to those much weaker than themselves 0 states that do not are bad states I erode common norms make it likely that they too will suffer 0 Athenian position 0 ethics and appeal to justice are meaningless I power and selfinterest are all 0 Hegemon s key concem is maintaining support of its dependent states 0 needs to behave harshly to neutral states to preserve its position within the state system I by conquering you we shall increase not only the size but the security of our empire 0 An argument from war 0 Athenian position suggests that they key factor explaining war is the intemational system of politics I Athens is not especially evil but is follow obvious interests given that it is the hegemon 0 other states in the same position would do likewise 0 Thucydides own position 0 not directly in dialogue but can be inferred from elsewhere in history 0 all about greed for money power and glory Challenge of War at Individual Level 0 Hard to change human nature 0 war is hardwired limited options 0 but may be possible to channel aggression in other directions 0 Purpose of many humanist philosophers O Hobbes Machiavelli Challenge of War at State Level 0 if war is a product of the state level AND 0 some kinds of states more likely to create instability than others 0 policy could aim at limiting and preventing war through warlike beliefs Problem of War at international system level 0 war is a product of the intemational system then hard to see how to eliminate it without changing the system 0 Realists argue that system cannot be changed 0 Constructivists argue that it is based on ideas and beliefs that may gradually shift Ukraine individual level explanation 0 Russian destiny gt Russia to dominate the world 0 save the World from liberalism homosexuality O Putin s issues nominally democratic country 0 Russian economy taking a tum for the Worse I start a war get reelected Ukraine state level explanation O quasidemocracy 0 Russian in uence wants to keep Ukraine in line I If Russia does not undermine Ukraine similar outcomes at home 0 fear of Russian state being toppled 0 Russia sees its zone of in uence fear NATO encircling Russia 0 Ukraine battleground between NATO and Russia I if Ukraine joins NATO then poses a threat to Russia 0 Russia trying to maintain control in Ukraine Security Dilemma 0 States self defense measures may have perverse consequences OffenseDefense Balance 0 Offense attacking is easy and cheap 0 Defense defense is easy and cheap
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